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Sachin gupta summer training in pwd

road construction summer training in pwd.

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Sachin gupta summer training in pwd

  1. 1. CONSTRUCTION DIVISION NO-1, PWD LUCKNOW (U.P) A Vocational Training Report Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Submitted By Sachin Gupta (0127CE111044) Submitted to the Department Of Civil Engineering BANSAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MANDIDEEP, BHOPAL BATCH 2011-15
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Sachin Gupta (0127CE111044), student of B.E. Final year 7th semester (Civil engineering) has completed the Vocational Training entitled “CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD” from CONSTRUCTION DIVISION NO-1, PWD LUCKNOW (U.P) during the academic session 2014-15 under my guidance & supervision. I approve the summer training report for submission as required for partial fulfillment for completion of engineering degree in Civil Engineering. OM PRAKASH GUPTA Assistant Engineer (IV) Construction Division No.1, P.W.D. Lucknow (U.P.)
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my satisfaction on the completion of this summer training program and project report submission as a part of the curriculum for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering, Civil Engineering. I express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor and mentor Mr. O. P. Gupta for his kind guidance during the entire period of training. His consistent support and advices has helped me to complete this research project successfully. Also I thank all the members of CONSTRUCTION DIVISION NO-1, PWD, Lucknow (U.P.) Department for their kind support. They have always been a source of inspiration to me. DATE: 15/07/2014 SACHIN GUPTA
  4. 4. Content 1. PWD Introduction 2. About Cement road 4. Material 5. Tests 6. Cement road construction 6.1 Preparation of subgrade 6.2 Preparation of base 6.3 Form work 6.4 Watering of base 6.5 Joints 6.6 Material mix & placing
  5. 5. 6.7 Compaction 6.8 Finishing of surface 6.9 Curing 6.10 Filling joint 6.11 Edging 6.12 open to traffic 7 Reference
  6. 6. Introduction Point of view geographic and population of the state is the nation's largest state. State Industrial, economic and social development of the state and the population of each village is absolutely necessary to re-connect to the main roads. In addition to state important national roads, state roads and district roads and their proper broad be made to improve the quality of traffic point of view is of particular importance. Public Works Department to build roads and improve connectivity in rural zones, Other District Road and State broad and improvement of rural roads and main routes narrow construction of zones and depleted bridges brides reconstruction of the bases are transacted on a priority basis . Also under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana and pre-fabricated construction of rural roads linking the work of other district roads broad Suddikrn the scale bases are edited. Successful operation of various schemes for the Public Works Department engineers and supervisory boards in different districts of the engineer’s office has been settled. Activities by planning, execution, and quality control etc. remove impediments find joy in relation to the supervision over the activities are focused. Various schemes operated by the Department of the Office of the Regional Chief Engineers and Chief Engineers office.
  7. 7. About Road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, which has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart, or motor vehicle. Roads consist of one, or sometimes two, roadways (carriageways) each with one or more lanes and also any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) and road verges. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as public roads or highways. MATERIAL Concrete is widely used in domestic, commercial, recreational, rural and educational construction. Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong and simple building material. It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office blocks and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of concrete, few people are aware of the considerations involved in designing strong, durable, high quality concrete. There are mainly three types- 1-Cement 2-Sand 3-Aggregate
  8. 8. 1. Cement A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cement, and cement. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration, a chemical reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water. Thus, they can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water. Non-hydraulic cements do not harden underwater; for example, slaked limes harden by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material. Types of Cement:- 1 Portland cement Portland cement is by far the most common type of cement in general use around the world. This cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln, in a process known as calcination, whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, or quicklime, which is then blended with the other materials that have been included in the mix. The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement', the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as OPC). Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can
  9. 9. become a structural (load bearing) element. Portland cement may be grey or white. 2 Portland fly ash cement Its contains up to 35% fly ash. The fly ash is pozzolanic, so that ultimate strength is maintained. Because fly ash addition allows a lower concrete water content, early strength can also be maintained. Where good quality cheap fly ash is available, this can be an economic alternative to ordinary Portland cement. 3 Portland pozzolana cement Its includes fly ash cement, since fly ash is a pozzolana , but also includes cements made from other natural or artificial pozzolans. In countries where volcanic ashes are available. 4 Portland silica fume cement Addition of silica fume can yield exceptionally high strengths, and cements containing 5–20% silica fume are occasionally produced. However, silica fume is more usually added to Portland cement at the concrete mixer.
  10. 10. 2. Sand Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. It is, for example, the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.  Composition of Sand In terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between gravel (with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm) and silt (particles smaller than 0.0625 mm down to 0.004 mm). The size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Alter berg standard in use during the early 20th century. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm.
