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Caterpillar
Early stage of caterpillar
feeding on pepper leaf
Pepper plant attacked by
caterpillar
Severely damaged pepper
Late stage of caterpillar feeding on pepper
fruits , leaving their feces inside the fruit
Tomato plant attacked by caterpillar (fruits and leaves)
Fruit Worms
Tomato Fruitworm
Helicoverpa (Heliothes armigera)
Helicoverpa (Heliothis zea )
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 Female adults lay oval, heavily ridged eggs individually on
leaves, especially those immediately below the uppermost
flowers in the upper canopy.
 Hatching larvae prefer to bore into small, green fruit, but may
feed on buds, flowers or stems if fruit are not present.
 Larvae may complete their development inside a single fruit
or may move to other fruit.
 Mature larvae drop to the soil and form a cell 5 - 10 cm deep
and pupate inside.
 The egg to adult period lasts about 30 days.
Biology (Life Cycle*)
•4-6 weeks from egg to adult in summer
• 8-12 weeks in spring or autumn
Mating corn earworm moths
(also called tomato fruitworm and cotton bollworm).
Egg of corn earworm
(also called cotton bollworm or tomato fruitworm).
Tomato fruitworm egg on tomato flower
 Adult:
 Medium-sized moths with a wing
span of about 2.5 to 3 cm. They
are yellowish brown and may
sometimes have a slight greenish
tinge.
 The front wings usually have an
obscure dark spot in the center
and a dark band followed by a
lighter band around the edge.
 The hind wings are whitish gray
with a dark band on the edge.
 Adults are nocturnal and feed on
nectar or other plant exudates
from numerous plant species,
including citrus.
 Larvae:
 Hatching larvae have black heads
with white bodies and spines with
black bases . Older larvae have
orange or light brown heads and
yellowish to nearly black bodies
that retain the black-based spines .
 The top of the larvae have fine,
white lines and the sides have a
broad dark band with a light band
below it.
Eggs development
 hatch in about three
days during warm
weather (25 °C
average) and 6–10 days
in cooler conditions
eggs change from white to brown to a
black-head
Newly hatched tomato fruit worm
(also known as corn earworm and cotton bollworm).
Larvae development
 Larvae develop
through six
growth stages
(instars)
 Larvae become
fully grown in
2–3 weeks in
summer or 4–6
weeks in spring
or autumn
Age of larvae shown is for larvae reared at
a constant 25 °C only
Color variations of tomato fruitworm
(also called corn earworm and cotton bollworm).
Mature larva feeding on foliage. This
brown form is characteristic of this
insect, though other colors occur.
Internal tomato fruit damage by
tomato fruitworm larva.
Pupae
 Pupae will normally
develop to produce a
moth in 10–16 days.
 The duration of
pupation is determined
by temperature, taking
around two weeks in
summer and up to six
weeks in spring and
autumn
Tomato fruitworm adult
 The tomato fruit worm is active year round, but
is usually more abundant in tomato and pepper
during warmer months of both the spring and
fall.
 The insect may over summer on volunteer
plants and numerous weed species, and migrates
into tomato and pepper after the plants begin
flowering.
 Host range:
1. The tomato fruitworm has a very wide
host range, but among vegetable crops
appears to prefer corn and tomato.
2. Other vegetables attacked include pepper
and other solanceous crops, and crucifer
and cucurbit crops.
3. Many common weeds serve as larval
hosts.
 Damage:
1. Larvae bore deeply into fruit, usually at
or near the calyx.
2. Infested fruit are rendered unmarketable
and usually rot due to invasion of
secondary microorganisms .
Symptoms
On Tomato
Bore holes on tomatoes
* pictures source: www.avrdc.org
External tomato fruit damage by tomato fruitworm
larva.
Monitoring
 Traps:
 Blacklight and conical, pheromone baited traps placed on
field perimeters can be used to indicate when adults are
migrating into fields.
 Scouting:
 The leaves immediately above and below the highest flower
cluster, as well as the flowers themselves, are examined for
the presence of eggs.
 A sample of 10 fruit is examined for damage and the
presence of larvae.
 Action Threshold:
 5-10 moths/trap/night or the presence of one egg or larva
Blacklight trap & pheromones trap
Determination of ET of fruitworm on tomato
 Monitoring Method:
 The critical period for monitoring begins at flowering and lasts until the green
fruit stage. Counts of fruitworm eggs are made from the leaves below the
inflorescence (flowers). Thirty leaves are sampled randomly through out the for
viable eggs. The pest population measurement level is eggs per leaf.
Cultural Control
1. Start Clean:
• Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or adjacent to post-
silking corn fields.
2. Sanitation:
• fruit from infested fields should be disposed of as far from production fields
as possible.
3. Field Manipulations:
• Abandoned fields can be a reservoir of migrating adults and, therefore,
should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by deep disking to destroy
infested fruit and pupating larvae.
4. Volunteer plants and weed hosts :
• should be destroyed during the summer off season by frequent disking.
 Chemical Control :
1. Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold
is reached.
2. Insecticides should be timed to control eggs and hatching
larvae. Controlling First-Second instars.
3. Once larvae enter fruit, they are less accessible to
insecticides and are more difficult to control.
4. Carbaryl (Carbamates) or Endosulfan (Organochlorides),
Spinosad.
 Insecticide Resistance:
1. Applying insecticides based upon the threshold and in
conjunction with cultural controls will reduce the number
of applications.
2. Chemicals of different classes should be rotated.
Natural Enemies
 Natural enemies do not usually cause high enough
mortality of tomato fruitworm to prevent crop injury.
Nevertheless, the parasitic wasp, Trichogramma spp, attacks
eggs and can account for 40 to 80% parasitism.
 Eggs and young larvae are attacked by generalist predators,
including lacewings (Chrysopa spp. ), big-eyed bugs (Geocoris
spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs
(Orius spp.).
 The most important species of parasitic wasps observed
attacking larvae include Cotesia spp., Microplitis croceipes and
Hyposoter exiguae.
 Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad
spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides. Fewer insecticide applications and applications
of new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological
control.
Biological Control
By Using Predators
 lynx spider,
 predatory shield
bug,
 green lacewing
larva,
 red and blue beetle
tomato fruitworm eggs parasitized by
Trichogramma turn black.
By Using Parasitoids
 Small wasp
(Microplitis)
 Large parasitoid
wasps (Netelia)
 Flies (Carcelia)
 Nucleopolyhedro -virus
(NPV)
 Fungal pathogens
(Metarhizium,
Nomurea and
Beauvaria ).
