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Communities of practice

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Horizontal organisation in agile teams

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Communities of practice

  1. 1. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE PEOPLE LEARN FROM OBSERVING OTHER PEOPLE @aasimid
  2. 2. THE PROBLEM ISOLATION IN INDIVIDUAL TEAMS ▸ On a multi-team project, it is possible for individuals to become isolated, speaking mostly to others on their individual teams. Good ideas are slow to propagate across the organization. Similar functionality is implemented differently by different teams. We put scrum of scrums meetings in place to reduce the impact of some of these problems, but those only go so far. (Mike Cohn)
  3. 3. WE OFTEN ASSUME THAT LEARNING ‘HAS A BEGINNING AND AN END; THAT IT IS BEST SEPARATED FROM THE REST OF OUR ACTIVITIES; AND THAT IT IS THE RESULT OF TEACHING’. Wenger, Etienne (1998) STEREOTYPES
  4. 4. SITUATED LEARNING LEARNING IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT ▸ Learning is in the relationships between people. Learning is in the conditions that bring people together and organize a point of contact that allows for particular pieces of information to take on a relevance; without the points of contact, without the system of relevancies, there is not learning, and there is little memory. Learning does not belong to individual persons, but to the various conversations of which they are a part. (Murphy 1999)
  5. 5. DEFINITION ▸ Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly (Wenger, Etienne)
  6. 6. DOMAIN THE DOMAIN ▸ A community of practice is is something more than a club of friends or a network of connections between people. ‘It has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Membership therefore implies a commitment to the domain, and therefore a shared competence that distinguishes members from other people’.
  7. 7. COMMUNITY THE COMMUNITY ▸ ‘In pursuing their interest in their domain, members engage in joint activities and discussions, help each other, and share information. They build relationships that enable them to learn from each other’
  8. 8. PRACTICE THE PRACTICE ▸ ‘Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice. This takes time and sustained interaction’ ▸ 'A community of practice is a like-minded or like-skilled group of individuals who voluntarily come together because of their passion and commitment around a technology, approach, or vision.'
  9. 9. ORGANIZING A COP ORGANIZED HORIZONTALLY ▸ Communities of practice bring together individuals from many crossfunctional teams ▸ They can span projects ▸ Formed simply around various project roles or general interests
  10. 10. ORGANIC NATURE COP LIFECYCLE ▸ A CoP has a natural life cycle that begins with an idea for a new community and ends with the disbanding of the CoP once community feel the group has achieved its objectives or is no longer providing value
  11. 11. ORGANIC LIFECYCLE COP LIFECYCLE
  12. 12. ORGANIC FORMATION INFORMAL IN NATURE ▸ Better to form organically than on request ▸ Self-organizing ▸ No formal leadership ▸ Leadership is an act, not a role
  13. 13. LEGITIMATE PERIPHERAL PARTICIPATION PARTICIPATION LEVELS ▸ Core ▸ Active ▸ Occasional ▸ Peripheral ▸ Transactional
  14. 14. REFERENCES LEARN MORE ▸ http://www.scaledagileframework.com/communities-of-practice/ ▸ Smith, M. K. (2003, 2009) ‘Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger and communities of practice’, the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/communities_of_practice.htm. ▸ http://www.slideshare.net/sgreene/dependency-management-in- a-large-agile-environment-presentation ▸ Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press

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