Problems for others Problems for self
More Prevalent in Boys More Prevalent in Girls
WHAT IS ADHD
ADHD is a common behavioral disorder that
affects an estimated 8% to 10% of school-age
children. Boys are about three times more
likely than girls to be diagnosed with it.
Kids with adhd act without thinking, are
hyperactive, and have trouble focusing. They
may understand what's expected of them but
have trouble following through because they
can't sit still, pay attention, or attend to
The child have non goal-directed behavior
TREATMENT OF ADHD
Behavior therapy for ADHD also effective
Best approach - Stimulants + Behavior
stop smoking during pregnancy
because it appears to be associated with an
increased risk for ADHD.
Patterns of extreme disobedience in
children, including , fighting and physical
lying and stealing
truancy (including running away from
May have antisocial personality disorder
ETIOLOGY OF CONDUCT
Individual: your child’s temperament.
Genetic: it’s more common in the children of adults
who had conduct problems when they were young.
Physical: problems in processing social
information and brain damage.
Environmental: family problems and social
pressures, for example rejection by friends or living
in a deprived area.
Behavior therapy, including role play, rehearsal
psychotherapy, particularly to help child with
educational support for learning disabilities
counseling of parents, eg, helping you manage at
Presence of markedly abnormal or impaired
development in social interaction and communication
and a markedly restricted of activity and interests
Autism and Mental Retardation - approximately
80% of autistic children score below 70 on IQ tests
Autistic Savant - a mentally retarded person with
superior functioning in one narrow area of intellectual
Communication Deficits - language delay,, pronoun
reversal, neologisms, literal use of words.
ETIOLOGY OF AUTISTIC
Psychological Basis - Bettelheim - autistic disorder
caused by cold and rejecting parents. No support.
Genetic Factors -
Neurological Factors -
TREATMENT FOR AUTISM:
Special education programs.
developing social skills, speech, language, self-
care and job skills.
Mental retardation is a term that was once
commonly used to describe someone who learns
and develops more slowly than other kids.
"intellectual disability" or "developmental delay.“
CLASSIFICATION OF MR
Mild Mental Retardation (50-55 to 70-75 IQ)
Able to maintain themselves in unskilled jobs
May need help with social or financial problems
Moderate Mental Retardation (35-40 to 50-55 IQ)
Brain damage and other pathologies are frequent
Most live dependently within family or group homes
Severe Mental Retardation (20-25 to 35-40 IQ)
Commonly have congenital physical abnormalities
May be able to perform very simple work under supervision
Profound Mental Retardation (below 20-25 IQ)
Severe physical deformities and neurological damage
Very high mortality rate during childhood
ETIOLOGY OF MENTAL
Genetic or Chromosomal Abnormalities
Fragile X Syndrome
Disorder of Written Expression
Expressive Language Disorder
Motor Skills Disorder
Visual perceptual deficits perceiving letters in reverse order
or mirror image
Language processing -
Diagnosis and testing for learning disabilities
Types of specialists who may be able to test for and
Enuresis is a common childhood problem. Children
learn to control daytime urination as they become
aware of their bladder filling.
Once this occurs, the child then learns to
consciously control and coordinate his or her
The number of children with bedwetting varies by
age; at five years of age, Boys are twice as likely as
girls to wet the bed.
For most children, bedwetting resolves on its own
CAUSES OF ENURESIS.
The child's bladder is maturing more slowly than
The child's bladder holds a smaller-than-normal
amount of urine
Genetics; parents who had enuresis as children are
more likely to have children with enuresis
Physical or emotional problems rarely cause
Initial treatment of bedwetting includes education
and motivational therapy.
More than 80% of children with encopresis have
experienced constipation or painful defecation in
Most children with encopresis say they have do not
have an urge to have a bowel movement before
they soil their underwear. Soiling episodes usually
occur during the day, while the child is awake and
Some children with encopresis soil while in the
bathtub, shower, or swimming pool.
Rarely caused by an anatomic abnormality or
diseases that child born with.
It develops as a result of chronic.(constipation.)
Self-Care at Home
It is very important that parents and other
caregivers keep a complete record of the child's
medication use and bowel movements during the
SEPARATION ANXIETY IN
Separation anxiety is normal in very young children
(those between 8 and 14 months old). Kids often go
through a phase when they are "clingy" and afraid
of unfamiliar people and places.
A child becomes fearful and nervous when he is
away from home .
WHAT CAUSES SEPARATION
Separation anxiety often develops after a significant
stressful or traumatic event in the child's life, such as a stay
in the hospital, the death of a loved one or pet, or a change
separation anxiety often have family members with anxiety
or other mental disorders