SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 27
Download to read offline
Presentation
On
Concrete
Submitted To:
Hossain Murad
Assistant Professor
Department Of Architecture
Premier University
Submitted By:
Alisha -
Chandrima Nath -
Tahmina Habib – 2001811600335
Israt Jahan Isha - 2001811600329
Introduction
In the present world, concrete is one of the most widely
used construction materials. This can be due, not alone to
the large choice of applications that it offers, however,
besides, its behavior, strength, affordability, durability, and
flexibility play vital roles. Therefore, constructing-building
works have faith in concrete as a secure, strong, and simple
object. It is utilized in all sorts of buildings like residential to
multi-story workplace blocks and infrastructure like
roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is used for the development
of foundations, columns, beams, slabs, and different load-
bearing components.
Concrete
Concrete, an artificial stone-like mass, is the composite
material that is created by mixing binding material
(cement or lime) along with the aggregate (sand, gravel,
stone, brick chips, etc.), water, admixtures, etc. in specific
proportions.
Concrete = Binding Material + Fine & Coarse
Aggregate + Water + Admixture
Concrete is powerful, easy to create, and can be formed
into varied shapes and sizes. Besides that, it is reasonable,
low cost, and instantly mixed. It is designed to allow reliable
and high-quality fast-track construction.
History Of Concrete
The oldest concrete discovered was in the floor of a hut in Israel, dated around 7000BC. The concrete
used for the floor was made by burning limestone to produce quicklime which was then then mixed with
water and stone and left to set.
Knowledge of this lime-based material spread through Egypt and Ancient Greece and reached the
Romans around 300BC. The very word concrete comes from the Latin ‘concretus’, meaning grown
together or compounded. The Romans discovered a volcanic material that had cementing properties,
known as Pozzolanic cement. Examples of concrete made with this cement still exist in structures such as
the Pantheon and Colosseum in Rome.
 Cement
 Aggregates
 Chemical Admixture
 Water
Function Of Components Of Concrete
 Cement
Cement is a dry, greenish grey powder with fine particles. It is
made from silica (sand), alumina (aluminium oxide), lime, iron
oxide and magnesia (magnesium oxide). It becomes hard
when water is added. It is often mixed with sand and small
stones to make concrete.
History of Cement
Cement as we know it was first developed by Joseph Aspdin,
an enterprising 19th-century British stonemason, who heated a
mix of ground limestone and clay in his kitchen stove, then
pulverized the concoction into a fine powder.
Components Of Concrete
Professionals create cement by mixing raw materials with
metals and minerals such as aluminum, iron, calcium and
silicon before heating it to high temperatures to form a solid
material called clinker. Clinker is then ground into a powder
sold as cement to ready-mix concrete companies.
Raw materials in cement may include:
 Chalk
 Clay
 Iron ore
 Limestone
 Shale
 Shells
 Silica sand
 Slag
Components Of Cement
The result was the world's first hydraulic cement: one that hardens
when water is added. Aspdin dubbed his creation Portland
cement due to its similarity to a stone quarried on the Isle of
Portland, off the British coast. In 1824, this brilliant craftsman
obtained a patent for what would prove to be the world's most
ubiquitous building material, laying the foundation for today's
global Portland cement industry.
Some physical features they may inspect may include:
 Air content
 Compressive strength
 Early age strength development
 Increased heat of hydration
 Lower heat of hydration
 Particle size
 Setting time
Physical Features Of Cement
Manufacture Of Cement
Manufacture Of Cement
There are two common methods for
creating cement
 Dry method
 Wet method.
 Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)
 Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)
 Rapid-hardening cement
 Extra-rapid-hardening cement
 Quick-setting cement
 Low-heat cement
 Sulfate-resisting cement
 Blast furnace slag cement
 High-alumina cement
 White cement
 Colored cement
 Air-entraining cement
 Expansive cement
 Hydrographic cement
 Portland-limestone cement (PLC)
Types Of Cement
Usage Of Cement
 Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars
 Concrete Dams
 Residential Buildings
 Commercial Buildings
 Roads or Driveways
 Marine Construction
 Culverts and Sewers
 Foundations
 Fences
 Concrete Bridges
 Aggregates
 Fine Aggregates