 Bacterial toxin from
Bacillus thuringiensis
Organic Farm
(without using pesticides)
 By planting Genetically Modified (GM) Crops
(Fitt, 2004)
Genes isolate
from
Bacillus
thuringiensis
Introduced
into Cotton
GM CROP
(With Insect
Toxins)
Armyworm
Beet armyworm larva
Beet Armyworm/Spodoptera exigua
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 Female adults lay clusters of greenish-white eggs on
the undersides of leaves, often near the tips of
branches or near flowers, and cover them with hair
like scales from their bodies.
 Hatching larvae feed gregariously but soon become
mobile and solitary, often feeding in the vegetative
buds, especially in pepper, and covering the feeding
site with webbing.
 Mature larvae drop to the soil, often on the edge of
the plastic mulch covering the production beds, and
form a cell about ½ inch deep and pupate inside.
 The egg to adult period lasts about 3 weeks.
Environmental Factors:
 The beet armyworm is active year round, but is
usually more abundant in tomato , cucumber
and pepper during warmer months in both the
spring and fall.
 The insect may over summer on volunteer
plants and numerous weed species, including
Chenopodium spp.), purslane (Portulaca spp.)
and pigweed (Amaranthus spp.).
 Adult:
 Adults are medium sized moths with a wing span of about 1
to 1¼ inch and are nocturnal.
 The front wings are mottled gray and brown, with an
irregular banding pattern and a bean shaped white spot.
 The hind wings are whitish gray with a dark band on the
edge.
 Larvae:
 Usually pale green and appear smooth with fine, white lines
 on the dorsal surface; however, older larvae have dark stripes
on the sides of the bodies and may have triangular shaped
black spots on the dorsal surfaces There may be a small black
spot above the middle pair of true legs.
Armyworm eggs on pepper.
Beet armyworm eggs are laid in clusters and
covered with a cottony covering
Tiny armyworm larvae feed in groups, skeletonizing and
leaving webbing and frass on leaves
Beet armyworms feed at the crown
of young lettuce plants.
Lighter phase of beet armyworm larva.
Darker phase of beet armyworm larva
 Host range:
 The beet armyworm has a very wide host range and
can be a serious pest of vegetable, field and
ornamental crops.
 Both tomato and pepper are attacked, but pepper
appears to be preferred.
 Many common weeds also can serve as larval hosts.
 Damage:
 Larvae may complete development on foliage but
inflict most damage when they feed on fruit, causing
shallow holes.
 Larvae often bore inside pepper fruit, where they
complete their development. It is not uncommon to
cut an infested pepper fruit and discover a beet
armyworm moth inside .
 Damaged fruit are rendered unmarketable and may
rot due to invasion of secondary microorganisms.
Monitoring
Beet Armyworm: Spodoptera exigua
 Traps:
 Sticky, pheromone baited traps placed on field perimeters can be used to
indicate when adults are migrating into fields.
 Scouting:
 The whole plant (when small) or the terminal vegetative of the 3rd or 7th
leaf can be examined for the presence of eggs.
 Newly damaged foliage or vegetative terminals, especially in pepper, can
be examined for the presence of larvae.
 A sample of 10 fruit is examined for the presence of recent damage.
 Action Thresholds:
 One larva per 6 plants pre-bloom presence of one egg or larva post-
bloom
CULTURAL CONTROLS:
 Start Clean:
1. Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near
or adjacent to old, infested fields.
 Field Manipulations:
 Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest
by deep disking to destroy infested fruit and pupating
larvae.
 Volunteer plants and weed hosts should be destroyed
during the summer off season by frequent disking.
 Chemical Control:
 Insecticides should be applied when the action
threshold is reached.
 Insecticides should be timed to treat eggs and
hatching larvae for best control.
 Larvae feeding within silk webbing may be more
difficult to control.
 RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT:
 The efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides has declined
to very low levels.
 Chemicals of different classes, especially the newer
reduced risk insecticides, should be rotated.
Biological Control
 Although the beet armyworm is attacked by numerous natural
enemies, they usually do not cause mortality soon enough to
prevent crop injury.
 The most important species of parasitic wasps observed
attacking larvae include Meteorus autographae, Cotesia
marginiventris and Chelonus insularis.
 Eggs and young larvae are attacked by general predators,
including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis
spp.) and minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.).
 A commercially available nuclear polyhedrosis virus is specific
and may be effective.
 Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad
spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides. Fewer insecticide applications and applications of
new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological
control.
Southern Armyworm: Spodoptera eridania
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 Female adults lay clusters of greenish-white eggs and cover
them with hair like scales from their bodies .
 Hatching larvae feed gregariously, leaving the upper leaf
surface intact and forming “windows.”
 Older larvae disperse throughout the same and adjacent
plants and eat holes in leaves, resulting in a shot hole
appearance. Mature larvae drop to the soil, often on the edge
of the plastic mulch covering the production beds, and form
a cell about5-10 cm deep and pupate inside.
 The egg to adult period lasts about 4-6 weeks.
Armyworm eggs on pepper leaf.
 Adult:
 Moderate sized nocturnal moths with a wing span of about 3
to 4 cm.
 Front wings are gray and brown, with an irregular banding
pattern, and may have either a bean shaped white spot in the
middle or a black band extending from the center to the edge
.
 Larvae:
 Orangish heads and green to black-green bodies with three
narrow yellow or white stripes on the dorsal surface .
 A broader yellow stripe on the side is broken by a black spot
on the first, often swollen, body segment behind the true legs.
 Environmental Factors:
 The southern armyworm is active year round, but is
usually more abundant in tomato and pepper during
warmer months in both the spring and fall.
 The insect may over summer on volunteer plants
and numerous weed species, especially pigweed
(Amaranthus spp.)
 Host range:
 The southern armyworm has a very wide host range and can
be a pest of many vegetable crops, including both tomato
and pepper; however, the pest is often more abundant on
tomato.
 Damage to Tomato:
 Larvae may complete development on foliage but inflict most
damage when they feed on fruit, causing shallow holes .
 Damaged fruit are rendered unmarketable and may rot due
to invasion of secondary microorganisms.
Early instars feeding
Shot hole damage to fruit by southern armyworm larva
Monitoring
 Scouting:
 The whole plant (when small) or the terminal three leaflets of
the 3rd or 7th leaf can be examined for the presence of eggs.
 Newly damaged foliage can be examined for the presence of
larvae.
 A sample of 10 fruit is examined for damage and the
presence of recent damage.
 Action Thresholds:
 one larva per 6 plants pre-bloom
 one egg or larva per 6 plants post-bloom
Cultural Control
 Start Clean:
 Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or
adjacent to old, infested fields.
 Field Manipulations:
 Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by
applying a foliar herbicide to destroy infested plants and by
deep disking to destroy pupating larvae.
 Volunteer plants and weed hosts should be destroyed during
the summer off season by frequent disking.
