Brainstem demo neww

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Brainstem demo neww

  1. 1. BRAINSTEM
  2. 2. BRAIN STEM <ul><li>3 PARTS : </li></ul><ul><li>MIDBRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>PONS </li></ul><ul><li>MEDULLA OBLANGATA </li></ul><ul><li>HAS 3 BROAD FUNCTIONS – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a conduit for the ascending & descending tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains important reflex centers(RS.CVS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains cranial nerves nuclei (CN3-CN12) </li></ul></ul>Brainstem occupies the posterior cranial fossa of the skull
  3. 4. MIDBRAIN
  4. 5. MIDBRAIN VENTRAL SURFACE Crus cerebri of midbrain Optic tract Mammillary body Posterior perforated substance Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Interpedencular fossa
  5. 6. MIDBRAIN ( Dorsal surface)
  6. 7. BLOOD SUPPLY OF MIDBRAIN <ul><li>ARTERIAL SUPPLY : </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior cerebral artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior cerebellar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>VENOUS PLEXUS: </li></ul><ul><li>Basal vein. </li></ul><ul><li>Great cerebral vein. </li></ul>
  7. 8. PONS
  8. 9. PONS(Ventral view) Basilar groove Motor root of trigeminal nerve Sensory root of trigeminal nerve Abducent nerve Roots of facial nerve vestibulocochlear nerve
  9. 10. PONS (dorsal view) Trochlear nerve Superior medullary velum Floor of 4 th ventricle Striae medullaris Median sulcus Medial eminence Facial colliculus Sulcus limitans Vestibular area Hypoglossal triangle Vagal traingle
  10. 11. BLOOD SUPPLY OF PONS <ul><li>ARTERIAL SUPPLY: </li></ul><ul><li>Pontine branches of basilar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior cerebellar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior inferior cerebellar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>VENOUS SUPPLY: </li></ul><ul><li>Basilar venous plexus. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior petrosal sinuses. </li></ul>
  11. 12. MEDULLA OBLANGATA
  12. 13. THE ANTERIOR SURFACE (medulla) <ul><li>On the anterior surface of the medulla is the anterior median fissure ( Continuous with the AMF of the spinal cord ) </li></ul><ul><li>PYRAMIDS </li></ul><ul><li>( decussation of the pyramids) </li></ul><ul><li>in lower portion. </li></ul><ul><li>OLIVES ( Inferior olivary nuclei lies beneath them ) </li></ul><ul><li>INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE (XII) ( groove between the pyramids & olives ) </li></ul>
  13. 14. THE ANTERIOR SURFACE (medulla) <ul><li>From the grove between the olives & the inferior cerebellar peduncle, emerge the nerve roots of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossopharyngeal (IX) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagus (X) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory nerve (XI) – Cranial roots </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. THE POSTERIOR SURFACE (medulla) <ul><li>Superior half : FLOOR OF THE 4 TH VENTRICLE </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior half : POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS ( PMS ) </li></ul><ul><li>GRACILE TUBERCLE (Produced by underlying gracile nucleus ) </li></ul><ul><li>CUNEATE TUBERCLE (Produced by underlying cuneate nucleus ) </li></ul>
  15. 16. BLOOD SUPPLY OF MEDULLA <ul><li>ARTERIAL SUPPLY : </li></ul><ul><li>Medullary br. of vertebral artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Medullary br. Of basilar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior inferior cerebellar artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior spinal artery. </li></ul><ul><li>VENOUS SUPPLY: </li></ul><ul><li>Basilar venous plexus. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior petrosal sinus. </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital sinus. </li></ul>
  16. 17. FUNCTION OF THE BRAINSTEM <ul><li>Midbrain: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual & auditory processing and reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-tuning of voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>Pons: </li></ul><ul><li>Relay station for cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Control of sub-conscious movement </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata: </li></ul><ul><li>Control of cardiovascular functions </li></ul><ul><li>Control of respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Control of gastrointestinal functions </li></ul>
  17. 18. What brainstem structures are visible here? MID BRAIN PONS MEDULLA
  18. 19. Cranial Nerves
  19. 20. THANK YOU

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