Concept of PowerPower – the ability to influence another personInfluence – the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another personAuthority – the right to influence another person
Concept of PowerZone of Indifference – the range in which attemptsto influence a person will be perceived as legitimateand will be acted on without a great deal of thought Zone of Indifference Managers strive to expand the zone of indifference Zone of Indifference
Sources of Organizational Power: InterpersonalReward Power – agent’s ability to control the rewards that the target wantsCoercive Power – agent’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a targetLegitimate Power – agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement
Sources of Organizational Power: InterpersonalReferent Power – based on interpersonal attractionExpert Power – agent has knowledge target needs
Which Power is Most Effective? Expert Power!• Strong relationship to performance & satisfaction• Transfers vital skills, abilities, and knowledge within the organization• Employees internalize what they observe & learn from managers they consider “experts”
Information PowerInformation Power – access to and control over important information• Formal/informal position in communication network• Interpreting information when passing it on (the spin)
Criteria for Using Power EthicallyDoes the behavior produce a goodoutcome for people both inside andoutside the organization?Does the behavior respect the rights of allparties?Does the behavior treat all partiesequitably and fairly?
Two Faces of Power Personal Power used for personal gain Social Power used to create motivation used to accomplish group goals
Successful Power Users• Have high need for social power• Approach relationships with a communal orientation• Focus on needs and interests of others belief in the preference for authority work and system discipline belief in justice altruism
Sources of Organizational Power: Intergroup• Control of critical resources• Control of strategic contingencies – activities that other groups need to complete their tasks
Sources of Organizational Power: Intergroup• Ways groups hold power over other groups – Ability to cope with uncertainty – High degree of centrality - functionality central to organization’s success – Nonsubstitutability - group’s activities are indispensable
Power Analysis: A Broader View Organizational PowerCoercive Power – influence through threatof punishment, fear, or intimidationUtilitarian Power – influence throughrewards and benefitsNormative Power – influence throughknowledge of belonging, doing the rightthing
Power Analysis: A Broader View Organizational MembershipAlienative Membership – members feelhostile, negative, do not want to be thereCalculative Membership – membersweigh benefits and limitations of belongingMoral Membership – members havepositive organizational feelings; will denyown needs
Kanter’s Symbols of Power• Intercede for someone in trouble• Obtain placements for favored employees• Exceed budget limitations• Procure above-average raises for employees• Place items on meeting agendas• Access to early information• Have top managers seek out their opinion
Kanter’s Symbols of PowerlessnessTop Executives Staff Professionals• budget cuts • resistance to change• punishing behaviors • turf protection• top-down communicationsManagers First-line Supervisors• assign external attribution - • overly close supervision blame others or environment • inflexible adherence to rules • do job rather than train Key to overcoming powerlessness: share power and delegate decision making
Korda’s Power SymbolsPower – there are more people who inconvenience themselves on your behalf than there are people on whose behalf you would inconvenience yourselfStatus – a person’s relative standing in a group based on prestige and deference
Korda’s Power Symbols Size of desk Rectangular table Locked file cabinet FurnishingsTime Access Who has access to you? To whom do you have access?
Political Behavior in OrganizationsOrganizational Politics – the use of power and influence in organizationsPolitical Behavior – actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one’s personal goals
Conditions Encouraging Political Activity• Unclear goals• Autocratic decision making• Ambiguous lines of authority• Scarce resources• Uncertainty
Effective Political CharacteristicsWhat characteristics doeffective political actors possess?
Influence TacticsConsultation Upward Influence:Inspirational appeals the bossRational persuasion LateralIngratiation Influence:Coalition a coworkerExchange tacticsUpward appeals Downward Influence:Pressure an employee
Influence by ConsultationThis new attendance plan is controversial.How can we make it more acceptable?The person seeks your participation in makinga decision or planning how to implement aproposed strategy, policy, or change.
Influence by Rational Persuasion This new procedure will save us over $150,000.The person uses logical arguments and factualevidence to persuade you that a proposal orrequest is viable and likely to result in theattainment of task objectives.
Influence by Inspirational AppealsGetting that account will betough, but I know you can do it. The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it.
Managing Political Behavior• Maintain open communication• Clarify performance expectations• Use participative management• Encourage cooperation among work groups• Manage scarce resources well• Provide a supportive organizational climate
Managing Up: The BossUnderstand Your Boss Assess Yourself and Her Context and Your Needs Her goals and Your own strengths objectives and weaknesses The pressures on her Your personal style Her strengths, Your predisposition weaknesses, blind toward dependence on spots authority figures Her preferred work style
Sharing Power: Empowerment Empowerment:sharing power in such away that individuals learn to believe in their ability to do the job!
Empowerment’s Four DimensionsMeaning – Competence –fit between the work belief that one hasrole and the the ability to do theemployee’s values job welland beliefs E2sSelf-determination – Impact – belief thathaving control over one’s job makes athe way one does difference within theone’s work organization
Guidelines for Empowering• Express confidence in employees• Set high performance expectations• Create opportunities for participative decision making• Remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy• Set inspirational and meaningful goals
Finkelstein: Why Executives Fail• See themselves and their companies as dominant, without peers• Have all the answers• Eliminate those not 100% behind them• Rely on what worked in the past• No clear boundaries between personal interests and corporate interests
Using Power Effectively• Use power in ethical ways• Understand and use all of the various types of power and influence• Seek out jobs that allow you to develop your power skills• Use power tempered by maturity and self-control• Accept that influencing people is an important part of the management job