Chemical Control
 Insecticides should be applied when the action
threshold is reached.
 Insecticides should be timed to treat eggs and hatching
larvae for best control.
 Older larvae may be more difficult to control .
 Chemicals of different classes, especially the
newer reduced risk insecticides, should be
rotated.
NATURAL ENEMIES
 The most important species of parasitic wasps
observed attacking larvae include Meteorus autographae,
Cotesia marginiventris and Chelonus insularis.
 Generalist predators, including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris
spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs
(Orius spp.) may attack eggs and young larvae.
 Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad
spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides.
 Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new,
reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological
control.
Yellow striped Armyworm
Spodoptera ornithogalli
Yellow striped Armyworm
Spodoptera ornithogalli
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 The eggs hatch in about 6 days.
 Larval development requires about two to three
weeks depending on temperature.
 Pupae require two to three weeks of development.
 Multiple generations develop each year .
 Yellowstriped armyworms overwinter as pupae.
 Adult:
 The moth has dark forewings with white and brown
markings and white hind wings. The wingspan is about 4cm
 Larvae:
 The color varies from gray to black. The larva has yellow
orange stripe along each side and a pair of black, triangular
spots on the back of most segments.
 The sixth larval instar is about 4.5 cm long.
 Pupa:
 The brown pupa is about 2cm long and occurs in the soil.
 Egg:
 Eggs are laid in masses covered with scales from the moth’s
body. Individual eggs are small (0.13 cm), ribbed and
greenish, before turning pale pink or brown before hatching.
 Host range:
 Yellow striped armyworms are generalists and
reproductive hosts include a wide range of crops,
weeds and native plant species.
 Tomato and pepper are hosts.
 Economic Importance:
 An occasional pest of tomato.
 Damage:
 Larvae hatch from the egg mass and begin feeding
on the leaves before moving to fruits.
Monitoring
 Scouting:
 Frequent monitoring of once or twice weekly is
needed to detect the presence of egg masses or
small larvae.
 Inspect 6 plants for eggs and larvae for every 10 du.
 Action Thresholds:
 Pre-bloom, 1 larva per 6 plants
 Post-bloom, 1 egg or larva per field
Yellow striped armyworm adult female
Black triangular spots are visible on this larvae
Larvae and feeding damage
Cultural Control
 Start Clean:
 Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or
adjacent to old, infested fields.
 Field Manipulations:
 Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by
applying a foliar herbicide to destroy infested plants and by
deep disking to destroy pupating larvae.
 Volunteer plants and weed hosts :
 Should be destroyed during the summer off season by
frequent disking.
Chemical Control
 Occasional pest that infrequently requires control.
 Spray tomatoes and peppers when numbers of larvae
exceed the action threshold.
 Numerous insecticides are effective in controlling the
small larvae. Larger larvae are difficult to control with
insecticides.
 Reduced-risk insecticides should be employed to
conserve beneficial organisms.
 Rotate different classes of insecticides .
Natural Enemies
 Numerous parasitic wasps and flies attack the
larvae.
 Numerous general predators feed on the eggs
and larvae.
 A nuclear polyhedrosis virus is highly
pathogenic to the larvae.
yellow-orange stripe on the larvae
Yellow-striped army worms can be
distinguished from other armyworm
species by the single yellow-orange stripe
on each side that runs the length of the
larvae
Hornworm
s
Tobacco Hornworm: Manduca sexta
Tomato Hornworm: Manduca quinquemaculata
Tobacco Hornworm: Manduca sexta
Tomato Hornworm: Manduca quinquemaculata
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 Females lay large, greenish eggs singly on the undersides of
leaves in the upper canopy. Larvae feed on foliage, leaving
only veins or consuming entire leaves.
 Mature larvae drop to the soil, burrow 10-12 cm deep and
form a cavity in which they pupate.
 There are five instars and the egg to adult period lasts about
30-50 days.
 Environmental Factors:
 Hornworms are most active during spring & summer but are
abundant for only the first two generations because many
pupae enter diapause.
 Adult:
 Very large moths with 7 to 12 cm wingspan. Forewings are
dull-grayish or grayish-brown and hind wings have alternating
light and dark bands. The sides of the abdomen of the
tobacco hornworm have 6 yellow-orange spots while those
of the tomato hornworm have 5 spots.
 The adults feed on nectar of flowers, especially at dusk,
hovering similar to small humming birds.
 Larvae:
 Both species are very large, reaching up to about 6 cm by
the fifth instar. Larvae are usually pale green with a
characteristic “horn” at the rear end. Tobacco hornworm
larvae have 7 whitish, straight lines pointing diagonally on
each side. The sides of tomato hornworm larvae have 7
whitish “v”-shaped marks pointing toward the head.
Horn Worms
 Mature tobacco
hornworm larva.
 Young hornworm larva.
 Hornworm egg.
 Adult tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.
 The sides of the abdomen have 6 yellow-orange spots while
those of tomato hornworm have 5 spots.
 Host range:
 Both hornworm species are restricted to hosts in the
family Solanaceae, particularly tomato and tobacco,
although they have been reported to occasionally feed
on eggplant, pepper and potato.
 Wild hosts include Datura spp; and night shades,
Solanum spp.
 Damage:
 Larvae damage plants by consuming foliage and can
cause high levels of defoliation . Occasionally, green
fruit are also fed upon.
 Defoliation by tobacco hornworm larva.
Monitoring
 Scouting:
 Light traps can be used to monitor adult activity.
 The upper portions of plants are inspected season
long for larvae, concentrating where fresh feeding is
evident.
 Action Thresholds:
 Control should be initiated when larger larvae are
detected.
CULTURAL CONTROLS
 Field Manipulations:
 Soil tillage can destroy 90% of the pupae.
 Completed crops should be destroyed in a timely
manner and re-growth and volunteer plants should
be controlled.
 Weeds can serve as larval hosts, but are unimportant
relative to crops.
 CHEMICAL CONTROLS:
 Insecticides should be applied when large larvae are
present.
 Products containing Bacillus thuringiensis have been
particularly useful and conserve natural enemies.
 Resistance Management :
 Products containing B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and
B. thuringiensis var. aizawei (11B1) should be rotated
with each other and with conventional insecticides
of different chemical classes.
Biological Control
 Hornworm eggs and larvae are heavily parasitized by
parasitic wasps and flies, respectively, and, if left
undisturbed, will usually control hornworm populations
 Timed insecticide applications and the use of Bacillus
thuringiensis and other selective insecticides can enhance
biological control by conserving natural enemies.
Hornworm larvae parasitized by Braconid sp. parasitic wasp larvae
spinning its cocoon in lower left.