  11. 11. 3. Aggregate Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone that, along with water and Portland cement, are an essential ingredient in concrete. For a good concrete mix, aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete. Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories-fine and coarse. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch (9.5-mm) sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch (4.75 mm), but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches (9.5 mm to 37.5 mm) in diameter. Gravels constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most of the remainder. Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit, river, lake, or seabed. Crushed aggregate is produced by crushing quarry rock, boulders, cobbles, or large-size gravel. Recycled concrete is a viable source of aggregate and has been satisfactorily used in granular subbases, soil-cement, and in new concrete. Aggregate processing consists of crushing, screening, and washing the aggregate to obtain proper cleanliness and gradation. If necessary, a benefaction process such as jigging or heavy media separation can be used to upgrade the quality. Once processed, the aggregates are handled and stored in a way that minimizes segregation and degradation and prevents contamination. Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy. Consequently, selection of aggregates is an important process. Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected.
  12. 12. Characteristics that are considered when selecting aggregate include:  grading  durability  particle shape and surface texture  abrasion and skid resistance  unit weights and voids  absorption and surface moisture Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate. Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements, workability  Shape and size Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of freshly mixed concrete more than the properties of hardened concrete. Rough-textured, angular, and elongated particles require more water to produce workable concrete than smooth, rounded compact aggregate. Consequently, the cement content must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio. Generally, flat and elongated particles are avoided or are limited to about 15 percent by weight of the total aggregate. Unit-weight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the voids between them will occupy in concrete. The void content between particles affects the amount of cement paste required for the mix. Angular aggregate increase the void content. Larger sizes of well-graded aggregate and improved grading decrease the void content. Absorption and surface moisture of aggregate are measured when selecting aggregate because the internal structure of aggregate is made up of solid material and voids that may or may not contain water. The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted to include the moisture conditions of the aggregate. Abrasion and skid resistance of an aggregate are essential when the aggregate is to be used in concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in heavy-duty floors or pavements. Different minerals in the aggregate wear and polish at different rates. Harder aggregate can be selected in highly abrasive conditions to minimize wear.
  13. 13.  Tests 1-The Slump Test. 2-Compression Test 3-Impact Test 4-Cube Test  THE SLUMP TEST The slump test is done to make sure a concrete mix is workable. Workability measures how easy the concrete is to place and handle . TOOLS REQUIRED:  Standard slump cone (100 mm top diameter x 200 mm bottom diameter x 300 mm high)  Small scoop Bullet-nosed rod (600mm long x 16 mm diameter  Slump plate (500 mm x 500 mm)
  14. 14. Method 1 Clean the cone. Dampen with water and place on the slump plate. The slump plate should be clean, firm, level and non-absorbent. 2 Collect a sample. 3 Stand firmly on the footpieces and fill /3 the volume of the cone with the sample. Compact the concrete by 'rodding' 25 times. Rodding: Rodding means to push a steel rod in and out of the concrete to compact it into the cylinder, or slump cone. Always rod in a definite pattern, working from outside into the middle. 4 Now fill to 2 / 3 and again rod 25 times, just into the top of the first layer. 5 Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time just into the top of the second layer. Top up the cone till it overflows. 6 Level off the surface with the steel rod using a rolling action. Clean any concrete from around the base and top of the cone, push down on the handles and step off the footpieces. 7 Carefully lift the cone straight up making sure not to move the sample. 8 Tu rn the cone upside down and place the rod across the up-turned cone.
  15. 15.  THE COMPRESSION TEST The compression test shows the compressive strength of hardened concrete. The testing is done in a laboratory off-site. The only work done on-site is to make a concrete cylinder for the compression test. The strength is measured in Megapascals (MPa) and is commonly specified as a characteristic strength of concrete measured at 28 days after mixing. The compressive strength is a measure of the concrete’s ability to resist loads which tend to crush it. Tools  Cylinders (100 mm diameter x 200 mm high or 150 mm diameter x 300 mm high) ( The small cylinders are normally used for most testing due to their lighter weight )  Small scoop Bullet-nosed rod (600 mm x 16 mm)  Steel float  Steel plate Method 1 Clean the cylinder mould and coat the inside lightly with form oil, then place on a clean, level and firm surface, ie the steel plate. 2 Collect a sample.
  16. 16. 3 Fill 1/2 the volume of the mould with concrete then compact by rodding 25 times. Cylinders may also be compacted by vibrating using a vibrating table. 4 Fill the cone to overflowing and rod 25 times into the top of the first layer, then top up the mould till overflowing. 5 Level off the top with the steel float and clean any concrete from around the mould. 6 Cap, clearly tag the cylinder and put it in a cool dry place to set for at least 24 hours. 7 After the mould is removed the cylinder is sent to the laboratory where it is cured and crushed to test compressive strength.
  17. 17.  Impact Testing An impact test is a dynamic test conducted on a selected specimen which is usually notched. The specimen is struck and broken by a single blow in a specially designed machine. This demo illustrates the experiment setup, procedure and the energy absorbed in an impact test.