 Course aggregates
• Aggregates occupy 60 to 80 percent of the
volume of concrete
• Sand, gravel and crushed stones are the
primary aggregates.
• All aggregates must be essentially free of silt
or organic matter
 Chemical Admixture
Chemical admixtures are normally used to
reduce the limitations of cement hydration, with
examples being: water reducer, superplasticizer,
retarder, accelerator, shrinkage preventer,
segregation reducer, and heat evolution reducer.
It improve the fresh and hardened properties of
mortar or concrete in different applications.
Most Used Concrete Admixture
 Air-Entrainment.
 Set-Retarding Admixture.
 Accelerating.
 Water-Reducing concrete admixtures.
 Superplasticizers Admixtures.
 Shrinkage reducing.
 Corrosion-Inhibiting.
 Silica Fume Admixtures.
 Water
As water is added to cement it creates a paste
that glues all of the aggregates together. The
cement paste then undergoes a chemical
process known as hydration, this chemical
reaction is what allows the concrete to harden
and become strong and solid.
 Good water is important for quality concrete
 Should be good enough to drink
 Free of Trash , Organic matter
 Strength of concrete are highly dependent on
the amount of water and the water cement
tatio
Manufacturing Process of concrete
Manufacturing Process of concrete
Gauging : For good quality concrete a proper and accurate
quantity of all the ingredients should be used. The aggregates,
cement and water should be measured with an accuracy.
There are two prevalent methods of gauging materials. These
are
 Volume Batching
 Weigh Batching
Mixing : Concrete can be mixed by hand, in a fixed mixer, or
transported, depending on the type and quantity required for
a given job. Whatever method is used to mix the concrete
must be homogeneous in color and consistent for the
maximum setting.
There are two types of mixing methods. These are
 Hand Mixing
 Machine Mixing
Based on mixing instruments there are many types of mixing
methods. These are
 Tilting Mixers
 Non-tilting Mixer
 Reversing Drum Mixer
 Pan-type or Stirring Mixer
 Transit Mixer
Manufacturing Process of concrete
Transportation : Concrete is transported using various
techniques, including wheelbarrow and hand hauling,
conveyor belt operations, and more complex projects,
including cranes and pumps. All of these techniques
required some level of manual labor and sophisticated
protective gear.
These are a few techniques for moving concrete:
 Mortar Pan
 Wheel Barrow
 Chutes
 Dumper
 Bucket and Ropeway
 Belt conveyor
 Skip and Hoist
 Pumping.
Compacting and Placing : Concrete must be placed with
the utmost care to ensure homogeneity during mixing and
prevent segregation during transportation. Research
shows that delaying concrete placement increases its
ultimate compressive strength if sufficiently compacted
Manufacturing Process of concrete
Mass Concrete Pouring : When mass-laying concrete,
such as a raft foundation, dam, bridge, or pier, 350-450
mm-thick layers are arranged in rapid succession to create
a lift. Before pouring concrete into the next lift, the surface
of the preceding lift is cleaned using water jets and wire-
bristled scrubbers, and Sandblasting is done in the case of
dams.
Compaction : The process of producing concrete
continues with concrete's compression after it has been
placed in the intended area. Fresh concrete is consolidated
by compaction around embedded components,
reinforcement steel, and moulds or frames. A substantial
amount of air is trapped in concrete during manufacture,
and partial segregation is also conceivable.
The following methods can achieve the compaction of
concrete:
Hand Compaction
Compaction by Vibration
Needle Vibrator
Formwork Vibrator
Compaction by Spinning
Compaction by Jolting
Compaction by Rolling
Manufacturing Process of concrete
Curing: The chemical reaction between cement and water
gives cement strength and hardness. Moisture, an ideal
temperature, and a length of time are known as the curing
period. Curing newly put concrete is crucial. The clinker
combination of C3S and C2S contributes significantly to
the strength during the early phase, which takes around
three weeks to complete
There are some of the methods of curing.
 Water Curing
 Steam Curing
 Curing by Infra Red Radiation:
 Electrical Curing
 Chemical Curing:
Types of concrete
Different types of concrete are:
 Normal Strength Concrete
 Plain or Ordinary Concrete
 Reinforced Concrete
 Pre stressed Concrete
 Precast Concrete
 Light – Weight Concrete
 High-Density Concrete
 Air Entrained Concrete
 Ready Mix Concrete
 Polymer Concrete
 Polymer concrete
 Polymer cement
concrete
 Polymer impregnated
concrete
 High-Strength Concrete
