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Διαχείριση καινοτομίας και μάρκετινγκ στις βιβλιοθήκες [Innovation Management and Marketing in Libraries]

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Η Dr. Ursula Georgy στη διάρκεια της ομιλίας της θα αναπτύξει τις δυνατότητες, απαιτήσεις και στρατηγικές διαχείρισης της καινοτομίας και του μάρκετινγκ στις βιβλιοθήκες

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Διαχείριση καινοτομίας και μάρκετινγκ στις βιβλιοθήκες [Innovation Management and Marketing in Libraries]

  1. 1.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Systematic Innovation Management as a Marketing Strategy for Libraries Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Cologne University of Applied Sciences Athen / Thessaloniki 2014
  2. 2.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Content  Innovation Management an Service Innovation  Trend Reports: Gartner (Hype Cycle) and Horizon Report  Open Innovation  Open Innovation and Knowledge (Management)  Open Innovation Survey (2010)  Outlook
  3. 3.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Innovation Management and Service Innovation
  4. 4.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Introduction Service innovation has become a necessary choice and management technique in service industries. Services now are making up about 70% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in OECD countries. Libraries are part of the service industry and have to implement new technologies and services to improve satisfaction to their users and customers. Therefore libraries have to build up and to implement a new kind of innovative culture – original, not copied. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  5. 5.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Customer Satisfaction and Innovation Management The product and service sector has to be aimed at the customer needs so that each customer as an individual is satisfied while however the entrepreneurial goals are accomplished simultaneously. In the context of service innovation this means that new services must custom-fitly be tailored to the customer. Till now good ideas of one's own, however, are too often realized without analyzing, if the customer needs these services or if the market is ripe to this. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  6. 6.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Customer Satisfaction and Innovation Management  Customer desires ideally are taken into account in a way as extensive as possible.  Putting customer desires into action (service) may seem trivial; but: the customer can formulate wishes and problems but normally not solutions.  The challenge for libraries lies in the conversion of customers` desires into corresponding customer requirements and fitting services. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  7. 7.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Innovation Process Innovation management must be a systematic process as an executive function to collect, review, evaluate, and manage ideas and to bring them as user-friendly products or services to market. In the area of libraries systematic innovation is less developed and one gains the impression that libraries don´t take strategic action and that innovations are the result by chance. Attempts of innovative thinking will be often killed or nipped in the bud. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  8. 8.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Innovation Process © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Komninos, 2005
  9. 9.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Types of Innovations © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  10. 10.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Types of Service Innovation The four dimensions of service innovation:  „product“ – the service offering  „process“ – how that offering is created and delivered  „position“ – the target market segments, the underlying positioning via brand etc.  „paradigm“ – the underlying mental models about what kind of business „we“ are and the rules of the game: business model innovation Bessant et al. 2014, S. 5 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  11. 11.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Bessant et al. 2014, S. 6 The Innovation Space
  12. 12.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Service Innovation Framework http://www.apo-tokyo.org/productivity/pmtt_022.jpg © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  13. 13.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Service Innovation Triangle http://www.bi.edu/PageFiles/214077/Service%20Innovation%20Triangle%20Booklet.pdf?epslanguage=en © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  14. 14.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Diffusion of Innovations to Market (Model) © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Rogers 1983: Diffusion of Innovations
  15. 15.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Diffusion of Innovations to the Market (Model) Diffusion of Innovations and Market Share http://matthewsonmarketing.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/chap-1-fig-2-everett-rogers- diffusion-innovation-model1.png © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  16. 16.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Trend Reports: Gartner (Hype Cycle) Horizon Report
  17. 17.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Gartner Hype Cycle „Hype Cycles help organizations understand the landscape of technology maturity and markets, and to decide which technology innovations to adopt, postpone or ignore, and when is the time to adopt.“ For libraries it seems to be conceivable first to identify where a particular librarian-relevant technology lives along the curve and then to map out where libraries and librarians live and where they tend to live in that life cycle. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  18. 18.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Phases of Gartner Hype Cycle © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Fenn 2010)
  19. 19.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Gartner Hype Cycle http://www.virtualtravelog.net/wp/wp-content/gallery/2011-04-hype-cycles/dynamic/Gartner-Hype-Cycle- Phases-nggid03294-ngg0dyn-600x0x100-00f0w010c010r110f110r010t010.png © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  20. 20.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Gartner Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies 2012 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Gartner, 2012
  21. 21.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Gartner Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies 2013 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Gartner, 2013
  22. 22.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Gartner Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies 2014 2013 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Gartner, 2014
  23. 23.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Horizon Report 2014 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy The New Media Consortium, 2014
