Weather And Climate


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Weather And Climate

  1. 1. Weather & Climate Intro to Weather Clip
  2. 2. Weather by Brainpop 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather? 2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur?
  3. 3. Weather <ul><li>Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time) </li></ul><ul><li>Small geographic area </li></ul><ul><li>Can change rapidly </li></ul>
  4. 4. Weather <ul><li>--The study of weather is meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>--Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climate Types by Brainpop <ul><ul><li>.What is climate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.Where are tropical climates most likely to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.What does “arid” mean? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Climate <ul><li>Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years) </li></ul><ul><li>Large geographic area </li></ul><ul><li>Very slow to change </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>90 o -60 o latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Cool summers, cold year-round </li></ul><ul><li>Dry </li></ul>POLAR
  8. 8. <ul><li>60 o -30 o latitude </li></ul><ul><li>True Seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of climate patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>(rain/snow) </li></ul>TEMPERATE
  9. 9. <ul><li>30 o - equator </li></ul><ul><li>No winter, warm year-round </li></ul><ul><li>High temp, rainfall , humidity </li></ul>TROPICAL
  10. 10. What Factors Affect Weather & Climate? <ul><ul><li>The Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Water Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ocean </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How Does the Sun Affect Weather ? <ul><li>It warms the atmosphere & oceans </li></ul><ul><li>It creates climate zones </li></ul><ul><li>It keeps the water cycle going </li></ul><ul><li>It affects weather patterns </li></ul>
  12. 12. REVIEW <ul><li>Define weather: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary behavior of the atmosphere, small area, and rapid change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term behavior of atmosphere, large area, and slow change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What four factors affect the weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun, atmosphere, water cycle, and oceans </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How Does the Sun Affect Weather ? <ul><li>Radiation : energy transferred as waves </li></ul>The Sun and Weather
  14. 15. BrainPOP
  15. 17. How Does the Sun Affect Weather ? <ul><li>Conduction : energy transferred when molecules bump together </li></ul>The heat makes the copper atoms vibrate faster. These atoms in turn make the atoms near them vibrate faster. In this way the heat energy is gradually transferred along the rod from the hot end towards the cooler end. Good conductors of heat: Copper, gold, Aluminium Insulators (poor conductors): Wood, plastic, glass, china, cork   A saucepan is made of aluminium or copper which is a good conductor of heat. The handle is made of plastic or wood which is a poor conductor
  16. 19. How Does the Sun Affect Weather ? <ul><li>Convection : transfer of heat by FLOW of material; happens after the other two… </li></ul>
  17. 21. The Sun and Weather
  18. 22. The Sun and Weather
  19. 23. The Sun and Weather
  20. 24. The Sun and Weather
  21. 25. REFOCUS <ul><li>Three types of heating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conduction </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. REVIEW <ul><li>Define weather </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of climates </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of energy transference </li></ul>
  23. 27. The Water Cycle by Brainpop <ul><li>What process must happen for clouds to form? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “collection”? </li></ul><ul><li>Name one way to conserve water. </li></ul>
  24. 28. The Water Cycle <ul><li>All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner! </li></ul>
  25. 29. Parts of the Cycle <ul><li>Evaporation —Water going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun) </li></ul>Evaporation
  26. 30. Parts of the Cycle <ul><li>* Transpiration —evaporation of water from/out of plants . Locate this on the diagram! </li></ul>transpiration
  27. 31. Parts of the Cycle <ul><li>Condensation —Water going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Parts of the Cycle <ul><li>Precipitation —when water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up. </li></ul>Rain Clip
  29. 33. How Hail is Formed
  30. 34. <ul><li>Collection - Water collects into streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans. </li></ul>Parts of the Cycle
  31. 35. The Water Cycle Water Cycle by Brainpop
