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Practical Training Report
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement of degree
Bachelor of Technology
Submitted To: Submitted By:
JAI DEEP SINGH DEVRA MADHU SINGH
(Ass. Prof.) 12EKTCE039
(Civil Engineering) (4th
, B.Tech.7th Semester B-1)
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2. About Cement road
6. Cement road construction
6.1 Preparation of subgrade
6.2 Preparation of base
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6.3 Form work
6.4 Watering of base
6.6 Material mix & placing
6.8 Finishing of surface
6.10 Filling joint
6.12 open to traffic
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The Public Works Department has a glorious history in the
development of the state since pre independence. The
department is mainly entrusted with construction and
maintenance of Roads, Bridges and Govt. buildings. The
department also acts as Technical Advisor to the State
Government in these matters.
Initially, Irrigation, Public Health engineering were units of
PWD. Subsequently these units were given separate entities to
handle increased scope of work in the respective field. Since
the inception of the Department, it has strived through its
continuous quest for excellence and putting milestones in the
feat of Engineering. It is this time that the Department is
treading into a new era of information technology to keep pace
with the modernization. The Public Works Department being
the oldest engineering department of the State, has its well
woven network even below tensile level which enables the
P.W.D. to ensure the execution of a variety of jobs/tasks any
where in the state.
Total road length being maintained by the department is more
than 87500 KM the Department also maintains State buildings
all over Rajasthan & outside. The current annual budget
allocation to the department for construction & maintenance
activities is over Rs 1000 Crores.
Public works department primarily executes following
• Design, Construction, Maintenance & Repair of Government
• Design, Construction, Maintenance & Repair of Roads &
• Undertaking Deposit Contribution works of various
Departments, Local Bodies & other
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I would like to express my deepest appreciation to
all those who provided me the possibility to
complete this report. A special gratitude I give to
our teacher, Mr. Jaideep Deora Sir , whose
contribution in stimulating suggestions and
encouragement, helped me to coordinate my
summer training especially in writing this report.
Furthermore I would also like to acknowledge with
much appreciation the crucial role of the staff of
PWD , who gave the permission to use all
required equipment and the necessary materials to
complete the task “Construction Of Cement
Concrete Road”. A special thanks goes to my
team mate, Virendra Singh&Ganpat Choudary, who
help me to assemble the parts and gave suggestion
about the task. Last but not least, many thanks go
to the head of the project, Ass. Engineer &
Executuive Engineer of PWD whose have
invested his full effort in guiding the team in
achieving the goal. I have to appreciate the
guidance given by other supervisor as well as the
panels especially in our project presentation that
has improved our presentation skills thanks to their
comment and advices.
DATE: - 04/07/2016 MADHU SINGH
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Point of view geographic and population of the state is the
nation's largest state. State Industrial, economic and social
development of the state and the population of each village is
absolutely necessary to re-connect to the main roads. In
addition to state important national roads, state roads and
district roads and their proper broad be made to improve the
quality of traffic point of view is of particular importance. Public
Works Department to build roads and improve connectivity in
rural zones, Other District Road and State broad and
improvement of rural roads and main routes narrow
construction of zones and depleted bridges brides
reconstruction of the bases are transacted on a priority basis .
Also under PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana and pre-
fabricated construction of rural roads linking the work of other
district roads broad Suddikrn the scale bases are edited.
Successful operation of various schemes for the Public Works
Department engineers and supervisory boards in different
districts of the engineer’s office has been settled. Activities by
planning, execution, and quality control etc. remove
impediments find joy in relation to the supervision over the
activities are focused. Various schemes operated by the
Department of the Office of the Regional Chief Engineers and
Chief Engineers office.
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A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between
two places, which has been paved or otherwise improved to
allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart,
or motor vehicle. Roads consist of one, or sometimes
two, roadways (carriageways) each with one or more lanes and
also any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement)
and road verges. Roads that are available for use by the public
may be referred to as public roads or highways.
Concrete is widely used in domestic, commercial, recreational,
rural and educational construction.
Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong
and simple building material. It is used in all types of
construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office blocks
and shopping complexes.
Despite the common usage of concrete, few people are aware of
the considerations involved in designing strong, durable, high
There are mainly three types-
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A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens
independently, and can bind other materials together. The word
"cement" traces to the Romans, who used the
term caementiciumto describe masonry resembling
modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with
burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and
pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to
obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum,
cimentum, cement, and cement.