  24. 24.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Horizon Report 2014 – Headlines (Extract) © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy The New Media Consortium, 2014
  25. 25.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation
  26. 26.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Need and Solution Information Customer oriented innovation requires:  Need information Information about market and customer wishes / needs.  found out by customer or non-customer interviews.  Solution information Information how customer needs can be implemented efficiently and precise.  seldom found out by questionnaires. What have libraries to do? © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  27. 27.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Definition of Closed Innovation http://www.nansenneuro.net/images/stories/articles/closed_innovation_en.jpg © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  28. 28.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Technology Push versus Market Pull http://www.b4development.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/aiPULLvsPush-e1295867991208.jpg © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  29. 29.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Definition Open Innovation by Chesbrough „Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology. Open Innovation combines internal and external ideas into architectures and systems whose requirements are defined by a business model.“ http://images.businessweek.com/ss/09/03/0312_game_changing_timeline/image/11_2000.jpg © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  30. 30.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Extension of the Definition 2006 by Chesbrough „Open innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively.“ © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  31. 31.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Definition of Open Innovation by Chesbrough http://www.hokkaido-vc.com/english/open_innovation/open_innovation_en.JPG © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  32. 32.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation One estimates that depending on line of business 10 to 40 % of all customers are ready to participate active in innovation processes. In the result, however, this means that numerous lines of business not nearly exploit this potential. Libraries normally don´t see open innovation as a strategic instrument Very different roles are conceivable, a customer can be involved in the process of innovation. His independence rises continuously from the interview up to the independent innovation. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  33. 33.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Closed Innovation versus Open Innovation © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Chesbrough, H. 2003
  34. 34.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation Projects https://nbry.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/3d-printing-what-ideas-airwolf3d-com.jpg © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  35. 35.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Well-known Open Innovation Projects: Toolkit Jewellery Design Competition of Enlightened Swarovski Elements © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  36. 36.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Well-known Open Innovation Projects: Lego Digital Designer © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  37. 37.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Well-known Open Innovation Projects: Procter & Gamble: connect + develop © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  38. 38.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation and Knowledge (Management)
  39. 39.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences External Knowledge Inflow by Open Innovation “Open innovation is about knowledge exchange. Everything else is secondary.” © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Hansford 2011 ©iStockphoto.com/alwyncooper
  40. 40.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Strategic Knowledge Framework © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Zack 1999
  41. 41.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Strategic Gap – Knowledge Gap © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Zack 1999
  42. 42.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open innovation: the KM dimension of P&G „For a company famed for its ability to continuously offer products that match customers’ most current needs, Procter & Gamble takes pride in the success of its innovation processes. Mike Addison describes the essential role knowledge management plays in P&G’s Open Innovation strategy that looks internally and externally for new ideas and opportunities.“ Inside Knowledge: posted 10 Jun 2004 in Volume 7 Issue 9 The percentage of new P&G products that include elements developed outside of the firm has increased to over 35%. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  43. 43.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Innovation / Knowledge and Human Resource Capacity „You need a great team of people with diverse skills to perform a symphony well, but no team has ever written a great symphony! While cross-functional teams are key players in defining and implementing incremental innovation projects, cross-functional disruptive individuals tend to be key players in defining radical innovation projects”. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Leifer et al. 2000
  44. 44.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Human Resource Capacity and Libraries  Libraries have a large number of customers and partners from all sectors and branches.  They have the potential to become and to be a vital space to engage in collaborative innovative projects creating and sharing (new) knowledge.  Therefore especially customers of libraries can be potential knowledge and innovation creaters. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  45. 45.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Professional Behaviours finding Innovative Structures © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy AUA, 2009
  46. 46.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Impact of an organization's ability to innovate © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Schnell, 2008
  47. 47.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences The Continuous Innovation Process © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Tomorrowlab, 2009
