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Cerebrum
DR SANA YASEEN
ANATOMY DEPARTMENT
KIMS
OBJECTVES
• Describe sulci and gyri of
cerebrum
• Describe sulci and gyri of
frontal, parietal, temporal and
occipital lobe.
• Functional area of cerebrum
• Bodmanns area
INTRODUCTON
– Cerebrum is the largest part of brain (wt 1500gm)
– It is composed of 2 cerebral hemisphere (right
and left)
– The 2 hemisphere are partially seperated by
medial longitudinal fissure. (falx cerebri- the dual
folds of dura mater is located in the median
logitudinal fissure.at the bottom of fissure the two
hemisphere are connected by corpus callosum
(commisural fibers connecting same are of two
cerebral hemisphere)
– The surface of hemisphere are covered by grey
mater ( mainly neuronal cells and denrites)
known as cerebral cortex.
– The surface of cerebral
hemisphere has elevated folds
called gyri separated by
depression called sulci
– Within the white matter are
masses of grey matter called
basal ganglion nuclei
– Each hemisphere has fluid filled
cavity called ventricles filled with
CSF.
– Is the origination of conscious
thought processes, intellectual
functions, memory storage and
retrieval, and complex motor
patterns
External Features of The Cerebrum
Gyri
– Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.
Sulci:
– Small grooves dividing the gyri
Central Sulcus:
Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe.
Fissures:
Deep grooves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the
brain.
Longitudinal Fissure:
Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres.
Transverse Fissure:
Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum.
Gyri (ridge)
Sulci
(groove)
Fissure
(deep groove)
Cerebrum
Cerebrum
Cerebrum
LONGITUDINAL CEREBRAL FISSURE.
– It contains sickle-shaped fold of dura
mater, falx cerebri, & anterior cerebral
arteries.
– In depths of the fissure, the great
commissure, the corpus callosum,
connects the hemispheres across the
midline.
– A second horizontal fold of dura mater
separates the cerebral hemispheres from
cerebellum and is called tentorium
cerebelli
EXTERNAL FEATURES Of Cerebral Hemisphere
– It has 3 surfaces:
Superolateral surface,Medial surface, Inferior surface
- 3 borders:
superomedial, inferolateral (orbital part is called supercilliary
bordder) , inferomedddial (divided into medial orbital and medial
occipital border)
- 3 poles:
frontal, temporal and occipital
MAIN SULCI
– Central sulci:
Divides frontal and parital lobe
– Lateral sulci:
Divides frontal and parietal lobe from temporal
lobe
– Parieto-occipital sulci:
Present between parietal and occipital lobe
– Calcarine sulci:
Present on medial surface
– Lobes are named according to the cranial
bones under which they lie.
Lobes of the Brain
– Frontal
– Parietal
– Occipital
– Temporal
* Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It
is located deep to the Temporal Lobe.
– insula lies at bottom
of deep lateral sulcus
and cannot be seen
from the surface
unless the lips of the
sulcus are separated
FRONTAL LOBE
– It occupies area anterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus.
– divided by three sulci into four gyri.
– The precentral sulcus runs parallel to central sulcus, & precentral gyrus lies
b/w them.
– Extending anteriorly from precentral sulcus are superior and inferior
frontal sulci.
– superior frontal gyrus lies superior to the superior frontal sulcus, the
middle frontal gyrus lies between the superior and inferior frontal sulci,
and the inferior frontal gyrus lies inferior to the inferior frontal sulcus.
Cerebrum
LATERAL SULCUS
– The lateral sulcus is
found on the inferior and
lateral surfaces of the
cerebral hemisphere.
– It divides into three rami.
anterior horizontal
ramus, anterior
ascending ramus &
posterior ramus .
Posterior ramus
PARIETAL LOBE
– It occupies area posterior to central sulcus and
superior to the lateral sulcus;
– Postcentral sulcus runs parallel to the central
sulcus, and the postcentral gyrus lies between
them.
– Running posteriorly from the
Middle of the postcentral sulcus is the
intraparietal sulcus.
– Superior to the intraparietal sulcus is the superior
parietal
lobule (gyrus), and inferior to the intraparietal
sulcus is the inferior parietal lobule (gyrus).
TEMPORAL LOBE
– It occupies area inferior to
lateral sulcus. lateral
surface of the this lobe is
divided into three gyri by
two sulci.
– The superior and middle
temporal sulci divide lobe
into superior, middle, &
inferior temporal gyri;
OCCIPITAL LOBE
– Is the smallest lobe
– parieto ocipital sulcus begins on
the superior margin of hemisphere
and passes down and anteriorly on
medial surface to meet calcarine
sulcus.
– It separates parietal and occipital
lobe on lateral surface
Cerebrum
INFERIOR SURFACE
– Medial occipitotemporal gyrus
extends from the occipital pole to
the temporal pole.