 High-Performance Concrete
 Self - Consolidated Concrete
 Shotcrete Concrete
 Pervious Concrete
 Vacuum Concrete
 Pumped Concrete
 Stamped Concrete
 Lime concrete
 Asphalt Concrete
 Roller Compacted Concrete
 Rapid Strength Concrete
 Glass Concrete
Properties of concrete
Different properties of concrete:
 Grades (M20, M25, M30 etc.)
 Compressive strength
 Characteristic Strength
 Tensile strength
 Durability
 Creep
 Shrinkage
 Unit weight
 Modular Ratio
 Poisson’s ratio
Properties of concrete
 Grades of concrete : Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15,
M20 etc. in which letter M refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the
specified compressive strength (fck) of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in
N/mm2. Thus, concrete is known by its compressive strength.
 Compressive strength : The strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies
considerably for the same concrete mix.
 Characteristic Strength : It is defined as the value of the strength below which not
more then 5% of the test results are expected to fall
 Tensile strength : The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained
experimentally by split cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive
strength.
 Creep in concrete : Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustained
load. Creep strain depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading..
 Shrinkage in concrete : The property of diminishing in volume during the process
of drying and hardening is termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of
exposure.
Properties of concrete
 Modular ratio : Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to
the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
 Poisson’s ratio : Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and
0.2 for weak mixes. It is normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for
serviceability criteria..
 Durability of concrete : Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its
disintegration and decay. One of the chief characteristics influencing durability of
concrete is its permeability to increase of water and other potentially deleterious
materials..
 Unit weight of concrete : The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of
reinforcement, type of aggregate, amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26
kN/m2..
Requirements Of Good Quality Concrete
 Use well graded, hard and durable aggregates.
 Use sufficient quantity of cement to achieve required water tightness
and strength
 Mix the concrete thoroughly for getting better homogeneity.
 Compact the freshly placed concrete to remove air bubbles and voids.
 Cure the concrete properly at least for 28 days.
 Maintain the concrete temperature above the freezing point until it
becomes hard enough
Concrete Mixing Ratio Chart
Tests of concrete
Three common concrete test
 Slump Test.
 Compressive strength test.
 Drying shrinkage test.
Advantages of concrete
 It has a high compressive strength
compared to other building materials.
 Adequate tensile strength
 Fire and weather resistance
 It is more durable than any other
building system.
 Economy to molde any shape
 The maintenance cost is very low.
 concrete is the most economical
construction material.
 Less deflection.
 Use as precast structural components.
 It yields rigid members with minimum
apparent deflection.
 Compared to the use of steel in
structure, reinforced concrete requires
less skilled labor
Disadvantages of concrete
 The tensile strength is about one-tenth of its compressive strength.
 It needs mixing and curing which affect the final strength of concrete
 The cost of the forms used for casting is relatively higher..
 Crack develop in concrete due to shrinkage and application of live loads
Precaution in material selection
 Use durable aggregates.
 Proper and accurate ratio of ingredients should be used.
 ingredients should be used salt free.
 Crack develop in concrete due to shrinkage and application of live loads
Precaution in casting
 The formwork should be properly cleaned, prepared and well watered.
 It is desirable to deposit concrete as near as practicable to its final position
 The large quantities of concrete should not be deposited at a time
 The concrete should be dropped vertically from a reasonable height
 The concrete should be deposited in horizontal layers of about 150 mm height
 the concrete should be placed in single thickness.
 The concrete should be placed on the formwork as soon as possible
 During placing, it should be seen that all edges and corners of concrete surface
remain unbroken, sharp and straight in line
Thank you