  48. 48.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Crowdsourcing http://memeburn.com/2011/09/9-examples-of-crowdsourcing-before-%E2%80%98crowdsourcing%E2%80%99-existed/ © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  49. 49.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Crowdsourcing: Starbucks © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  50. 50.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Crowdsourcing: Starbucks © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  51. 51.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation and Libraries “Thousands of libraries in Germany are run by just one librarian. [...] Here we have a single person doing all the work that is normally shared between several people in larger libraries. A one-person librarian thus requires a very wide range of skills in order to be able to do the job successfully.“ These aspects are not only typical for one-person libraries, they are typical for many mid-sized (public) libraries. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  52. 52.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation and Libraries Technological innovations are introduced to the library with the intention of providing better library services and increasing efficiency of library work. „The library profession attracts individuals of varying ages, varying degrees of experience, and a range of technological capabilities, all of which influence the way they perceive new information and communication technologies. It is the role of librarians to introduce new technologies to library users.“ © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Rubin 2004 Rabina, Walczyk 2007
  53. 53.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Advantages Sharing Knowledge in the Sense of Open Innovation  Using the experience and knowledge of customers  Increase market acceptance of new products / services  Improving the image  More personalized services  Early awareness of new (market) trends  Increased consumption of the entire range of services  Increased customer loyalty  Reduction of development costs  Reduction of acquisition costs © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  54. 54.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Potential Risks  High coordination effort by the library  Ignorance (knowledge) of the external innovators  Innovations of the external innovators based on their own benefit only  Lack of involvement of the external innovators (quantitative)  Lack of engagement of the external innovators  Lack of project and time management of the external innovators  Lost of know-how, for example to competitors.
  55. 55.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Conclusion  Modern innovation and knowledge management requires integrated structures in the sense of open innovation.  Social community network structures can promote innovation and knowledge management in the sense of open innovation.  Only by cooperation and integrating external partners it will be able to develop customized innovations for the customer in future. Otherwise libraries will run the risk developing innovations not wanted and not used by their customers.
  56. 56.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Open Innovation Survey (2010)
  57. 57.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Survey and Results  More than 30 institutions were interviewed in Germany. Libraries and information centers of various size: state libraries, academic libraries, public libraries, special libraries and documentation departments in public ownership.  The survey was addressed to the head of the institutions and in almost all cases it was directly answered by these persons.  Qualitative expert interviews (ca. 45 min.) on the basis of a highly structured questionnaire. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Georgy, 2010
  58. 58.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Do you know the term Open Innovation? Yes 6 No clear idea 3 Only vague idea 10 No 17 Although the term open innovation is not well known, almost all institutions integrate their customers to varying degrees into the innovation processes and are willing to intensify the integration. © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  59. 59.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Associations with the term „Open Innovation“ © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  60. 60.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences What motives have customers to play a part in innovation? (Multiple answers possible) Own dissatisfaction with the current range of services 20 Intrinsic (e.g. enjoyment, pride) 18 Social (e.g. membership in a group) 13 Obtaining personal benefits through implementation and use of innovation 11 Extrinsic (e.g. money) 2 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  61. 61.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Word Cloud: What kind of customer integration in the various stages of the innovation process would you prefer? © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  62. 62.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Do chances or risks rather arise from open innovation in your opinion? Only chances 14 Only risks 1 Both 19 I do not know 2 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  63. 63.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Risks that may result from open innovation (Multiple answers possible) High coordination effort by the own organization 19 Ignorance (knowledge) of the external innovators 13 Innovations of the external innovators based on their own benefit only 11 Lack of involvement of the external innovators (quantitative) 7 Lack of engagement of the external innovators 6 Lack of project and time management of the external innovators 2 Loss of know-how, for example to competitors 2 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  64. 64.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Opportunities that may result from open innovation (Multiple answers possible) Using the experience and knowledge of customers 22 Increase market acceptance of new products / services 18 Improving the own image 15 More personalized services 12 Early awareness of new (market) trends 11 Increased consumption of the entire range of services 10 Increased customer loyalty 8 Reduction of one's own staff needed 0 Reduction of development costs 0 Reduction of acquisition costs 0 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  65. 65.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences If you would use open innovation, which groups would be involved? (Multiple answers possible) Even selected "lead users" (demanding, critical, advanced customers) 28 Customers with expertise 17 In addition, even non-customers, but with knowledge in library and / or information science 11 Winner of an idea competition initiated by one´s own 6 Members of other innovation communities, even without knowledge of the industry 5 No limit 3 Own customers without restriction 2 © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  66. 66.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Outlook
  67. 67.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Outlook  Next to once, it is particularly necessary to do everything for a systematic innovation management.  In the consequence changes of the organization principles possibly require also courageous individual decisions by e.g. unconventional structures.  Increasing competition intensity and a high dynamics of library services force service providers to develop solutions and services for the customer to build up a positive image to the customer.