Cabbage Looper :Trichoplusia ni
Soybean Looper : Pseudoplusia includens
 Biology & Lifecycle:
 Females lay flattened, finely ridged eggs singly on the
undersides of leaves. Young larvae feed underneath leaves,
leaving the upper leaf epidermis intact to form “windows.”
Older larvae chew irregular holes.
 Larvae usually pupate underneath leaves in a loose silk
cocoon .
 The number of larval stages varies from 5-7 and the egg to
adult period lasts about 2-4 weeks for the cabbage looper and
4-5 weeks for the soybean looper.
Cabbage looper egg
Cabbage looper moth
Cabbage looper adult
Loopers contaminate heads with
their frass
 Adult:
 Large moths with wingspans of about 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 inches.
Forewings are generally dark with lighter patches.
 Soybean looper moths have silvery markings on the forewings
that resemble a “dog leg” with detached “foot.”
 The silvery markings on the forewing of the cabbage looper are
“U”-shaped and a circle or dot that often are connected .
 Larvae:
 Pale green with distinct white stripes down the sides . On the top
surface there are several smaller white stripes that are clustered
into two broad bands.
 Larvae only have three pairs of prolegs and crawl by sequentially
arching then straightening, giving them the appearance of
“looping
 Host range:
 The two looper species have wide host ranges including
tomato and pepper. The cabbage looper appears to prefer
crucifer crops while the soybean looper prefers soybean.
 The insects over summer on a variety of weeds including
dock (Rumex spp.), (Chenopodium album) and wild lettuce
(Lactuca spp.). for the cabbage looper; and dock, pigweed
(Amaranthus spp.), cocklebur (Xanthium spp.), wild sunflower
(Helianthus spp.) and pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum) for the
soybean looper.
 Damage to Tomato:
 Larvae damage plants by consuming foliage, but usually do
not inflict extensive defoliation to tomato or pepper.
Cabbage looper larva.
Cabbage looper larva.
Looper larva on tomato leaflet.
Fruit damage by looper larva.
Mature larva
Cabbage Looper Pupa
MONOTRING
 Scouting:
 Black light and pheromone baited traps can be used
to monitor adult activity.
 Whole plants are inspected season long for larvae,
concentrating on foliage with fresh feeding.
 Action Thresholds:
 1 larva per 6 plants.
 Cultural Practices :
1. Field Manipulations:
 Weeds and old crops can be reservoirs of
migrating adults.
 Tomato and pepper crops should not be planted
near or adjacent to crucifer fields or fields with the
weeds indicated.
Chemical Control
1. Insecticides should be
applied when the action
threshold is reached.
2. Products containing Bacillus
thuringiensis have been
particularly useful and
conserve natural enemies.
Resistance Management :
1. Products containing B.
thuringiensis var. kurstaki
(11B2) and B. thuringiensis
var. aizawai (11B1), should be
rotated with each other and
with conventional insecticides
of different chemical classes.
Biological Control
1. Parasitic wasps attack looper eggs (Trichogramma spp.)
and larvae.
2. Parasitic flies and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus attack
larvae.
3. Generalist predators, including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris
spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs
(Orius spp.) are known to feed on loopers.
4. Timed insecticide applications and the use of selective
insecticides can enhance biological control.
Pinworm
Tomato Pinworm
Keiferia lycopersicella
 Biology & Lifecycle:
1. Female adults lay eggs individually or in groups of two or three on
the undersides of leaves in the upper third of the canopy.
2. Hatching larvae bore into leaves, where their feeding causes a
blotch mine. Older larvae feed protected in leaf rolls or folds held
together by silking.
3. Larvae may also bore into fruit, usually under the calyx or where
infested foliage touches fruit.
4. Mature larvae drop to the soil or plastic mulch surface where they
form a silken cocoon covered with sand grains.
5. Infestations often begin on the perimeters of fields.
6. The egg to adult period lasts about 3 weeks at temperatures above
27C.
 Adult :
 Adults are small, light
brown moths about 0.6
cm length and are most
active just after sundown
and for a few hours
thereafter.
 Larva :
 Newly hatched larvae are
yellowish-gray with a
dark head .
 Older larvae become
progressively darker,
changing from brownish
orange to bluish-purple,
and reach about 1cm in
length .
 Host range:
1. Tomato is the most important host
plant; however, eggplant and
potato are also attacked.
2. The insect is recorded from the
weed.
3. Solanaceous plants, such as
pepper, Capsium spp. and
nightshades, Solanum spp., are not
hosts.
 Damage:
1. Larvae can complete development
on foliage and occasionally can
inflict nearly 100% defoliation;
however, greatest economic
damage occurs when larvae attack
fruit .
2. Larval damage at the calyx may go
undetected and fruit entering the
market chain may rot due to
invasion of secondary pathogens at
the feeding site.
3. Rotting, infested fruit can cause
non-infested fruit to rot in
shipping
 boxes.
 Traps:
 Commercially available Pherocon 1C traps baited with
pheromone dispensers should be placed on the perimeters of
tomato fields and should be monitored at least twice a week.
 Traps should be placed above the plant canopy and should be
raised as the plants grow.
 Scouting:
 One leaf from the lower canopy of each of six contiguous
plants per two acres should be selected and examined for the
presence of larvae.
 Action Thresholds:
 5 moths/trap/night for initiating mating disruption
 0.7 larva/leaf for timing insecticidal sprays
Monitoring
Cultural Control
 Start Clean:
 Transplants should be free of eggs or larvae.
 Mating Disruption: Commercial dispensers and liquid encapsulated
formulations of mating disruptant can be applied when indicated by
pheromone-baited traps.
 Sanitation:
 Cull fruit from infested fields should be disposed of as far from production
fields as possible.
 Field Manipulations:
 Abandoned fields can be a tremendous reservoir of migrating adults.
Therefore, fields should be destroyed block by block immediately after final
harvest by treating with an effective insecticide combined with a foliar applied
burn down herbicide.
 New fields should not be planted adjacent to old fields.
 Volunteer plants should be destroyed, especially during the summer off season,
by frequent disking or other suitable methods.
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
 Insecticides should be applied when the action
threshold is reached.
 Insecticides should be timed to control younger
larvae when they are in the blotch leaf mines.
 Older larvae in leaf rolls, leaf folds or fruit are
less accessible to insecticides and are more
difficult to control.
 Insecticides may be applied to field perimeters
to control early infestations.
RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT
 The efficacy of Pyrethroid insecticides has declined to
very low levels .
 Resistance to Lannate® (carbamate) has been
documented .
 Applying insecticides based upon the threshold and in
conjunction with cultural controls will reduce the
number of applications.
 Chemicals of different classes should be rotated.