  32. 36. <ul><li>Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. What is ozone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What 2 gases compose the most of Earth’s Atmosphere? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. How does the atmosphere affect weather? <ul><li>The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Has five different layers; each has different properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We’ll label them in just a minute… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth ( troposphere ) </li></ul>How does the atmosphere affect weather? <ul><li>The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Has five different layers; each has different properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We’ll label them in just a minute… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth ( troposphere ) </li></ul>
  34. 38. Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Ionosphere Exosphere Thermosphere Write in the labels! Ozone layer
  35. 40. Fronts <ul><li>= places where air masses meet </li></ul><ul><li>4 Types: Warm , Cold, Occluded, Stationary </li></ul><ul><li>Each kind can bring different kinds of weather </li></ul>
  36. 41. Air Masses <ul><li>= body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level </li></ul><ul><li>Can be warm or cold </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture </li></ul>
  37. 42. Occluded Front: Stationary Front: Short Heavy Rains Gentile Winds Light Rains Drying of Air Mass Long Rains
  38. 43. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  39. 46. REVIEW
  40. 47. Humidity by Brainpop <ul><ul><li>. What single factor controls humidity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What temperature air can hold the most water molecules? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 48. Relative Humidity <ul><li>Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold </li></ul><ul><li>How “full” of water the air is </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed as % </li></ul><ul><li>100% relative humidity = saturated air </li></ul>Relative Humidity Test Applet
  42. 49. Relative Humidity <ul><li>Controlled by temperature </li></ul><ul><li>1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>2. As air warms , relative humidity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>3. As air cools , relative humidity increases </li></ul>
  43. 50. Dew Point <ul><li>=Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity) </li></ul><ul><li>Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached: </li></ul><ul><li>1. If dew point temp. is above freezing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. water vapor condenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> as liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. dew will form on surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li> c. cloud droplets will form in air </li></ul>
  44. 51. Dew Point <ul><li>2. If dew point temp. is below freezing: </li></ul><ul><li>a. water vapor condenses as a solid </li></ul><ul><li>b. frost on surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>c. snow (or hail) in the air </li></ul>Humidity Clip
  45. 52. R a i n b o w s <ul><li>Caused by sunshine on raindrops </li></ul><ul><li>White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop </li></ul><ul><li>To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram: </li></ul>BrainPOP
  46. 53. Rainbow by Brainpop
  47. 54. How does Air Pressure affect weather? <ul><li>How much the earth’s atmosphere is pressing down on us </li></ul><ul><li>Measured with a BAROMETER </li></ul><ul><li>If it CHANGES , then new weather </li></ul><ul><li>is on the way: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming </li></ul></ul>
  48. 55. Animations <ul><li> </li></ul>
  49. 56. How does the Ocean affect weather? <ul><li>Ocean currents affect the temperature of the land they pass by </li></ul><ul><li>Cold ocean currents = cooling effect </li></ul><ul><li>Warm ocean currents = warming effect </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature changes affect pressure – which then creates WINDS </li></ul><ul><li>Winds blow this cooling or warming effect over the land </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  50. 57.
  51. 58. Ocean Circulation <ul><li> </li></ul>
  52. 60. Winds = created from differences in air pressure <ul><li>Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Greater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blows </li></ul><ul><li>Measured with wind vanes and anemometers or you can estimate with the Beaufort Wind Scale </li></ul>BrainPOP
  53. 61. Land & Sea Breezes <ul><li> </li></ul>
  54. 62. Global Winds <ul><ul><li>Thousands of kilometers long; can cause weather to move in different directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet stream , prevailing westerlies, doldrums, horse latitudes, trade winds </li></ul></ul>
  55. 63. Global Winds <ul><ul><li>Caused by the temperature difference in different regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Tropical Regions—causes air to rise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold polar Regions—causes air to sink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 64. Global Winds <ul><ul><li>Also affected by Earth’s Spin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coriolis Effect = causes winds to curve to the right in the N. Hemisphere; to the left in the S. Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  58. 67. Where is the Jet Stream?