More Related Content

Similar to Concrete Presentation

CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES EQUIPMENTS & PRACTICE
CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION  TECHNIQUES  EQUIPMENTS  & PRACTICE CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION  TECHNIQUES  EQUIPMENTS  & PRACTICE
CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES EQUIPMENTS & PRACTICE Anbarasan Muthaiyah
 
Concrete Technology By Asmar
Concrete Technology By Asmar Concrete Technology By Asmar
Concrete Technology By Asmar AsmarudDin
 
Cement industry
Cement industryCement industry
Cement industryalizia54
 
Concrete #1.pptx
Concrete #1.pptxConcrete #1.pptx
Concrete #1.pptxHameed75
 
Other Building Materials.docx
Other Building Materials.docxOther Building Materials.docx
Other Building Materials.docxbasamuel
 
@being_azizkhan
@being_azizkhan@being_azizkhan
@being_azizkhanBeingAziz
 
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptx
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptxAnna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptx
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptxpremkumar s
 
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.ppt
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.pptConcreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.ppt
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.pptlordperez2
 
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction Projects
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction ProjectsThe Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction Projects
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction ProjectsCreatinfo
 
Concrete as Building Material
Concrete as Building MaterialConcrete as Building Material
Concrete as Building Materialsuzain ali
 

Similar to Concrete Presentation (20)

Introduction to concrete
Introduction to concreteIntroduction to concrete
Introduction to concrete
 
CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES EQUIPMENTS & PRACTICE
CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION  TECHNIQUES  EQUIPMENTS  & PRACTICE CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION  TECHNIQUES  EQUIPMENTS  & PRACTICE
CE 6506 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES EQUIPMENTS & PRACTICE
 
Concrete Technology By Asmar
Concrete Technology By Asmar Concrete Technology By Asmar
Concrete Technology By Asmar
 
Cement industry
Cement industryCement industry
Cement industry
 
Concrete Materials.ppt
Concrete Materials.pptConcrete Materials.ppt
Concrete Materials.ppt
 
Concrete #1.pptx
Concrete #1.pptxConcrete #1.pptx
Concrete #1.pptx
 
CONCRETE.pptx
CONCRETE.pptxCONCRETE.pptx
CONCRETE.pptx
 
Other Building Materials.docx
Other Building Materials.docxOther Building Materials.docx
Other Building Materials.docx
 
Building Materials: Concrete
Building Materials: Concrete Building Materials: Concrete
Building Materials: Concrete
 
@being_azizkhan
@being_azizkhan@being_azizkhan
@being_azizkhan
 
PPT CONCRETE.pptx
PPT CONCRETE.pptxPPT CONCRETE.pptx
PPT CONCRETE.pptx
 
CONCRETE1.PPT
CONCRETE1.PPTCONCRETE1.PPT
CONCRETE1.PPT
 
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptx
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptxAnna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptx
Anna University Concrete Technology Unit - 3.pptx
 
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.ppt
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.pptConcreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.ppt
Concreteee-and-Reinforced-Concreteee.ppt
 
PRESENTATION ON CONCRETE
PRESENTATION ON CONCRETEPRESENTATION ON CONCRETE
PRESENTATION ON CONCRETE
 
ConstructionMaterials.ppt
ConstructionMaterials.pptConstructionMaterials.ppt
ConstructionMaterials.ppt
 