– It is bounded medially by collateral
sulci and laterally by the
occipitotemporal sulcus. The
occipitotemporal gyrus lies lateral
to the sulcus and is continuous with
inferior temporal gyrus .
– On the inferior surface of the
frontal lobe, the olfactory bulb and
tract overlie a sulcus called the
olfactory sulcus.
– Collateral sulcus is situated on
the inferior surface of the
hemisphere.
– This runs anteriorly below the
calcarine sulcus.
– Calcarine sulcus: begins under
posterior en of corpus callosum
and arches upward and backward
to reach occipital pole also extend
to lateral surface
– it is joined at acute angle by
parieto ocipital sulcus about half
way along its length
– B/w collateral sulcus and calcarine
sulcus is the lingual gyrus.
– Anterior to the lingual gyrus is the
parahippocampal gyrus; the latter
terminates in front as the hook like
uncus.
– The uncus is an anterior extremity
of the parahippocampal gyrus. It
is separated from the apex of the
temporal lobe by a slight fissure
called the incisura temporalis
MEDIAL SURFACE
– The lobes of the cerebral hemisphere are
not clearly defined on the medial and
inferior surfaces.
– Corpus callosum, which is the largest
commissure of brain, locatedd centrally.
– Cingulate gyrus continues above corpus
callosum until it reaches its posterior end.
– The gyrus is separated from the corpus
callosum by the callosal sulcus.
– cingulate gyrus is separated from the
superior frontal gyrus by the cingulate
sulcus
– Precentral lobule: are of brain
surrounding central sulci
o Anterior part- precentral gyrus
o Posterior part- post central gyrus
– cuneus: triangular area between parieto-
occipital sulcus (above) and calcarine
sulcus (below) and superior meial margin
(behind).
– Precuneus: area of cortex bounded by
upturned end of cingulate gyrus(
anteriorly) , parieto-occipital sulcus
(posteriorly).
Cerebrum
FUNCTIONAL OR BRODMANN AREAS
OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
– Various areaas of the cerebral cortex perform specific functions. Human cortex has been
described to have three types of functional areas.
– Motor area: control voluntary movement. Mainly present in frontal lobe.
– Sensory area: conscious awaremessperception of general somatic sensations (pain
temperature, touch, proprioception) and special sensation ( vison, hearing, taste, smell).
– Association area: almost 70% of the cortex is association cortex. These areas are usually
present close to the sensory areas. It integrate various types of sensation information and to
ddirect behaviour, communication andd intellect diverse information.
Cerebrum
2
3
7
5
39
40
22
41 42
4
45
44
11
10
9
8
6 1
17
18
19
10
9
8
6 4
11
17
35
28
34
5
7
19 18
32
33 24
Cerebrum

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Cerebrum

  • 2. OBJECTVES • Describe sulci and gyri of cerebrum • Describe sulci and gyri of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe. • Functional area of cerebrum • Bodmanns area
  • 3. INTRODUCTON – Cerebrum is the largest part of brain (wt 1500gm) – It is composed of 2 cerebral hemisphere (right and left) – The 2 hemisphere are partially seperated by medial longitudinal fissure. (falx cerebri- the dual folds of dura mater is located in the median logitudinal fissure.at the bottom of fissure the two hemisphere are connected by corpus callosum (commisural fibers connecting same are of two cerebral hemisphere) – The surface of hemisphere are covered by grey mater ( mainly neuronal cells and denrites) known as cerebral cortex.
  • 4. – The surface of cerebral hemisphere has elevated folds called gyri separated by depression called sulci – Within the white matter are masses of grey matter called basal ganglion nuclei – Each hemisphere has fluid filled cavity called ventricles filled with CSF. – Is the origination of conscious thought processes, intellectual functions, memory storage and retrieval, and complex motor patterns
  • 5. External Features of The Cerebrum Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain. Sulci: – Small grooves dividing the gyri Central Sulcus: Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe. Fissures: Deep grooves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the brain. Longitudinal Fissure: Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres. Transverse Fissure: Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum. Gyri (ridge) Sulci (groove) Fissure (deep groove)
  • 9. LONGITUDINAL CEREBRAL FISSURE. – It contains sickle-shaped fold of dura mater, falx cerebri, & anterior cerebral arteries. – In depths of the fissure, the great commissure, the corpus callosum, connects the hemispheres across the midline. – A second horizontal fold of dura mater separates the cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum and is called tentorium cerebelli
  • 10. EXTERNAL FEATURES Of Cerebral Hemisphere – It has 3 surfaces: Superolateral surface,Medial surface, Inferior surface - 3 borders: superomedial, inferolateral (orbital part is called supercilliary bordder) , inferomedddial (divided into medial orbital and medial occipital border) - 3 poles: frontal, temporal and occipital
  • 11. MAIN SULCI – Central sulci: Divides frontal and parital lobe – Lateral sulci: Divides frontal and parietal lobe from temporal lobe – Parieto-occipital sulci: Present between parietal and occipital lobe – Calcarine sulci: Present on medial surface – Lobes are named according to the cranial bones under which they lie.