Natural Enemies
 Four parasitic wasps observed attacking tomato pinworm larvae,
Apanteles spp. were the most abundant.
 Larval parasitism can reach 50%, but usually not until economic
damage has occurred.
 The parasitic wasp, Trichogramma spp. attacks eggs and can
account for 10 to 90% parasitism.
 Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding the broad
spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides.
 Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new, reduced
risk insecticides can also enhance biological control.
Mature tomato pinworm larva.
Tomato pinworm foliar damage
Tomato pinworm damage to fruit
Fruit-worm
Fruit-worm
Fruit-worm
Fruit-worm
Fruit-worm
Fruit-worm

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Fruit-worm

  • 2. Early stage of caterpillar feeding on pepper leaf Pepper plant attacked by caterpillar Severely damaged pepper
  • 3. Late stage of caterpillar feeding on pepper fruits , leaving their feces inside the fruit
  • 4. Tomato plant attacked by caterpillar (fruits and leaves)
  • 6.
  • 7. Tomato Fruitworm Helicoverpa (Heliothes armigera) Helicoverpa (Heliothis zea )  Biology & Lifecycle:  Female adults lay oval, heavily ridged eggs individually on leaves, especially those immediately below the uppermost flowers in the upper canopy.  Hatching larvae prefer to bore into small, green fruit, but may feed on buds, flowers or stems if fruit are not present.  Larvae may complete their development inside a single fruit or may move to other fruit.  Mature larvae drop to the soil and form a cell 5 - 10 cm deep and pupate inside.  The egg to adult period lasts about 30 days.
  • 8. Biology (Life Cycle*) •4-6 weeks from egg to adult in summer • 8-12 weeks in spring or autumn
  • 9. Mating corn earworm moths (also called tomato fruitworm and cotton bollworm).
  • 10. Egg of corn earworm (also called cotton bollworm or tomato fruitworm).
  • 11. Tomato fruitworm egg on tomato flower
  • 12.  Adult:  Medium-sized moths with a wing span of about 2.5 to 3 cm. They are yellowish brown and may sometimes have a slight greenish tinge.  The front wings usually have an obscure dark spot in the center and a dark band followed by a lighter band around the edge.  The hind wings are whitish gray with a dark band on the edge.  Adults are nocturnal and feed on nectar or other plant exudates from numerous plant species, including citrus.  Larvae:  Hatching larvae have black heads with white bodies and spines with black bases . Older larvae have orange or light brown heads and yellowish to nearly black bodies that retain the black-based spines .  The top of the larvae have fine, white lines and the sides have a broad dark band with a light band below it.
  • 13. Eggs development  hatch in about three days during warm weather (25 °C average) and 6–10 days in cooler conditions eggs change from white to brown to a black-head
  • 14. Newly hatched tomato fruit worm (also known as corn earworm and cotton bollworm).
  • 15. Larvae development  Larvae develop through six growth stages (instars)  Larvae become fully grown in 2–3 weeks in summer or 4–6 weeks in spring or autumn Age of larvae shown is for larvae reared at a constant 25 °C only
  • 16. Color variations of tomato fruitworm (also called corn earworm and cotton bollworm).
  • 17. Mature larva feeding on foliage. This brown form is characteristic of this insect, though other colors occur. Internal tomato fruit damage by tomato fruitworm larva.
  • 18. Pupae  Pupae will normally develop to produce a moth in 10–16 days.  The duration of pupation is determined by temperature, taking around two weeks in summer and up to six weeks in spring and autumn
  • 20.  The tomato fruit worm is active year round, but is usually more abundant in tomato and pepper during warmer months of both the spring and fall.  The insect may over summer on volunteer plants and numerous weed species, and migrates into tomato and pepper after the plants begin flowering.
  • 21.  Host range: 1. The tomato fruitworm has a very wide host range, but among vegetable crops appears to prefer corn and tomato. 2. Other vegetables attacked include pepper and other solanceous crops, and crucifer and cucurbit crops. 3. Many common weeds serve as larval hosts.
  • 22.  Damage: 1. Larvae bore deeply into fruit, usually at or near the calyx. 2. Infested fruit are rendered unmarketable and usually rot due to invasion of secondary microorganisms .
  • 23. Symptoms On Tomato Bore holes on tomatoes * pictures source: www.avrdc.org
  • 24. External tomato fruit damage by tomato fruitworm larva.
  • 25. Monitoring  Traps:  Blacklight and conical, pheromone baited traps placed on field perimeters can be used to indicate when adults are migrating into fields.  Scouting:  The leaves immediately above and below the highest flower cluster, as well as the flowers themselves, are examined for the presence of eggs.  A sample of 10 fruit is examined for damage and the presence of larvae.  Action Threshold:  5-10 moths/trap/night or the presence of one egg or larva
  • 26. Blacklight trap & pheromones trap
  • 27. Determination of ET of fruitworm on tomato  Monitoring Method:  The critical period for monitoring begins at flowering and lasts until the green fruit stage. Counts of fruitworm eggs are made from the leaves below the inflorescence (flowers). Thirty leaves are sampled randomly through out the for viable eggs. The pest population measurement level is eggs per leaf.
  • 28. Cultural Control 1. Start Clean: • Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or adjacent to post- silking corn fields. 2. Sanitation: • fruit from infested fields should be disposed of as far from production fields as possible. 3. Field Manipulations: • Abandoned fields can be a reservoir of migrating adults and, therefore, should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by deep disking to destroy infested fruit and pupating larvae. 4. Volunteer plants and weed hosts : • should be destroyed during the summer off season by frequent disking.
  • 29.  Chemical Control : 1. Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold is reached. 2. Insecticides should be timed to control eggs and hatching larvae. Controlling First-Second instars. 3. Once larvae enter fruit, they are less accessible to insecticides and are more difficult to control. 4. Carbaryl (Carbamates) or Endosulfan (Organochlorides), Spinosad.  Insecticide Resistance: 1. Applying insecticides based upon the threshold and in conjunction with cultural controls will reduce the number of applications. 2. Chemicals of different classes should be rotated.
  • 30. Natural Enemies  Natural enemies do not usually cause high enough mortality of tomato fruitworm to prevent crop injury. Nevertheless, the parasitic wasp, Trichogramma spp, attacks eggs and can account for 40 to 80% parasitism.  Eggs and young larvae are attacked by generalist predators, including lacewings (Chrysopa spp. ), big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.).  The most important species of parasitic wasps observed attacking larvae include Cotesia spp., Microplitis croceipes and Hyposoter exiguae.  Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological control.
  • 31. Biological Control By Using Predators  lynx spider,  predatory shield bug,  green lacewing larva,  red and blue beetle
  • 32. tomato fruitworm eggs parasitized by Trichogramma turn black.
