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Importance
Biopestcides
Trichogramma spp.
Trichogramma spp. belongs to the category of
egg parasitoid of biological agents.
Trichogramma spp., the most widely used bio-
control agent in the world and is effective
against bollworms of cotton, stem borers of
sugarcane, fruit borers of fruits and vegetables
It attacks the pest at the egg stage itself and
hence damage done by la is avoided.
 It offers a lower cost but more effective plant
protection option in comparison to insecticides.
Two species i.e., Trichodgramma chilonis and
Trichodgramma japonicum are predominantly
used India.
 Trichogramma are dark coloured tiny wasps and
the female wasp 20-40 eggs into the host's eggs.
The entire cycle is completed within 8-12 days
The tiny adult wasps search for the host (pest) eggs
in the field and lay their eggs into the eggs of the
pests.
The parasitized host's eggs turn uniformly black in
3-4 days
 The Trichogramma eggs on hatching, feed the
embryonic contents of host's completes its
development and adult comes out of the host egg
by chewing a circular hole.
A single Trichogramma, while multiplying itself,
can thus destroy ower 100 eggs of the pest.
Importance of Cryptolaemus
• Mealybugs are serious pests on fruits, vegetables,
ornamentals and plantation crops.
• Besides causing direct loss to the plants they also
reduce market value of infested fruit.
• The extent of damage may go up to 70 % in
severe infestation.
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri introduced from
Australia is a potential bio control agent and is
being utilized or any crops in Southern India.
Mealybugs or scale insects constitute the natural
food of certain ladybird beetles.
The lady bird beetles are being used for
suppression of mealy bugs in citrus, coffee,
grapes, guava, ornamental and a variety of other
The adult beetles as well as their larvae (grubs)
seek the pests and feed voraciously on all stages
they often wipe out the entire pest colonies.
Importance of Chrysoperla
Chrysopid predators are important for the
management bollworms and aphids in cotton
and tobacco and several sucking pest in fruit
crops.
They are capable of bringing down the population
of the pest drastically.
Chrysoperla (Chrysoperla Carnea) is a potential
chrysopidae, which is also amenable to mass
multiplication.
Chrysoperla are generally green in colour, varying
in length from 1.0 to 1.3 cm
The pre oviposition period lasts 3 to 7 days.
Adults start laying eggs from 5th day onwards
and peak egg-laying is between 9 and 23 days
after emergence.
The male longevity is 30-35 days.
Adult female lay eggs of 600 to 800 eggs/female
on an average.
The eggs are stalked and green colour
The eggs are laid singly or in clusters.
Egg stage lasts 3-4 days. The larva has 3 instars
and after 8-10 days it will form cocoons.
Adult emerges in 5 to 7 days from cocoons.
The green lacewing is being mass released in the
field for the control de aphids, white flies, mealy
bugs and eggs and young larvae of lepidopteron
pests
The Chrysoperla predators may be used on cotton,
groundnut, pulses, vegetables, ornamentals and
several other crops.
They also feed on the eggs and freshly hatched
larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and such other
caterpillar pests.
Viral diseases are common in insect populations.
Most of the insect viruses are differ than plant
viruses.
Insect viruses have an inclusion body around virions.
Insect viruses being obligate pathogens need to be
cultivated by live insect pest.
Since live insects are needed to multiply the
viruses, production of these in large quantities is a
limitation.
These viruses look quick knock down effect and
take about a week time for causing insect
mortality
They are highly host specific and each species of
insects requires specific virus of its own.
In general earlier instars of insects are more
susceptible to viruses hence require correct timing of
application.
Viruses are ultramicroscopic, obligate, intracellular
and pathogenic entities.
Among the several viruses isolated so far, only
baculoviridae comprising NPV and GV (Granulosis
Virus) have been extensively applied under field
conditions.
Entomofungal Pathogen
The insect pathogenic fungi in general have a
wide range.
The fungal pathogen mainly infect the insect
through their integument.
The infected insect are characterized by the
presences of fungal mycelium on entire insect
body.
Usually high relative humidity is needed for
successful germination of fungal spore
development of mycelium mat.
Fungal pathogen help to suppress the
increasing population of chilli aphid, banana
aphid, mustard aphid, cotton aphid, cotton
mealy bug, papaya mealy bugs, sugarcane
pyrilla, white grub etc.