  18. 18.  Cube Test Test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost important which gives an idea about all the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether Concreting has been done properly or not. For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x 10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used. This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24 hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top surface of these specimen should be made even and smooth. This is done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen. These specimens are tested by compression testing machine after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen gives the compressive strength of concrete.  APPARATUS Compression testing machine.  PREPARATION OF CUBE SPECIMENS The proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same concrete used in the field. SPECIMEN 6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above.
  19. 19.  MIXING Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer. HAND MIXING (i)Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture is thoroughly blended and is of uniform color (ii)Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate is uniformly distributed throughout the batch (iii)Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired consistency.  PRECAUTIONS The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at 27+-2oC.  PROCEDURE (I) Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water from the surface. (II) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m (III) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine (IV) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the opposite sides of the cube cast. (V) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine. (VI) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the specimen. (VII) Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute till the specimen fails (VIII) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.
  20. 20. Using mix Concrete , there some Point to construct the road: 1. Preparation of base 2. Form working 3. Preparation of subgrade 4. Watering of base 5. Joints 6. Material mix & placing 7. Compaction 8. Finishing of surface 8A. Floating 8B. Belting 8C. Brooming 9. Curing 10. Joint filling 11. Edging 12. Open to traffic
  21. 21. 1. Preparation of subgrade 1. Rolling on sub grade by roller 2. Filling the granular soil in the weak part and pot holes 3. Correct the soil coat , Camber , longitudinal slop When concrete direct laid on subgrade, For preventing the water-seepaging into the soil , used water proof paper on entire length. 1. Rolling on sub grade by roller 2. Filling the granular soil in the weak part and pot holes 3. Correct the soil coat , Camber , longitudinal slop When concrete direct laid on subgrade, For preventing the water-seepaging into the soil , used water proof paper on entire length.
  22. 22. 2. Preparation of base Choose any one type of base 1. W.B.M. base As base material of W.B.M. Road; stone ballast, concrete 10-15cm layer are used. For bonding between concrete slab & W.B.M. used 1:2 cement wash on W.B.M. 2. Concrete base On the road used 10cm Cement concrete(1:2:4) or lime concrete(16:32:64) 3. Granular medium material layer 10-15cm composite layer of sand , moorum , bajri are used for better drainage facilities 4. Stabilization soil
  23. 23. 3. Form work Material for form work- Wooden sheets, battens, plywood, fibre hard board, steel plates, angles, rope, minerals. 1. before using form work, it should free from all type material like as dust ,cement. 2. To placing the concrete in appropriate depth used 2.5-5cm thick and 3mtr long wooden sheeting. 3. The depth of wooden block must be same as level of slab thick. 4. After 24hrs form work displaced next length of road. 4. Watering of base If base is dry then using the sprinkling process on it properly after that placing the concrete. 5. Joints Where is necessary to provide transverse, Longitudinal joints; there wedge of woods, metals fix on level of concrete. After setting of concrete it should be pull out. If provided the dowel bar in joints, bars should be fit at right position.
  24. 24. 6.Material mix & placing Mixer is equipment that mix the concrete using distinct amount of cement , concrete, sand and water. Concrete slab should have more than 5-10cm thick cause of drying. Used two type mixer- 1. Batch mixer-at site, used for small road construction 2. Continuous mixer- Continuous mixer used for large construction . if distance is more from site , mix concrete transported at site within setting time. Two methods generally used in placing of concrete- 1. Alternate bay method- Placed the concrete on both side of road alternatively like as1,3,5… part at one side and 2,4,6… part other side . 1st side 2nd side This method have slow process due to road traffic problems. 2. Continuous bay method-construct one side of road regularly, if completed some part of first side than construct other side. This method have fast process without no obstruction of traffic
  25. 25. 7. Compaction Purpose of compaction is that to pull out air from void and make concrete harden. Compaction done by- 1. mechanically surface vibrator 2. manually hand tempers 8. Finishing of surface 1.Floating- For levelling the surface use floating, scree-ding , power trowel. So that there is no acceptable more than 3mm variation in concrete level surface. 2.Belting- For making surface clean used belting process. Belt is nothing but a 15-30cm thick sheets of canvass which have more length than road. 3. Brooming- Brooming is the process in which we made rough surface parallel to road by brush. It is useful in avoiding slip & comfortable travelling on road . The depth of line on road no more than 1.5mm.
  26. 26. 9.Curing Curing is the name of increasing the hydration process of cement. after setting the concrete , curing process done till 14-28days. Some methods of curing are- 1.Shading concrete works 2. Covering with hessian & gunny bags 3. Sprinkling of water 4.By ponding 5. Membrane curing 6. Steam curing
  27. 27. 10. Filling joint After drying road, clean the joints and fill the shelling compound or hot bitumen . 11. Edging To protect damaging the sides of concrete pavements used over burnt brick work. In place of bricks, provide kerb of pre mix concrete. to traffic Generally after a month, road should be open to traffic. If used rapid hardening cement it take 7 days to open traffic.
  28. 28. Reference Websites;       Books;