  • 33. By Using Parasitoids  Small wasp (Microplitis)  Large parasitoid wasps (Netelia)  Flies (Carcelia)
  • 34.  Nucleopolyhedro -virus (NPV)  Fungal pathogens (Metarhizium, Nomurea and Beauvaria ).  Bacterial toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis
  • 35. Organic Farm (without using pesticides)  By planting Genetically Modified (GM) Crops (Fitt, 2004) Genes isolate from Bacillus thuringiensis Introduced into Cotton GM CROP (With Insect Toxins)
  • 38. Beet Armyworm/Spodoptera exigua  Biology & Lifecycle:  Female adults lay clusters of greenish-white eggs on the undersides of leaves, often near the tips of branches or near flowers, and cover them with hair like scales from their bodies.  Hatching larvae feed gregariously but soon become mobile and solitary, often feeding in the vegetative buds, especially in pepper, and covering the feeding site with webbing.  Mature larvae drop to the soil, often on the edge of the plastic mulch covering the production beds, and form a cell about ½ inch deep and pupate inside.  The egg to adult period lasts about 3 weeks.
  • 39. Environmental Factors:  The beet armyworm is active year round, but is usually more abundant in tomato , cucumber and pepper during warmer months in both the spring and fall.  The insect may over summer on volunteer plants and numerous weed species, including Chenopodium spp.), purslane (Portulaca spp.) and pigweed (Amaranthus spp.).
  • 40.  Adult:  Adults are medium sized moths with a wing span of about 1 to 1¼ inch and are nocturnal.  The front wings are mottled gray and brown, with an irregular banding pattern and a bean shaped white spot.  The hind wings are whitish gray with a dark band on the edge.  Larvae:  Usually pale green and appear smooth with fine, white lines  on the dorsal surface; however, older larvae have dark stripes on the sides of the bodies and may have triangular shaped black spots on the dorsal surfaces There may be a small black spot above the middle pair of true legs.
  • 41. Armyworm eggs on pepper.
  • 42. Beet armyworm eggs are laid in clusters and covered with a cottony covering
  • 43. Tiny armyworm larvae feed in groups, skeletonizing and leaving webbing and frass on leaves
  • 44. Beet armyworms feed at the crown of young lettuce plants.
  • 45. Lighter phase of beet armyworm larva.
  • 46. Darker phase of beet armyworm larva
  • 47.  Host range:  The beet armyworm has a very wide host range and can be a serious pest of vegetable, field and ornamental crops.  Both tomato and pepper are attacked, but pepper appears to be preferred.  Many common weeds also can serve as larval hosts.
  • 48.  Damage:  Larvae may complete development on foliage but inflict most damage when they feed on fruit, causing shallow holes.  Larvae often bore inside pepper fruit, where they complete their development. It is not uncommon to cut an infested pepper fruit and discover a beet armyworm moth inside .  Damaged fruit are rendered unmarketable and may rot due to invasion of secondary microorganisms.
  • 49. Monitoring Beet Armyworm: Spodoptera exigua  Traps:  Sticky, pheromone baited traps placed on field perimeters can be used to indicate when adults are migrating into fields.  Scouting:  The whole plant (when small) or the terminal vegetative of the 3rd or 7th leaf can be examined for the presence of eggs.  Newly damaged foliage or vegetative terminals, especially in pepper, can be examined for the presence of larvae.  A sample of 10 fruit is examined for the presence of recent damage.  Action Thresholds:  One larva per 6 plants pre-bloom presence of one egg or larva post- bloom
  • 50.
  • 51. CULTURAL CONTROLS:  Start Clean: 1. Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or adjacent to old, infested fields.  Field Manipulations:  Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by deep disking to destroy infested fruit and pupating larvae.  Volunteer plants and weed hosts should be destroyed during the summer off season by frequent disking.
  • 52.  Chemical Control:  Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold is reached.  Insecticides should be timed to treat eggs and hatching larvae for best control.  Larvae feeding within silk webbing may be more difficult to control.  RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT:  The efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides has declined to very low levels.  Chemicals of different classes, especially the newer reduced risk insecticides, should be rotated.
  • 53. Biological Control  Although the beet armyworm is attacked by numerous natural enemies, they usually do not cause mortality soon enough to prevent crop injury.  The most important species of parasitic wasps observed attacking larvae include Meteorus autographae, Cotesia marginiventris and Chelonus insularis.  Eggs and young larvae are attacked by general predators, including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.).  A commercially available nuclear polyhedrosis virus is specific and may be effective.  Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological control.
  • 54. Southern Armyworm: Spodoptera eridania  Biology & Lifecycle:  Female adults lay clusters of greenish-white eggs and cover them with hair like scales from their bodies .  Hatching larvae feed gregariously, leaving the upper leaf surface intact and forming “windows.”  Older larvae disperse throughout the same and adjacent plants and eat holes in leaves, resulting in a shot hole appearance. Mature larvae drop to the soil, often on the edge of the plastic mulch covering the production beds, and form a cell about5-10 cm deep and pupate inside.  The egg to adult period lasts about 4-6 weeks.
  • 55. Armyworm eggs on pepper leaf.
  • 56.  Adult:  Moderate sized nocturnal moths with a wing span of about 3 to 4 cm.  Front wings are gray and brown, with an irregular banding pattern, and may have either a bean shaped white spot in the middle or a black band extending from the center to the edge .  Larvae:  Orangish heads and green to black-green bodies with three narrow yellow or white stripes on the dorsal surface .  A broader yellow stripe on the side is broken by a black spot on the first, often swollen, body segment behind the true legs.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.  Environmental Factors:  The southern armyworm is active year round, but is usually more abundant in tomato and pepper during warmer months in both the spring and fall.  The insect may over summer on volunteer plants and numerous weed species, especially pigweed (Amaranthus spp.)
  • 60.  Host range:  The southern armyworm has a very wide host range and can be a pest of many vegetable crops, including both tomato and pepper; however, the pest is often more abundant on tomato.  Damage to Tomato:  Larvae may complete development on foliage but inflict most damage when they feed on fruit, causing shallow holes .  Damaged fruit are rendered unmarketable and may rot due to invasion of secondary microorganisms.
  • 62. Shot hole damage to fruit by southern armyworm larva
  • 63. Monitoring  Scouting:  The whole plant (when small) or the terminal three leaflets of the 3rd or 7th leaf can be examined for the presence of eggs.  Newly damaged foliage can be examined for the presence of larvae.  A sample of 10 fruit is examined for damage and the presence of recent damage.  Action Thresholds:  one larva per 6 plants pre-bloom  one egg or larva per 6 plants post-bloom
  • 64. Cultural Control  Start Clean:  Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or adjacent to old, infested fields.  Field Manipulations:  Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by applying a foliar herbicide to destroy infested plants and by deep disking to destroy pupating larvae.  Volunteer plants and weed hosts should be destroyed during the summer off season by frequent disking.