Cements used in construction can be characterized as being
either hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements
(e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration, a chemical
reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water.
Thus, they can harden underwater or when constantly exposed
to wet weather. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that
are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water.
Non-hydraulic cements do not harden underwater; for example,
slaked limes harden by reaction with atmospheric carbon
The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the
production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination
of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.
Types of Cement:-
Portland cement is by far the most common type of cement in
general use around the world. This cement is made by
heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of
other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln, in a process
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known as calcination, whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is
liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, or
quicklime, which is then blended with the other materials that
have been included in the mix. The resulting hard substance,
called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount
of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement',
the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as
OPC). Portland cement is a basic ingredient
of concrete, mortar and most non-specialty grout. The most
common use for Portland cement is in the production of
concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting
of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a
construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape
desired, and once hardened, can become a structural (load
bearing) element. Portland cement may be grey or white.
Portland fly ash cement
Its contains up to 35% flyash. The fly ash is pozzolanic, so that
ultimate strength is maintained. Because fly ash addition allows
a lower concrete water content, early strength can also be
maintained. Where good quality cheap fly ash is available, this
can be an economic alternative to ordinary Portland cement.
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Portland pozzolan cement
Its includes fly ash cement, since fly ash is a pozzolan , but also
includes cements made from other natural or artificial
pozzolans. In countries where volcanic ashes are available.
Portland silica fume cement
Addition of silica fume can yield exceptionally high strengths,
and cements containing 5–20% silica fume are occasionally
produced. However, silica fume is more usually added to
Portland cement at the concrete mixer
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of
finely divided rock and mineral particles. The composition of
sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and
conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland
continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings
is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz.
The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for
example aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past
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half billion years, by various forms of life,
like coral and shellfish. It is, for example, the primary form of
sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the
ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.
In terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles
range in diameter from 0.0625 mm (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 mm. An
individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain.
Sand grains are between gravel (with particles ranging from
2 mm up to 64 mm) and silt (particles smaller than 0.0625 mm
down to 0.004 mm). The size specification between sand and
gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but
particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand
under the Alter berg standard in use during the early 20th
century. A 1953 engineering standard published by
the American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm.
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Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or
crushed stone that, along with water and Portland cement, are an
essential ingredient in concrete. For a good concrete mix,
aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of
absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials
that could cause the deterioration of concrete.
Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total
volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories-fine
and coarse. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or
crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch
Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch (4.75
mm), but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches (9.5 mm to
37.5 mm) in diameter. Gravels constitute the majority of coarse
aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most
of the remainder.
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Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit,
river, lake, or seabed. Crushed aggregate is produced by
crushing quarry rock, boulders, cobbles, or large-size gravel.
Recycled concrete is a viable source of aggregate and has been
satisfactorily used in granular subbases, soil-cement, and in new
concrete. Aggregate processing consists of crushing, screening,
and washing the aggregate to obtain proper cleanliness and
gradation. If necessary, a benefaction process such as jigging or
heavy media separation can be used to upgrade the quality.
Once processed, the aggregates are handled and stored in a way
that minimizes segregation and degradation and prevents
Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and
hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy.
Consequently, selection of aggregates is an important process.
Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected,
characteristics that are considered when selecting aggregate
particle shape and surface texture
abrasion and skid resistance
unit weights and voids
absorption and surface moisture
Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size
distribution for aggregate.
Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified
because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as
well as cement and water requirements, workability
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Shape and size
Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of
freshly mixed concrete more than the properties of hardened
concrete. Rough-textured, angular, and elongated particles
require more water to produce workable concrete than smooth,
rounded compact aggregate. Consequently, the cement content
must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio.
Generally, flat and elongated particles are avoided or are limited
to about 15 percent by weight of the total aggregate.
Unit-weight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the
voids between them will occupy in concrete. The void content
between particles affects the amount of cement paste required
for the mix.
Angular aggregate increase the void content. Larger sizes of
well-graded aggregate and improved grading decrease the void
content. Absorption and surface moisture of aggregate are
measured when selecting aggregate because the internal
structure of aggregate is made up of solid material and voids
that may or may not contain water.
The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted to
include the moisture conditions of the aggregate. Abrasion and
skid resistance of an aggregate are essential when the aggregate
is to be used in concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in
heavy-duty floors or pavements.
Different minerals in the aggregate wear and polish at different
rates. Harder aggregate can be selected in highly abrasive
conditions to minimize wear.
