Autism Spectrum Disorder


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Autism Spectrum Disorder

  1. 1. Autism Spectrum Disorder<br />Sara Grona<br />
  2. 2. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?<br />Autism Spectrum Disorder (Pervasive Developmental Disorder) that primarily affects social interactions,communicationand behaviour<br />It is referred to as a “spectrum disorder”, meaning that its symptoms and characteristics can present themselves in a variety of combinations, ranging from mild to quite severe<br />
  3. 3. Pervasive Developmental Disorder<br />
  4. 4. Autism<br />Biological (but unknown) <br />4 times more likely to be found in boys over girls<br />About 1 in every 150 births will be affected<br />Appears in the first 3 years of life<br />Problems with social interaction, pretend play, and communication<br />Have a limited range of activities and interests. Many (nearly 75%) of children with autism also have some degree of mental retardation.<br />
  5. 5. Asperger Syndrome<br />400,000 families are affected by Asperger Syndrome (AS)<br />Onset of AS is later than what is typical in autism — or at least it is recognized later.<br />Many kids are diagnosed after age 3<br />Motor delays, clumsiness, limited interests, and peculiar preoccupations<br />They usually have good grammatical skills and an advanced vocabulary at an early age.<br />Typically exhibit a language disorder — they might be very literal and have trouble using language in a social context.<br />Problems with attention span and organization<br />Average and sometimes above-average intelligence.<br />Research indicates that in some cases AS may be associated with other mental health disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder<br />
  6. 6. Rett Syndrome<br />1 per 10,000-22,000 girls are affected<br />Suffer the loss of many motor or movement, skills -- such as walking and use of their hands -- and develop poor coordination. <br />Almost always affects girls.<br />Normal development during the first 6-18 months of life followed first by a period of stagnation and then by rapid regression in motor and language skills. <br />Screaming fits and inconsolable crying are common.<br />Key features include loss of speech, behavior reminiscent of autism, panic-like attacks, grinding teeth, hyperventilation, small head<br />The girls typically survive into adulthood but are at risk of sudden unexplained death<br />Childhood Disintegrative Disorder<br />Children with this rare condition begin their development normally in all areas, physical and mental. <br />At some point, usually between 2 and 10 years of age, a child with this illness loses many of the skills he or she has developed.<br />In addition to the loss of social and language skills, he/she may lose control of other functions, including bowel and bladder control.<br />
  7. 7. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS)<br />Identified around age 3<br />Delays in the development of many basic skills<br />ability to socialize with others<br />to communicate<br />to use imagination.<br /><ul><li>Children with these conditions often are confused in their thinking and generally have problems understanding the world around them</li></ul>refer to children who have significant problems with communication and play, and some difficulty interacting with others, but are too social to be considered autistic.<br />
  8. 8. Common Characteristics<br />.5% to 10% of individuals with ASD show unusual abilities, ranging from splinter skills such as memorizing trivia to rare talents<br />
  9. 9. Classroom Adaptations<br />Remember these students present a wide range of characteristics, strengths and weaknesses.<br />Treat each child as unique individual<br />Peer buddies<br />Learn aboutthe spectrumand the child’s development<br />Foster an atmosphere of shared decision making<br />Prepare the class for the child with autism (with consent)<br />Use literal language (avoid idioms, jokes, sarcasm)<br />Clear instructions<br />Praise and rewards for positive behaviours<br />Color coding, separating binder for the student (organization)<br />Daily schedules (on desk, binder, locker)<br />IEP specific<br />
  10. 10. Promoting Inclusive Classrooms<br />Use consistent classroom routines<br />Give visual instructions<br />Watch for signs of high anxieties or difficulties<br />Structure the layout of the classroom<br />Explain purpose of assignments<br />Provide written rubrics<br />Use special interests to introduce new & difficult task<br />Assign individual roles for group work<br />
  11. 11. Environmental Supports<br />Communication with the student<br />Slow down the pace<br />State positively what to do (“let’s walk instead of “stop running”)<br />Provide information visually<br />Communication from the student<br />Pause, listen, wait<br />Encourage input and choice when possible<br />Provide alternative means (written or pictures)<br />Social Supports<br />Practice specific skills through natural activities<br />Provide cooperative learning activities<br />Expanding interests of student<br />Capitalize on strengths<br />Minimize fears and frustrations<br />Use rehearsal with visuals<br />
  12. 12. bibliography<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Smith, T., Polloway, E., Patton, J., Dowdy, C., Heath, N., McIntyre, L., Francis, G. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings. 2nd ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Canada, 2006. 221-228. Print. <br />