  • 65. Chemical Control  Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold is reached.  Insecticides should be timed to treat eggs and hatching larvae for best control.  Older larvae may be more difficult to control .  Chemicals of different classes, especially the newer reduced risk insecticides, should be rotated.
  • 66. NATURAL ENEMIES  The most important species of parasitic wasps observed attacking larvae include Meteorus autographae, Cotesia marginiventris and Chelonus insularis.  Generalist predators, including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.) may attack eggs and young larvae.  Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding broad spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.  Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological control.
  • 68. Yellow striped Armyworm Spodoptera ornithogalli  Biology & Lifecycle:  The eggs hatch in about 6 days.  Larval development requires about two to three weeks depending on temperature.  Pupae require two to three weeks of development.  Multiple generations develop each year .  Yellowstriped armyworms overwinter as pupae.
  • 69.  Adult:  The moth has dark forewings with white and brown markings and white hind wings. The wingspan is about 4cm  Larvae:  The color varies from gray to black. The larva has yellow orange stripe along each side and a pair of black, triangular spots on the back of most segments.  The sixth larval instar is about 4.5 cm long.  Pupa:  The brown pupa is about 2cm long and occurs in the soil.  Egg:  Eggs are laid in masses covered with scales from the moth’s body. Individual eggs are small (0.13 cm), ribbed and greenish, before turning pale pink or brown before hatching.
  • 70.  Host range:  Yellow striped armyworms are generalists and reproductive hosts include a wide range of crops, weeds and native plant species.  Tomato and pepper are hosts.  Economic Importance:  An occasional pest of tomato.  Damage:  Larvae hatch from the egg mass and begin feeding on the leaves before moving to fruits.
  • 71. Monitoring  Scouting:  Frequent monitoring of once or twice weekly is needed to detect the presence of egg masses or small larvae.  Inspect 6 plants for eggs and larvae for every 10 du.  Action Thresholds:  Pre-bloom, 1 larva per 6 plants  Post-bloom, 1 egg or larva per field
  • 72. Yellow striped armyworm adult female
  • 73. Black triangular spots are visible on this larvae
  • 75. Cultural Control  Start Clean:  Tomato and pepper fields should not be planted near or adjacent to old, infested fields.  Field Manipulations:  Fields should be destroyed immediately after final harvest by applying a foliar herbicide to destroy infested plants and by deep disking to destroy pupating larvae.  Volunteer plants and weed hosts :  Should be destroyed during the summer off season by frequent disking.
  • 76. Chemical Control  Occasional pest that infrequently requires control.  Spray tomatoes and peppers when numbers of larvae exceed the action threshold.  Numerous insecticides are effective in controlling the small larvae. Larger larvae are difficult to control with insecticides.  Reduced-risk insecticides should be employed to conserve beneficial organisms.  Rotate different classes of insecticides .
  • 77. Natural Enemies  Numerous parasitic wasps and flies attack the larvae.  Numerous general predators feed on the eggs and larvae.  A nuclear polyhedrosis virus is highly pathogenic to the larvae.
  • 78. yellow-orange stripe on the larvae Yellow-striped army worms can be distinguished from other armyworm species by the single yellow-orange stripe on each side that runs the length of the larvae
  • 79.
  • 81. Tobacco Hornworm: Manduca sexta Tomato Hornworm: Manduca quinquemaculata
  • 82. Tobacco Hornworm: Manduca sexta Tomato Hornworm: Manduca quinquemaculata  Biology & Lifecycle:  Females lay large, greenish eggs singly on the undersides of leaves in the upper canopy. Larvae feed on foliage, leaving only veins or consuming entire leaves.  Mature larvae drop to the soil, burrow 10-12 cm deep and form a cavity in which they pupate.  There are five instars and the egg to adult period lasts about 30-50 days.  Environmental Factors:  Hornworms are most active during spring & summer but are abundant for only the first two generations because many pupae enter diapause.
  • 83.  Adult:  Very large moths with 7 to 12 cm wingspan. Forewings are dull-grayish or grayish-brown and hind wings have alternating light and dark bands. The sides of the abdomen of the tobacco hornworm have 6 yellow-orange spots while those of the tomato hornworm have 5 spots.  The adults feed on nectar of flowers, especially at dusk, hovering similar to small humming birds.  Larvae:  Both species are very large, reaching up to about 6 cm by the fifth instar. Larvae are usually pale green with a characteristic “horn” at the rear end. Tobacco hornworm larvae have 7 whitish, straight lines pointing diagonally on each side. The sides of tomato hornworm larvae have 7 whitish “v”-shaped marks pointing toward the head.
  • 84. Horn Worms  Mature tobacco hornworm larva.
  • 87.  Adult tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.  The sides of the abdomen have 6 yellow-orange spots while those of tomato hornworm have 5 spots.
  • 88.  Host range:  Both hornworm species are restricted to hosts in the family Solanaceae, particularly tomato and tobacco, although they have been reported to occasionally feed on eggplant, pepper and potato.  Wild hosts include Datura spp; and night shades, Solanum spp.  Damage:  Larvae damage plants by consuming foliage and can cause high levels of defoliation . Occasionally, green fruit are also fed upon.
  • 89.  Defoliation by tobacco hornworm larva.
  • 90. Monitoring  Scouting:  Light traps can be used to monitor adult activity.  The upper portions of plants are inspected season long for larvae, concentrating where fresh feeding is evident.  Action Thresholds:  Control should be initiated when larger larvae are detected.
  • 91. CULTURAL CONTROLS  Field Manipulations:  Soil tillage can destroy 90% of the pupae.  Completed crops should be destroyed in a timely manner and re-growth and volunteer plants should be controlled.  Weeds can serve as larval hosts, but are unimportant relative to crops.
  • 92.  CHEMICAL CONTROLS:  Insecticides should be applied when large larvae are present.  Products containing Bacillus thuringiensis have been particularly useful and conserve natural enemies.  Resistance Management :  Products containing B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis var. aizawei (11B1) should be rotated with each other and with conventional insecticides of different chemical classes.
  • 93. Biological Control  Hornworm eggs and larvae are heavily parasitized by parasitic wasps and flies, respectively, and, if left undisturbed, will usually control hornworm populations  Timed insecticide applications and the use of Bacillus thuringiensis and other selective insecticides can enhance biological control by conserving natural enemies.
  • 94. Hornworm larvae parasitized by Braconid sp. parasitic wasp larvae spinning its cocoon in lower left.
  • 95.