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There are four main tests to be done on concrete:
1-The Slump Test.
THE SLUMP TEST
The slump test is done to make sure a concrete mix is
workable. Workability measures how easy the concrete is to
Standard slump cone (100 mm top diameter x 200 mm bottom
diameter x 300 mm high)
(600 mm long x 16 mm diameter )
Slump plate (500 mm x 500 mm)
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1. Clean the cone:-Dampen with water and place on the
slump plate. The slump plate should be clean,frim level
2. Collect sample.
3. Stand frimly on the footpieces fill 1/3 the volume of cone
with the sample. Compact the concrete by ‘roddind’25
times. Rodding Rodding means to push a steel
rod in and out of the concrete to compact it into the
cylinder, or slump cone. Always rod in a definite
pattern,working from outside into the middle.
4. Now fill to 2/3 and again rod 25 times,just into the top of
the first layer
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5. Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time just into the
top of the second layer. Top up the cone till it overflows.
6. Level off the surface with the steel rod using a rolling
action. Clean any concrete from around the base and top
of the cone ,push down on the handles and step off the
7. Carefully lift the cone straight up making sure not to move
8. Turn the cone upside and place the rod across the up-turned
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THE COMPRESSION TEST
The compression test shows the compressive strength of
hardened concrete. The testing is done in a laboratory off-site.
The only work done on-site is to make a concrete cylinder for
the compression test.
The strength is measured in Megapascals(MPa) and is
commonly specified as a characteristic strength of concrete
measured at 28 days after mixing. The compressive strength is
a measure of the concrete’s ability to resist loads which tend to
Cylinders (100 mm diameter x 200 mm high or 150 mm
diameter x 300 mm high)
( The small cylinders are
normally used for most
testing due to their
lighter weight )
Bullet-nosed rod (600
mm x 16 mm)
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1 Clean the cylinder mould and coat the inside
lightly with form oil, then place on a clean, level
and firm surface, ie the steel plate.
2 Collect a sample.
3 Fill 1/2 the volume of the mould with concrete
then compact by rodding 25 times. Cylinders may
also be compacted by vibrating using vibrating
4 Fill the cone to overflowing and rod 25
times into the top of the first layer,then top
the mould till overflowing.
5 Level off the top with the steel float and clean any
concrete from around the mould(1)
1 2 3
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6. Cap , clearly tag the cylinder and put it in cool dry place to
set for at least 24 hours.(2)
7. After the mould is remove the cylinder is send to the
laboratory where it is cured and crushed to test
Impact Testing :-
An impact test is a dynamic test conducted on a selected
specimen which is usually notched. The specimen is struck and
broken by a single blow in a specially designed machine.
This demo illustrates the experiment setup, procedure and the
energy absorbed in an impact test.
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Test applied to the concrete, this
is the utmost important which
gives an idea about all the
characteristics of concrete. By
this single test one judge that
whether Concreting has been
done properly or not. For cube test two types of specimens either
cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x 10 cm
depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works
cubical moulds of size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used.
This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so
as not to have any voids. After 24 hours these moulds are
removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top
surface of these specimen should be made even and smooth.
This is done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on
whole area of specimen.
These specimens are tested by compression testing machine
after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied
gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the
Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen
gives the compressive strength of concrete.
Compression testing machine
PREPARATION OF CUBE SPECIMENS:-
The proportion and material for making these test specimens are
from the same concrete used in the field.
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6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above
Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer
(i)Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-
absorbent platform until the mixture is thoroughly blended and
is of uniform color
(ii)Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine
aggregate until the coarse aggregate is uniformly distributed
throughout the batch
(iii)Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be
homogeneous and of the desired consistency.
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The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the
temperature of water must be at 27+-2oC.
(I) Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time
and wipe out excess water from the surface.
(II) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
(III) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
(IV) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that
the load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the cube cast.
(V) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the
(VI) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it
touches the top surface of the specimen.
(VII) Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously
at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails
(VIII) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features
in the type of failure.
Using mix Concrete
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There some Point to construct the road:-
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1. Preparation of base
2. Form working
3. Preparation of subgrade
4. Watering of base
6. Material mix & placing
8. Finishing of surface
10. Joint filling
12. Open to traffic
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1. Preparation of subgrade:-
1. Rolling on sub grade by roller
2. Filling the granular soil in the weak part and pot holes
3. Correct the soil coat , Camber , longitudinal slop
When concrete direct laid on subgrade, For preventing the
water-seepaging into the soil , used water proof paper on
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2. Preparation of base:-
Choose any one type of base
1. W.B.M. base
As base material of W.B.M. Road; stone ballast, concrete 10-
15cm layer are used. For bonding between concrete slab &
W.B.M. used 1:2 cement wash on W.B.M.