  59. 68. A Note About the Names… <ul><li>Doldrums </li></ul><ul><li>Sailors noticed the stillness of the rising (and not blowing) air near the equator and gave the region the depressing name &quot;doldrums.&quot; The doldrums, usually located between 5° north and 5° south of the equator, are also known as the Intertropical Convergence Zone or ITCZ for short. The trade winds converge in the region of the ITCZ, producing convectional storms that produce some of the world's heaviest precipitation regions. </li></ul>
  60. 69. A Note About the Names… <ul><li>Horse Latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Between about 30° to 35° north and 30° to 35° south of the equator lies the region known as the horse latitudes or the subtropical high. This region of subsiding dry air and high pressure results in weak winds. Tradition states that sailors gave the region of the subtropical high the name &quot;horse latitudes&quot; because ships relying on wind power stalled; fearful of running out of food and water, sailors threw their horses and cattle overboard to save on provisions. (It's a puzzle why sailors would not have eaten the animals instead of throwing them overboard.) The Oxford English Dictionary claims the origin of the term &quot;uncertain.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Major deserts of the world, such as the Sahara and the Great Australian Desert, lie under the high pressure of the horse latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The region is also known as the Calms of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Calms of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. </li></ul>
  61. 70. A Note About the Names… <ul><li>Trade Winds </li></ul><ul><li>Blowing from the subtropical highs or horse latitudes toward the low pressure of the ITCZ are the trade winds. Named from their ability to quickly propel trading ships across the ocean, the trade winds between about 30° latitude and the equator are steady and blow about 11 to 13 miles per hour. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds blow from the northeast and are known as the Northeast Trade Winds; in the Southern Hemisphere, the winds blow from the southeast and are called the Southeast Trade Winds. </li></ul>
  62. 71. Winds by Brainpop <ul><ul><li>. What does warm air do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What do you call winds that blow all the time in the same part of the world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What are jet streams? </li></ul></ul>
  63. 72. Types of Storms
  64. 73. Thunderstorms <ul><li>Requires a mature cumulonimbus cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden reversal of wind direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noticeable increase in wind speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden drop in temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 74. <ul><li>Possible weather: </li></ul><ul><li>a. heavy rains (flash floods) </li></ul><ul><li>b. lightning (forest fires) </li></ul><ul><li>c. thunder (frightens animals) </li></ul><ul><li>d. hail (crop damage) </li></ul><ul><li>e. tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>f. strong, gusty winds </li></ul>Thunderstorm by Brainpop Thunderstorms
  66. 75. Safety Rules <ul><li>Stay indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for lightning, strong winds </li></ul><ul><li>Listen on radio/TV for tornado watch/warning </li></ul><ul><li>Thunderstorms don’t last long </li></ul>
  67. 76. Lightning Storm <ul><li>Cumulonimbus cloud becomes electrically charged and ground below has opposite charge </li></ul>
  68. 78. <ul><li>Lightning stroke: flow of current thru air (a poor conductor) from the – to the + </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to cloud , and from ground to cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Bright light is caused by glowing air molecules heated by the current </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning follows the path of least resistance (easiest way to positive) </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning rod offers lightning an easy , safe path to the ground (+) </li></ul>
  69. 79. <ul><li>Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air </li></ul><ul><li>Sound travels @ about 1100 ft/sec in air </li></ul><ul><li>5,280 ft in one mile </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from you to lightning = number of seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5. </li></ul><ul><li>( 5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds) </li></ul>
  70. 80. Types of Lightning …you don’t need to write this down… <ul><li>Streak or bolt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single or branched lines of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in Puget Sound area </li></ul></ul>
  71. 81. <ul><li>Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>a. shapeless flash over wide area </li></ul><ul><li>b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by the clouds </li></ul><ul><li>c. common in Puget Sound area </li></ul>
  72. 82. <ul><li>Other types of lightning </li></ul><ul><li>a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of bolt) </li></ul><ul><li>b. ball (only other shape lightning can have) </li></ul>
  73. 83. Safety rules for lightning storms <ul><li>Stay indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Stay away from anything that conducts electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV) </li></ul><ul><li>Get out of the water and off of small boats </li></ul><ul><li>Stay away from open doors, windows, fireplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in your car (very safe place to be) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t stand under lone trees or in open places </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid hilltops </li></ul><ul><li>If your hair stands on end, or your skin tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep as little contact with the ground as possible </li></ul>
  74. 84. Tornado <ul><li>Counterclockwise column of rotating air extending from cumulonimbus cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Per square foot, is the most destructive atmospheric event </li></ul><ul><li>Rated by wind speed (F1 to F5) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tornado season” = April, May, June </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes that form over water are called “ waterspouts ” </li></ul>
  75. 85. <ul><li>Behavior of a tornado is unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>Typical tornado will: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Occur between 3-7 pm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Travel 4 miles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Be 300-400 m wide </li></ul><ul><li>4. Travel 25-40 mi/hour </li></ul><ul><li>5. Have wind speeds up to 300 mi/hr </li></ul><ul><li>6. Produce extremely low pressure </li></ul><ul><li>7. Be dark due to debris picked up </li></ul>Tornado by Brainpop