  • 96. Cabbage Looper :Trichoplusia ni Soybean Looper : Pseudoplusia includens  Biology & Lifecycle:  Females lay flattened, finely ridged eggs singly on the undersides of leaves. Young larvae feed underneath leaves, leaving the upper leaf epidermis intact to form “windows.” Older larvae chew irregular holes.  Larvae usually pupate underneath leaves in a loose silk cocoon .  The number of larval stages varies from 5-7 and the egg to adult period lasts about 2-4 weeks for the cabbage looper and 4-5 weeks for the soybean looper.
  • 100. Loopers contaminate heads with their frass
  • 101.  Adult:  Large moths with wingspans of about 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 inches. Forewings are generally dark with lighter patches.  Soybean looper moths have silvery markings on the forewings that resemble a “dog leg” with detached “foot.”  The silvery markings on the forewing of the cabbage looper are “U”-shaped and a circle or dot that often are connected .  Larvae:  Pale green with distinct white stripes down the sides . On the top surface there are several smaller white stripes that are clustered into two broad bands.  Larvae only have three pairs of prolegs and crawl by sequentially arching then straightening, giving them the appearance of “looping
  • 102.  Host range:  The two looper species have wide host ranges including tomato and pepper. The cabbage looper appears to prefer crucifer crops while the soybean looper prefers soybean.  The insects over summer on a variety of weeds including dock (Rumex spp.), (Chenopodium album) and wild lettuce (Lactuca spp.). for the cabbage looper; and dock, pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), cocklebur (Xanthium spp.), wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) and pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum) for the soybean looper.  Damage to Tomato:  Larvae damage plants by consuming foliage, but usually do not inflict extensive defoliation to tomato or pepper.
  • 105. Looper larva on tomato leaflet.
  • 106. Fruit damage by looper larva.
  • 109. MONOTRING  Scouting:  Black light and pheromone baited traps can be used to monitor adult activity.  Whole plants are inspected season long for larvae, concentrating on foliage with fresh feeding.  Action Thresholds:  1 larva per 6 plants.
  • 110.  Cultural Practices : 1. Field Manipulations:  Weeds and old crops can be reservoirs of migrating adults.  Tomato and pepper crops should not be planted near or adjacent to crucifer fields or fields with the weeds indicated.
  • 111. Chemical Control 1. Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold is reached. 2. Products containing Bacillus thuringiensis have been particularly useful and conserve natural enemies. Resistance Management : 1. Products containing B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (11B2) and B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (11B1), should be rotated with each other and with conventional insecticides of different chemical classes.
  • 112. Biological Control 1. Parasitic wasps attack looper eggs (Trichogramma spp.) and larvae. 2. Parasitic flies and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus attack larvae. 3. Generalist predators, including big-eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.), damsel bugs (Nabis spp.) and minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.) are known to feed on loopers. 4. Timed insecticide applications and the use of selective insecticides can enhance biological control.
  • 114. Tomato Pinworm Keiferia lycopersicella  Biology & Lifecycle: 1. Female adults lay eggs individually or in groups of two or three on the undersides of leaves in the upper third of the canopy. 2. Hatching larvae bore into leaves, where their feeding causes a blotch mine. Older larvae feed protected in leaf rolls or folds held together by silking. 3. Larvae may also bore into fruit, usually under the calyx or where infested foliage touches fruit. 4. Mature larvae drop to the soil or plastic mulch surface where they form a silken cocoon covered with sand grains. 5. Infestations often begin on the perimeters of fields. 6. The egg to adult period lasts about 3 weeks at temperatures above 27C.
  • 115.  Adult :  Adults are small, light brown moths about 0.6 cm length and are most active just after sundown and for a few hours thereafter.  Larva :  Newly hatched larvae are yellowish-gray with a dark head .  Older larvae become progressively darker, changing from brownish orange to bluish-purple, and reach about 1cm in length .
  • 116.  Host range: 1. Tomato is the most important host plant; however, eggplant and potato are also attacked. 2. The insect is recorded from the weed. 3. Solanaceous plants, such as pepper, Capsium spp. and nightshades, Solanum spp., are not hosts.  Damage: 1. Larvae can complete development on foliage and occasionally can inflict nearly 100% defoliation; however, greatest economic damage occurs when larvae attack fruit . 2. Larval damage at the calyx may go undetected and fruit entering the market chain may rot due to invasion of secondary pathogens at the feeding site. 3. Rotting, infested fruit can cause non-infested fruit to rot in shipping  boxes.
  • 117.  Traps:  Commercially available Pherocon 1C traps baited with pheromone dispensers should be placed on the perimeters of tomato fields and should be monitored at least twice a week.  Traps should be placed above the plant canopy and should be raised as the plants grow.  Scouting:  One leaf from the lower canopy of each of six contiguous plants per two acres should be selected and examined for the presence of larvae.  Action Thresholds:  5 moths/trap/night for initiating mating disruption  0.7 larva/leaf for timing insecticidal sprays Monitoring
  • 118. Cultural Control  Start Clean:  Transplants should be free of eggs or larvae.  Mating Disruption: Commercial dispensers and liquid encapsulated formulations of mating disruptant can be applied when indicated by pheromone-baited traps.  Sanitation:  Cull fruit from infested fields should be disposed of as far from production fields as possible.  Field Manipulations:  Abandoned fields can be a tremendous reservoir of migrating adults. Therefore, fields should be destroyed block by block immediately after final harvest by treating with an effective insecticide combined with a foliar applied burn down herbicide.  New fields should not be planted adjacent to old fields.  Volunteer plants should be destroyed, especially during the summer off season, by frequent disking or other suitable methods.
  • 119. CHEMICAL CONTROLS  Insecticides should be applied when the action threshold is reached.  Insecticides should be timed to control younger larvae when they are in the blotch leaf mines.  Older larvae in leaf rolls, leaf folds or fruit are less accessible to insecticides and are more difficult to control.  Insecticides may be applied to field perimeters to control early infestations.
  • 120. RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT  The efficacy of Pyrethroid insecticides has declined to very low levels .  Resistance to Lannate® (carbamate) has been documented .  Applying insecticides based upon the threshold and in conjunction with cultural controls will reduce the number of applications.  Chemicals of different classes should be rotated.
  • 121. Natural Enemies  Four parasitic wasps observed attacking tomato pinworm larvae, Apanteles spp. were the most abundant.  Larval parasitism can reach 50%, but usually not until economic damage has occurred.  The parasitic wasp, Trichogramma spp. attacks eggs and can account for 10 to 90% parasitism.  Natural enemies can be conserved by avoiding the broad spectrum pyrethroid, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.  Fewer insecticide applications and applications of new, reduced risk insecticides can also enhance biological control.