2/10 Brain stem


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2/10 Brain stem

  1. 1. Brain Stem
  2. 2. Brainstem <ul><li>The lower extension of the brain where it connects to the spinal cord. Neurological functions located in the brainstem include those necessary for survival (breathing, digestion, heart rate, blood pressure) and for arousal (being awake and alert). </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Most of the cranial nerves come from the brainstem. The brainstem is the pathway for all fiber tracts passing up and down from peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the highest parts of the brain. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brain stem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>This includes the corticospinal tract (motor), the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration sensation and proprioception) and the spinothalamic tract (pain, temperature, itch and crude touch). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The corticospinal is a collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway is the sensory pathway responsible for transmitting fine touch, vibration and conscious proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebral cortex. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The spinothalamic tract is a sensory pathway originating in the spinal cord. It transmits information to the thalamus about pain, temperature, itch and crude touch.
  9. 9. Parts Of The Brain Stem <ul><li>- Medulla Oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>- Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>- Pons </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>The medulla oblongata functions primarily as a relay station for the crossing of motor tracts between the spinal cord and the brain. It also contains the respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers, as well as many mechanisms for controlling reflex activities such as coughing, gagging, swallowing and vomiting. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Midbrain <ul><li>The midbrain serves as the nerve pathway of the cerebral hemispheres and contains auditory and visual reflex centers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pons <ul><li>The pons is a bridge-like structure which links different parts of the brain and serves as a relay station from the medulla to the higher cortical structures of the brain. It contains the respiratory center. </li></ul>