  • 12. Lobes of the Brain – Frontal – Parietal – Occipital – Temporal * Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It is located deep to the Temporal Lobe.
  • 13. – insula lies at bottom of deep lateral sulcus and cannot be seen from the surface unless the lips of the sulcus are separated
  • 14. FRONTAL LOBE – It occupies area anterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral sulcus. – divided by three sulci into four gyri. – The precentral sulcus runs parallel to central sulcus, & precentral gyrus lies b/w them. – Extending anteriorly from precentral sulcus are superior and inferior frontal sulci. – superior frontal gyrus lies superior to the superior frontal sulcus, the middle frontal gyrus lies between the superior and inferior frontal sulci, and the inferior frontal gyrus lies inferior to the inferior frontal sulcus.
  • 16. LATERAL SULCUS – The lateral sulcus is found on the inferior and lateral surfaces of the cerebral hemisphere. – It divides into three rami. anterior horizontal ramus, anterior ascending ramus & posterior ramus . Posterior ramus
  • 17. PARIETAL LOBE – It occupies area posterior to central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus; – Postcentral sulcus runs parallel to the central sulcus, and the postcentral gyrus lies between them. – Running posteriorly from the Middle of the postcentral sulcus is the intraparietal sulcus. – Superior to the intraparietal sulcus is the superior parietal lobule (gyrus), and inferior to the intraparietal sulcus is the inferior parietal lobule (gyrus).
  • 18. TEMPORAL LOBE – It occupies area inferior to lateral sulcus. lateral surface of the this lobe is divided into three gyri by two sulci. – The superior and middle temporal sulci divide lobe into superior, middle, & inferior temporal gyri;
  • 19. OCCIPITAL LOBE – Is the smallest lobe – parieto ocipital sulcus begins on the superior margin of hemisphere and passes down and anteriorly on medial surface to meet calcarine sulcus. – It separates parietal and occipital lobe on lateral surface
  • 21. INFERIOR SURFACE – Medial occipitotemporal gyrus extends from the occipital pole to the temporal pole. – It is bounded medially by collateral sulci and laterally by the occipitotemporal sulcus. The occipitotemporal gyrus lies lateral to the sulcus and is continuous with inferior temporal gyrus . – On the inferior surface of the frontal lobe, the olfactory bulb and tract overlie a sulcus called the olfactory sulcus.
  • 22. – Collateral sulcus is situated on the inferior surface of the hemisphere. – This runs anteriorly below the calcarine sulcus. – Calcarine sulcus: begins under posterior en of corpus callosum and arches upward and backward to reach occipital pole also extend to lateral surface – it is joined at acute angle by parieto ocipital sulcus about half way along its length
  • 23. – B/w collateral sulcus and calcarine sulcus is the lingual gyrus. – Anterior to the lingual gyrus is the parahippocampal gyrus; the latter terminates in front as the hook like uncus. – The uncus is an anterior extremity of the parahippocampal gyrus. It is separated from the apex of the temporal lobe by a slight fissure called the incisura temporalis
  • 24. MEDIAL SURFACE – The lobes of the cerebral hemisphere are not clearly defined on the medial and inferior surfaces. – Corpus callosum, which is the largest commissure of brain, locatedd centrally. – Cingulate gyrus continues above corpus callosum until it reaches its posterior end. – The gyrus is separated from the corpus callosum by the callosal sulcus. – cingulate gyrus is separated from the superior frontal gyrus by the cingulate sulcus – Precentral lobule: are of brain surrounding central sulci o Anterior part- precentral gyrus o Posterior part- post central gyrus – cuneus: triangular area between parieto- occipital sulcus (above) and calcarine sulcus (below) and superior meial margin (behind). – Precuneus: area of cortex bounded by upturned end of cingulate gyrus( anteriorly) , parieto-occipital sulcus (posteriorly).
  • 26. FUNCTIONAL OR BRODMANN AREAS OF CEREBRAL CORTEX – Various areaas of the cerebral cortex perform specific functions. Human cortex has been described to have three types of functional areas. – Motor area: control voluntary movement. Mainly present in frontal lobe. – Sensory area: conscious awaremessperception of general somatic sensations (pain temperature, touch, proprioception) and special sensation ( vison, hearing, taste, smell). – Association area: almost 70% of the cortex is association cortex. These areas are usually present close to the sensory areas. It integrate various types of sensation information and to ddirect behaviour, communication andd intellect diverse information.