2. Concrete base:- On the road used 10cm Cement
concrete(1:2:4) or lime concrete(16:32:64)
3. Granular medium material layer
10-15cm composite layer of sand , moorum, bajriare usedfor
better drainage facilities
1. Stabilization soil
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3. Form work
Material for form work-
Wooden sheets, battens, plywood, fibre hard board, steel
plates, angles, rope, minerals.
1. before using form work, it should free from all type
material like as dust ,cement.
2. To placing the concrete in appropriate depth used 2.5-5cm
thick and 3mtr long wooden sheeting.
3. The depth of wooden block must be same as level of slab
4. After 24hrs form work displaced next length of road.
4. Watering of base:-
If base is dry
Than using the sprinkling process on it properly after that
placing the concrete.
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Where is necessary to provide transverse, Longitudinal
joints; there wedge of woods, metals fix on level of concrete.
After setting of concrete it should be pull out.
If provided the dowel bar in joints, bars should be fit at
6.Material mix & placing:-
Mixer is equipment that mix the concrete using distinct
amount of cement , concrete, sand and water. Concrete
slab should have more than 5-10cm thick cause of drying.
Used two type mixer-
1. Batch mixer-
at site, used for small road construction
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2. Continuous mixer-
Continuous mixer used for large construction .
if distance is more from site , mix concrete transported at
site within setting time.
Two methods generally used in placing of concrete-
1. Alternate bay method-
Placed the concrete on both side of road
alternatively like as1,3,5… part at one side and 2,4,6…
part other side .
This method have slow process due to road traffic
2. Continuous bay method-
construct one side of road regularly, if completed some
part of first side than construct other side.
this method have fast process without no obstruction of
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Purpose of compaction is that to pull out air from void
and make concrete harden.
Compaction done by-
1.mechanically surface vibrator
2. manuallyhand tempers
8. Finishing of surface:-
For levelling the surface use floating, scree-ding , power
trowel. So that there is no acceptable more than 3mm
variation in concrete level surface.
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For making surface clean used belting process. Belt is
nothing but a 15-30cm thick sheets of canvass which have
more length than road.
Brooming is the process in which we made rough surface
parallel to road by brush.
It useful in avoiding slip & comfortable travelling on road
The depth of line on road no more than 1.5mm.
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Curing is the name of increasing the hydration process
After setting the concrete , curing process done till 14-
Some method of curing are-
1.Shading concrete works
2. Covering with hessian & gunny bags
3. Sprinkling of water
5. Membrane curing
6. Steam curing
10. Filling joint:-
After drying road, clean the joints and fill the shelling
compound or hot bitumen .
also bitumen fill road bank.
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To protect damaging the sides of concrete pavements
used over burnt brick work.
in place of brick, provided kerb of pre mix concrete.
12.open to traffic:-
Generally after a month, road should be open to traffic.
If used rapid hardening cement it take 7 days to open
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I have complete my practical training of 60 days from Public Work
Department BARMER(Raj.). This experience was useful and enjoy to me.
During training period we have know the difference the book knowledge
and field work. The field work is totally different from book.It was very
good and a helpful for my study course. The training will be very helpful
for my coming life.It gives me a just idea of the practically work,which
was based on my course.At the site we various techniques of Road . I
learn how can we apply theory in terms of practical. I observed my
problems and difficulties in the field. I felt that theories or studies
cannot provide us knowledge of all aspect of learning subjects is in
complete units it exposed to its practical knowledge, where practical
application makes us agile and competent.
I come to know how to manage the work the material collection from
various instalments,their appropriate selection and quality. I observed
the various precautions, which are necessary during construction.
The overall means is that the knowledge of books only is not
sufficient. The field knowledge is most important to become a good or
real engineer. I found sometimes that the labour contractor who dosen’t
has any degree or diploma comes to very quick and right decision, while
the engineer think about it any apply his studies and formula to take the
Therefore, with the theoretical knowledge, the practical knowledge or
experience is also must. At last,this training gave me confidence to
supervise and manage work at site.
IVth Year(Civil Engineering)