Concrete
ConcreteConcrete
Concrete
 
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction Projects
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction ProjectsThe Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction Projects
The Versatility and Importance of Cement in Construction Projects
 
road drainage
road drainageroad drainage
road drainage
 
Concrete as Building Material
Concrete as Building MaterialConcrete as Building Material
Concrete as Building Material
 

Recently uploaded

Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceDr Vijay Vishwakarma
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptx
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptxphysiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptx
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptxAneriPatwari
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptx
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptxphysiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptx
physiotherapy in Acne condition.....pptx
 

Concrete Presentation

  • 2. Submitted To: Hossain Murad Assistant Professor Department Of Architecture Premier University Submitted By: Alisha - Chandrima Nath - Tahmina Habib – 2001811600335 Israt Jahan Isha - 2001811600329
  • 3. Introduction In the present world, concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. This can be due, not alone to the large choice of applications that it offers, however, besides, its behavior, strength, affordability, durability, and flexibility play vital roles. Therefore, constructing-building works have faith in concrete as a secure, strong, and simple object. It is utilized in all sorts of buildings like residential to multi-story workplace blocks and infrastructure like roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is used for the development of foundations, columns, beams, slabs, and different load- bearing components. Concrete Concrete, an artificial stone-like mass, is the composite material that is created by mixing binding material (cement or lime) along with the aggregate (sand, gravel, stone, brick chips, etc.), water, admixtures, etc. in specific proportions. Concrete = Binding Material + Fine & Coarse Aggregate + Water + Admixture Concrete is powerful, easy to create, and can be formed into varied shapes and sizes. Besides that, it is reasonable, low cost, and instantly mixed. It is designed to allow reliable and high-quality fast-track construction.
  • 4. History Of Concrete The oldest concrete discovered was in the floor of a hut in Israel, dated around 7000BC. The concrete used for the floor was made by burning limestone to produce quicklime which was then then mixed with water and stone and left to set. Knowledge of this lime-based material spread through Egypt and Ancient Greece and reached the Romans around 300BC. The very word concrete comes from the Latin ‘concretus’, meaning grown together or compounded. The Romans discovered a volcanic material that had cementing properties, known as Pozzolanic cement. Examples of concrete made with this cement still exist in structures such as the Pantheon and Colosseum in Rome.
  • 5.  Cement  Aggregates  Chemical Admixture  Water Function Of Components Of Concrete  Cement Cement is a dry, greenish grey powder with fine particles. It is made from silica (sand), alumina (aluminium oxide), lime, iron oxide and magnesia (magnesium oxide). It becomes hard when water is added. It is often mixed with sand and small stones to make concrete. History of Cement Cement as we know it was first developed by Joseph Aspdin, an enterprising 19th-century British stonemason, who heated a mix of ground limestone and clay in his kitchen stove, then pulverized the concoction into a fine powder. Components Of Concrete
  • 6. Professionals create cement by mixing raw materials with metals and minerals such as aluminum, iron, calcium and silicon before heating it to high temperatures to form a solid material called clinker. Clinker is then ground into a powder sold as cement to ready-mix concrete companies. Raw materials in cement may include:  Chalk  Clay  Iron ore  Limestone  Shale  Shells  Silica sand  Slag Components Of Cement The result was the world's first hydraulic cement: one that hardens when water is added. Aspdin dubbed his creation Portland cement due to its similarity to a stone quarried on the Isle of Portland, off the British coast. In 1824, this brilliant craftsman obtained a patent for what would prove to be the world's most ubiquitous building material, laying the foundation for today's global Portland cement industry.
  • 7. Some physical features they may inspect may include:  Air content  Compressive strength  Early age strength development  Increased heat of hydration  Lower heat of hydration  Particle size  Setting time Physical Features Of Cement Manufacture Of Cement
  • 8. Manufacture Of Cement There are two common methods for creating cement  Dry method  Wet method.