Some commercial fungal biopesticide
1. Beauveria brassiana
2. Verticillium lecanii
3. Metarhizium anisopliae
4. Paecilomyces
Bioagent

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Bioagent

  • 3. Trichogramma spp. belongs to the category of egg parasitoid of biological agents. Trichogramma spp., the most widely used bio- control agent in the world and is effective against bollworms of cotton, stem borers of sugarcane, fruit borers of fruits and vegetables
  • 4.
  • 5. It attacks the pest at the egg stage itself and hence damage done by la is avoided.  It offers a lower cost but more effective plant protection option in comparison to insecticides.
  • 6. Two species i.e., Trichodgramma chilonis and Trichodgramma japonicum are predominantly used India.
  • 7.  Trichogramma are dark coloured tiny wasps and the female wasp 20-40 eggs into the host's eggs. The entire cycle is completed within 8-12 days The tiny adult wasps search for the host (pest) eggs in the field and lay their eggs into the eggs of the pests.
  • 8.
  • 9. The parasitized host's eggs turn uniformly black in 3-4 days  The Trichogramma eggs on hatching, feed the embryonic contents of host's completes its development and adult comes out of the host egg by chewing a circular hole. A single Trichogramma, while multiplying itself, can thus destroy ower 100 eggs of the pest.
  • 11. • Mealybugs are serious pests on fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and plantation crops. • Besides causing direct loss to the plants they also reduce market value of infested fruit. • The extent of damage may go up to 70 % in severe infestation.
  • 12. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri introduced from Australia is a potential bio control agent and is being utilized or any crops in Southern India. Mealybugs or scale insects constitute the natural food of certain ladybird beetles.
  • 13. The lady bird beetles are being used for suppression of mealy bugs in citrus, coffee, grapes, guava, ornamental and a variety of other The adult beetles as well as their larvae (grubs) seek the pests and feed voraciously on all stages they often wipe out the entire pest colonies.
  • 15. Chrysopid predators are important for the management bollworms and aphids in cotton and tobacco and several sucking pest in fruit crops.
  • 16. They are capable of bringing down the population of the pest drastically. Chrysoperla (Chrysoperla Carnea) is a potential chrysopidae, which is also amenable to mass multiplication. Chrysoperla are generally green in colour, varying in length from 1.0 to 1.3 cm
  • 17. The pre oviposition period lasts 3 to 7 days. Adults start laying eggs from 5th day onwards and peak egg-laying is between 9 and 23 days after emergence. The male longevity is 30-35 days. Adult female lay eggs of 600 to 800 eggs/female on an average. The eggs are stalked and green colour
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. The eggs are laid singly or in clusters. Egg stage lasts 3-4 days. The larva has 3 instars and after 8-10 days it will form cocoons. Adult emerges in 5 to 7 days from cocoons. The green lacewing is being mass released in the field for the control de aphids, white flies, mealy bugs and eggs and young larvae of lepidopteron pests
  • 21. The Chrysoperla predators may be used on cotton, groundnut, pulses, vegetables, ornamentals and several other crops. They also feed on the eggs and freshly hatched larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and such other caterpillar pests.
  • 22.
  • 23. Viral diseases are common in insect populations. Most of the insect viruses are differ than plant viruses. Insect viruses have an inclusion body around virions. Insect viruses being obligate pathogens need to be cultivated by live insect pest.
  • 24. Since live insects are needed to multiply the viruses, production of these in large quantities is a limitation. These viruses look quick knock down effect and take about a week time for causing insect mortality They are highly host specific and each species of insects requires specific virus of its own.
  • 25.
  • 26. In general earlier instars of insects are more susceptible to viruses hence require correct timing of application. Viruses are ultramicroscopic, obligate, intracellular and pathogenic entities. Among the several viruses isolated so far, only baculoviridae comprising NPV and GV (Granulosis Virus) have been extensively applied under field conditions.
  • 27.
  • 29. The insect pathogenic fungi in general have a wide range. The fungal pathogen mainly infect the insect through their integument. The infected insect are characterized by the presences of fungal mycelium on entire insect body.
  • 30. Usually high relative humidity is needed for successful germination of fungal spore development of mycelium mat. Fungal pathogen help to suppress the increasing population of chilli aphid, banana aphid, mustard aphid, cotton aphid, cotton mealy bug, papaya mealy bugs, sugarcane pyrilla, white grub etc.
  • 31. Some commercial fungal biopesticide 1. Beauveria brassiana 2. Verticillium lecanii 3. Metarhizium anisopliae 4. Paecilomyces