  68. 68.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Outlook  Modern innovation management requires integrated structures in the sense of open innovation.  Social community network structures can promote innovation management in the sense of open innovation.  Only by cooperation and integrating external partners it will be able to develop innovations for the customer in future. Otherwise libraries will run the risk developing innovations not wanted and used by the customers.
  69. 69.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences There´s a lot to be said about Open Innovation: „Innovation happens elsewhere“ and „Everyone together is smarter than your group alone.“ Bill Joy, Sun Microsystems © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy
  70. 70.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences Ursula Georgy ursula.georgy(at)fh-koeln.de Thank you for your attention!
  71. 71.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Citations AUA (2009): Continuous Professional Development Framework for Staff Working in Professional Services in Higher Education Bessant, J.; Lehmann, C.; Moeslein, K.M. (2014). Driving Service Productivity. Heidelberg. Springer Chesbrough, H.W. (2003): Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Chesbrough , H.W. (2006). Open Innovation: A New Paradigm for Understanding Industrial Innovation. In: Chesbrough et al.: Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fenn, J. (2010): Hype Cycle 2010: Tips to Optimize Your Technology Portfolio (21. September 2010) Gartner Inc. (2014): Gartner's 2014 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918 (08.11.2014) Gartner Inc. (2013): Gartner's 2013 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2575515 (08.11.2014) Gartner Inc. (2012): Gartner's 2012 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2124315 (08.11.2014)
  72. 72.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Citations (cont.) Gartner Inc. (2012). Why Gartner http://www.gartner.com/technology/why_gartner.jsp (08.11.2014) Georgy, U. (2010): Erfolg durch Innovation – Strategisches Innovationsmanagement in Bibliotheken und öffentlichen Informationseinrichtungen. B.I.T.online – Innovativ, Band 29, Dinges & Frick Wiesbaden Hansford, M. (2011). The right knowledge management strategy is essential to open innovation. Mike Hansford´s Blog, 26.04.2011 http://mikehansford.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/the-right-knowledge-management-strategy-is-essential- to-open-innovation/ (08.11.2014) Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2014). NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Library Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Komninos, N. (2005): Intelligent Innovation. In: Virtual Innovation Environments. http://www.urenio.org/category/virtual-innovation-environments/ (08.11.2014) Leifer, R.; O'Connor, G.; Rice, M.; McDermott, C.; Peters. L.; Veryzer, R. (2000). Radical Innovation: How Mature Companies Can Outsmart Upstarts. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Plieninger, J. (2012). A Singular Approach: One-Person Libraries. May 2012
  73. 73.                         Fachhochschule Köln Cologne University of Applied Sciences © Prof. Dr. Ursula Georgy Citations (cont.) Rabina, D.L.; Walczyk, D.J. (2007). Information professionals' attitude toward the adoption of innovations in everyday life. Information Research 12/4 October 2007. Rogers, E.M. (2003): Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition, New York: Free Press Rubin, R.E. (2004). Foundations of library and information science. 2nd ed. New York: Neal- Schuman Schnell, E. (2008): Libraries Visioning Task Forces, Summer 2008. Innovation Task Force Final Report Zack, M.H. (1999). Developing a Knowledge Strategy. California Management Review, Vol. 41, No. 3, Spring, 1999, pp. 125-145.

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