  • 9.  Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)  Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)  Rapid-hardening cement  Extra-rapid-hardening cement  Quick-setting cement  Low-heat cement  Sulfate-resisting cement  Blast furnace slag cement  High-alumina cement  White cement  Colored cement  Air-entraining cement  Expansive cement  Hydrographic cement  Portland-limestone cement (PLC) Types Of Cement
  • 10. Usage Of Cement  Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars  Concrete Dams  Residential Buildings  Commercial Buildings  Roads or Driveways  Marine Construction  Culverts and Sewers  Foundations  Fences  Concrete Bridges
  • 11.  Aggregates  Fine Aggregates  Course aggregates • Aggregates occupy 60 to 80 percent of the volume of concrete • Sand, gravel and crushed stones are the primary aggregates. • All aggregates must be essentially free of silt or organic matter
  • 12.  Chemical Admixture Chemical admixtures are normally used to reduce the limitations of cement hydration, with examples being: water reducer, superplasticizer, retarder, accelerator, shrinkage preventer, segregation reducer, and heat evolution reducer. It improve the fresh and hardened properties of mortar or concrete in different applications. Most Used Concrete Admixture  Air-Entrainment.  Set-Retarding Admixture.  Accelerating.  Water-Reducing concrete admixtures.  Superplasticizers Admixtures.  Shrinkage reducing.  Corrosion-Inhibiting.  Silica Fume Admixtures.
  • 13.  Water As water is added to cement it creates a paste that glues all of the aggregates together. The cement paste then undergoes a chemical process known as hydration, this chemical reaction is what allows the concrete to harden and become strong and solid.  Good water is important for quality concrete  Should be good enough to drink  Free of Trash , Organic matter  Strength of concrete are highly dependent on the amount of water and the water cement tatio
  • 15. Manufacturing Process of concrete Gauging : For good quality concrete a proper and accurate quantity of all the ingredients should be used. The aggregates, cement and water should be measured with an accuracy. There are two prevalent methods of gauging materials. These are  Volume Batching  Weigh Batching Mixing : Concrete can be mixed by hand, in a fixed mixer, or transported, depending on the type and quantity required for a given job. Whatever method is used to mix the concrete must be homogeneous in color and consistent for the maximum setting. There are two types of mixing methods. These are  Hand Mixing  Machine Mixing Based on mixing instruments there are many types of mixing methods. These are  Tilting Mixers  Non-tilting Mixer  Reversing Drum Mixer  Pan-type or Stirring Mixer  Transit Mixer
  • 16. Manufacturing Process of concrete Transportation : Concrete is transported using various techniques, including wheelbarrow and hand hauling, conveyor belt operations, and more complex projects, including cranes and pumps. All of these techniques required some level of manual labor and sophisticated protective gear. These are a few techniques for moving concrete:  Mortar Pan  Wheel Barrow  Chutes  Dumper  Bucket and Ropeway  Belt conveyor  Skip and Hoist  Pumping. Compacting and Placing : Concrete must be placed with the utmost care to ensure homogeneity during mixing and prevent segregation during transportation. Research shows that delaying concrete placement increases its ultimate compressive strength if sufficiently compacted
  • 17. Manufacturing Process of concrete Mass Concrete Pouring : When mass-laying concrete, such as a raft foundation, dam, bridge, or pier, 350-450 mm-thick layers are arranged in rapid succession to create a lift. Before pouring concrete into the next lift, the surface of the preceding lift is cleaned using water jets and wire- bristled scrubbers, and Sandblasting is done in the case of dams. Compaction : The process of producing concrete continues with concrete's compression after it has been placed in the intended area. Fresh concrete is consolidated by compaction around embedded components, reinforcement steel, and moulds or frames. A substantial amount of air is trapped in concrete during manufacture, and partial segregation is also conceivable. The following methods can achieve the compaction of concrete: Hand Compaction Compaction by Vibration Needle Vibrator Formwork Vibrator Compaction by Spinning Compaction by Jolting Compaction by Rolling
  • 18. Manufacturing Process of concrete Curing: The chemical reaction between cement and water gives cement strength and hardness. Moisture, an ideal temperature, and a length of time are known as the curing period. Curing newly put concrete is crucial. The clinker combination of C3S and C2S contributes significantly to the strength during the early phase, which takes around three weeks to complete There are some of the methods of curing.  Water Curing  Steam Curing  Curing by Infra Red Radiation:  Electrical Curing  Chemical Curing:
  • 19. Types of concrete Different types of concrete are:  Normal Strength Concrete  Plain or Ordinary Concrete  Reinforced Concrete  Pre stressed Concrete  Precast Concrete  Light – Weight Concrete  High-Density Concrete  Air Entrained Concrete  Ready Mix Concrete  Polymer Concrete  Polymer concrete  Polymer cement concrete  Polymer impregnated concrete  High-Strength Concrete  High-Performance Concrete  Self - Consolidated Concrete  Shotcrete Concrete  Pervious Concrete  Vacuum Concrete  Pumped Concrete  Stamped Concrete  Lime concrete  Asphalt Concrete  Roller Compacted Concrete  Rapid Strength Concrete  Glass Concrete
  • 20. Properties of concrete Different properties of concrete:  Grades (M20, M25, M30 etc.)  Compressive strength  Characteristic Strength  Tensile strength  Durability  Creep  Shrinkage  Unit weight  Modular Ratio  Poisson’s ratio
  • 21. Properties of concrete  Grades of concrete : Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15, M20 etc. in which letter M refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the specified compressive strength (fck) of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2. Thus, concrete is known by its compressive strength.  Compressive strength : The strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies considerably for the same concrete mix.  Characteristic Strength : It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more then 5% of the test results are expected to fall  Tensile strength : The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained experimentally by split cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength.  Creep in concrete : Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustained load. Creep strain depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading..  Shrinkage in concrete : The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying and hardening is termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure.
  • 22. Properties of concrete  Modular ratio : Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of elasticity of concrete.  Poisson’s ratio : Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak mixes. It is normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability criteria..  Durability of concrete : Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of the chief characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to increase of water and other potentially deleterious materials..  Unit weight of concrete : The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of aggregate, amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26 kN/m2..
  • 23. Requirements Of Good Quality Concrete  Use well graded, hard and durable aggregates.  Use sufficient quantity of cement to achieve required water tightness and strength  Mix the concrete thoroughly for getting better homogeneity.  Compact the freshly placed concrete to remove air bubbles and voids.  Cure the concrete properly at least for 28 days.  Maintain the concrete temperature above the freezing point until it becomes hard enough Concrete Mixing Ratio Chart
  • 24. Tests of concrete Three common concrete test  Slump Test.  Compressive strength test.  Drying shrinkage test. Advantages of concrete  It has a high compressive strength compared to other building materials.  Adequate tensile strength  Fire and weather resistance  It is more durable than any other building system.  Economy to molde any shape  The maintenance cost is very low.  concrete is the most economical construction material.  Less deflection.  Use as precast structural components.  It yields rigid members with minimum apparent deflection.  Compared to the use of steel in structure, reinforced concrete requires less skilled labor
  • 25. Disadvantages of concrete  The tensile strength is about one-tenth of its compressive strength.  It needs mixing and curing which affect the final strength of concrete  The cost of the forms used for casting is relatively higher..  Crack develop in concrete due to shrinkage and application of live loads
  • 26. Precaution in material selection  Use durable aggregates.  Proper and accurate ratio of ingredients should be used.  ingredients should be used salt free.  Crack develop in concrete due to shrinkage and application of live loads Precaution in casting  The formwork should be properly cleaned, prepared and well watered.  It is desirable to deposit concrete as near as practicable to its final position  The large quantities of concrete should not be deposited at a time  The concrete should be dropped vertically from a reasonable height  The concrete should be deposited in horizontal layers of about 150 mm height  the concrete should be placed in single thickness.  The concrete should be placed on the formwork as soon as possible  During placing, it should be seen that all edges and corners of concrete surface remain unbroken, sharp and straight in line