Childhood disorder in abnormal psychology.


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Childhood disorder in abnormal psychology.

  2. 2. DISORDERS OF CHILDHOOD Under controlled (Externalizing) Over controlled (Internalizing) •Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder •Conduct Disorder •Childhood Depression •Anxiety Disorders Problems for others Problems for self More Prevalent in Boys More Prevalent in Girls
  4. 4. WHAT IS ADHD  ADHD is a common behavioral disorder that affects an estimated 8% to 10% of school-age children. Boys are about three times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it.  Kids with adhd act without thinking, are hyperactive, and have trouble focusing. They may understand what's expected of them but have trouble following through because they can't sit still, pay attention, or attend to details.  The child have non goal-directed behavior
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY OF ADHD  Genetic Factors - a predisposition is likely inherited  Environmental Toxins:  Food Additives - unlikely  Refined Sugar - unsupported  Nicotine – likely  Alcohol and drugs - likely  Psychodynamic - authoritarian parenting
  6. 6. TREATMENT OF ADHD  . Medication  Psychotherapy  Behavior therapy for ADHD also effective  Best approach - Stimulants + Behavior Therapy  Prevention: stop smoking during pregnancy because it appears to be associated with an increased risk for ADHD.
  8. 8. CONDUCT DISORDER  Patterns of extreme disobedience in children, including , fighting and physical cruelty  destructiveness  lying and stealing  truancy (including running away from home).  May have antisocial personality disorder and aggressiveness.
  9. 9. ETIOLOGY OF CONDUCT DISORDER.  Individual: your child’s temperament.  Genetic: it’s more common in the children of adults who had conduct problems when they were young.  Physical: problems in processing social information and brain damage.  Environmental: family problems and social pressures, for example rejection by friends or living in a deprived area.
  10. 10. TREATMENT OF CONDUCT DISORDER  Behavior therapy, including role play, rehearsal and practice  psychotherapy, particularly to help child with anger management  educational support for learning disabilities  counseling of parents, eg, helping you manage at home  Medication..
  12. 12. AUTISTIC DISORDER  Presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted of activity and interests  Autism and Mental Retardation - approximately 80% of autistic children score below 70 on IQ tests  Autistic Savant - a mentally retarded person with superior functioning in one narrow area of intellectual activity.  Communication Deficits - language delay,, pronoun reversal, neologisms, literal use of words.
  13. 13. ETIOLOGY OF AUTISTIC DISORDER  Psychological Basis - Bettelheim - autistic disorder caused by cold and rejecting parents. No support.  Biological Bases  Genetic Factors -  Neurological Factors -
  14. 14. TREATMENT FOR AUTISM:  Special education programs.  developing social skills, speech, language, self- care and job skills.  Medication.  parent counseling.
  16. 16. MENTAL RETARDATION  Mental retardation is a term that was once commonly used to describe someone who learns and develops more slowly than other kids.  "intellectual disability" or "developmental delay.“
  17. 17. CLASSIFICATION OF MR  Mild Mental Retardation (50-55 to 70-75 IQ)  Able to maintain themselves in unskilled jobs  May need help with social or financial problems  Moderate Mental Retardation (35-40 to 50-55 IQ)  Brain damage and other pathologies are frequent  Most live dependently within family or group homes  Severe Mental Retardation (20-25 to 35-40 IQ)  Commonly have congenital physical abnormalities  May be able to perform very simple work under supervision  Profound Mental Retardation (below 20-25 IQ)  Severe physical deformities and neurological damage  Very high mortality rate during childhood
  18. 18. Known Etiology Unknown Etiology Deficiencies in Functional academic skills Home living skills Self- direction Work skills Communication Community use Health and safety Social skills Self-care skills Deficiencies in Attention to stimuli Short-term memory Processing speed Executive functioning Control function of language
  19. 19. ETIOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION  Genetic or Chromosomal Abnormalities  Down Syndrome  Fragile X Syndrome  Recessive-Gene Diseases  Phenylketonuria (PKU)  Infectious Diseases  HIV
  21. 21. TREATMENT OF MENTAL RETARADATION.  Encourage the child and Explore him.  Teach basic skills.  Celebrate Achievement  Rehearsal.  Protection from teasing or social rejection.
  23. 23. LEARNING DISABILITIES  Learning Disorders  Reading Disorder  Mathematics Disorder  Disorder of Written Expression  Communication Disorders  Expressive Language Disorder  Phonological Disorder  Stuttering  Motor Skills Disorder
  24. 24. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISORDERS  Biological -  Psychological -  Visual perceptual deficits perceiving letters in reverse order or mirror image  Language processing -
  25. 25. TREATMENT FOR LEARNING DISABILITIES.  Diagnosis and testing for learning disabilities and disorders  Types of specialists who may be able to test for and Clinical psychologists  School psychologists  Child psychiatrists  Educational psychologists  Developmental psychologists
  27. 27. ENURESIS DISORDERS.  Enuresis is a common childhood problem. Children learn to control daytime urination as they become aware of their bladder filling.  Once this occurs, the child then learns to consciously control and coordinate his or her bladder.  The number of children with bedwetting varies by age; at five years of age, Boys are twice as likely as girls to wet the bed.  For most children, bedwetting resolves on its own without treatment.
  28. 28. CAUSES OF ENURESIS.  The child's bladder is maturing more slowly than usual  The child's bladder holds a smaller-than-normal amount of urine  Genetics; parents who had enuresis as children are more likely to have children with enuresis  Deep sleep.  Physical or emotional problems rarely cause bedwetting.
  29. 29. ENURESIS TREATMENT  Initial treatment of bedwetting includes education and motivational therapy.  Medication.  Motivational therapy.  Self-awakening.  Bedwetting alarms
  31. 31. ENCOPRESIS DISORDERS.  More than 80% of children with encopresis have experienced constipation or painful defecation in the past.  Most children with encopresis say they have do not have an urge to have a bowel movement before they soil their underwear. Soiling episodes usually occur during the day, while the child is awake and active.  Some children with encopresis soil while in the bathtub, shower, or swimming pool.
  32. 32. ENCOPRESIS CAUSES.  Rarely caused by an anatomic abnormality or diseases that child born with.  It develops as a result of chronic.(constipation.) .
  33. 33. TREATMENT OF ENCORPRESIS.  Self-Care at Home  It is very important that parents and other caregivers keep a complete record of the child's medication use and bowel movements during the treatment period.
  34. 34. SEPARATION ANXIETY IN CHILDREN  Separation anxiety is normal in very young children (those between 8 and 14 months old). Kids often go through a phase when they are "clingy" and afraid of unfamiliar people and places. .  A child becomes fearful and nervous when he is away from home .
  35. 35. WHAT CAUSES SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER?  Separation anxiety often develops after a significant stressful or traumatic event in the child's life, such as a stay in the hospital, the death of a loved one or pet, or a change in environment.  separation anxiety often have family members with anxiety or other mental disorders
  36. 36. TREATMENT OF SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDERS.  Psychotherapy  Cognitive therapy.
  37. 37. THANK YOU