  76. 86. Safety Rules <ul><li>Rule #1: Take immediate action! </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from tornado’s path </li></ul>Tornado’s path Move away at a right angle
  77. 87. <ul><li>3. Lie flat in nearest ditch, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>4. At home </li></ul><ul><li>a. open windows, doors </li></ul><ul><li>b. seek shelter in basement or under heavy table in middle of house </li></ul>On the trail of a tornado
  78. 88. Tropical Cyclone <ul><li>Nicknames </li></ul><ul><li>1. Atlantic: hurricane </li></ul><ul><li>2. SE Asia, Japan: typhoon </li></ul><ul><li>3. Australia: willy-willy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Indian Ocean: cyclone </li></ul>
  79. 89. Tropical Cyclone <ul><li>Rated by wind speed (category 1 to 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Starts and grows over warm ocean water </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of bands of thunderstorms spiraling counterclockwise around a low pressure center </li></ul>
  80. 90. Characteristics <ul><li>Several hundred miles wide </li></ul><ul><li>Last many days (even weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Winds from 74-200 mi/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Contains an “eye” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small region of low pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by highest winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm, peaceful, sunny weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last for about 1 hour as hurricane passes by </li></ul></ul>Hurricanes by Brainpop
  81. 91. Safety Rules <ul><li>Prepare for high winds </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for flooding </li></ul><ul><li>(greatest source of damage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 20 in. of rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding by coastal water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Prepare for thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>4. Have on hand stored food, water, blankets, candles, matches, radio, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Seek shelter </li></ul>Hurricanes Clip
  82. 92. WHAT IS CLIMATE? <ul><li>The behavior of the atmosphere over a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Large geographical area. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow to change. </li></ul>
  83. 93. Climatic Change <ul><li>Seasons </li></ul><ul><li>El Nino and La Nina </li></ul>
  84. 94. Climatic Change <ul><li>What Causes Climate Change </li></ul>
  85. 95. Climatic Change <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>
  86. 96. Climatic Change <ul><li>Carbon Cycle </li></ul>
  87. 97. Land Biomes by BrainpPOP <ul><ul><li>.What is a Biome? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.What Biomes are at the equator? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.How can biomes change? </li></ul></ul>
  88. 98. Biomes <ul><li>Aquatic = Two basic regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine and Freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desert = Four basic types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot and Dry , Semiarid , Coastal, and Cold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forest = Three major types of forests, classed according to latitude : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical, Temperate, and Boreal forests (taiga) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grassland = Two main divisions of grasslands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical grasslands, called savannas , and temperate grasslands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra = Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic tundra and Alpine tundra </li></ul></ul>
  89. 99. Aquatic <ul><li>Water is the common link among the five biomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up the largest part of the biosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers nearly 75% of the Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  90. 100. Desert <ul><li>Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth’s surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm /year </li></ul><ul><li>There are few large mammals in deserts because most are not capable of storing sufficient water. </li></ul>
  91. 101. Forest <ul><li>Today, forests occupy approximately one-third of Earth’s land area, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical forests= Greatest diversity of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Forests= Well-defined seasons . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boreal forests, or taiga= Largest terrestrial biome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurring between 50 and 60 degrees north latitudes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  92. 102. Grassland <ul><li>Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna is grassland with scattered individual trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate grasslands are characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation. Trees and large shrubs are absent . </li></ul>
  93. 103. Tundra <ul><li>Extremely cold climate </li></ul><ul><li>Low biotic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vegetation structure </li></ul><ul><li>Short season of growth </li></ul>
  94. 104. ADAPTATION <ul><li>Organisms adapt to there environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations can be structural or behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some structural adaptations are HAIR, and PINE NEEDLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some behavioral adaptations are HIBERNATION, ESTIVATION, and SWEATING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 105. Hibernation <ul><li>European hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hibernating animals conserve food, especially during winter when food is short, tapping energy reserves, body fat, at a slow rate. </li></ul></ul>
  96. 106. ESTIVATION <ul><li>Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur ( Cheirogaleus medius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeps 7 months out of the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lemur does not control its body temperature while hibernating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like other fat-tailed lemurs, is able to store fat in its tail, and this provides a source of energy during its period of dormancy. </li></ul></ul>