SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Effusions peritoneal fluids:
• Peritoneal effusion, or ascites, is a collection of fluid in
the abdomen. This fluid collects in the lining of the
lower abdomen, which is called the peritoneum.
• With ascites, an abnormal amount of fluid builds up
between the two layers of the peritoneum.
• This fluid can put pressure on abdominal organs,
potentially causing pain, swelling and other symptoms.
• Based on severity, physicians classify peritoneal
effusion into three categories:
• Grade 1: The patient has a mild effusion, only
detectable by ultrasound.
• Grade 2: The patient has a moderate effusion, with
equal amounts of abdominal swelling (distension) on
each side of the abdomen.
• Grade 3: The patient has a large effusion, with marked
abdominal distension.
• Treatment may vary depending on the ascites
classification and cause. Often, the cause is cirrhosis of
the liver or cancer.
• If cancer is the cause, it is considered malignant
peritoneal effusion.
• This diagnosis has related treatment options to help
reduce fluid buildup and prevent it from recurring.
• Peritoneal Effusion and Mesothelioma
• Peritoneal effusion, or ascites, may be a symptom
of peritoneal mesothelioma. Some research shows
ascites in 60 – 100% of newly diagnosed peritoneal
mesothelioma patients. This symptom may be one of
the first things to make patients seek medical care.
• Doctors may classify peritoneal mesothelioma cases
based upon the presence of ascites. Patients can fall into
two general classifications:
• Dry painful type: Patients have abdominal pain due
to a large tumor in the abdomen.
• Wet type: Patients present with ascites and
increasing abdominal girth, not tumors.
• Diagnostic tests may help doctors diagnose patients
with ascites and, subsequently, peritoneal
mesothelioma. Once a patient is diagnosed
with mesothelioma, some treatments may seek to
resolve peritoneal effusions. These treatments may
help improve patients’ comfort and limit the
recurrence of ascites.
Mesothelioma
Causes of Peritoneal Effusion
• Multiple conditions may cause peritoneal effusion,
including mesothelioma and other cancers. Non-
malignant diseases related to abdominal organs
may also cause ascites.
• Peritoneal mesothelioma patients may develop
ascites from fluid produced by aggressive tumors.
This fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity. If
cancer cells migrate to the lymphatic system, they
can block lymph drainage. This may also cause
ascites.
Peritoneal Effusion Causes
• Cancer, including mesothelioma
• Cirrhosis (liver disease)
• Dialysis
• Heart failure
• Pancreatic disease
• Tuberculosis
Symptoms of Peritoneal Effusion
• Peritoneal effusion may cause a range of symptoms,
including abdominal pain and nausea. For some patients, the
symptoms of ascites may be the first step towards another
diagnosis. Individuals should seek medical care for stomach
distention that feels full and painful.
• Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Effusion
• Abdominal pain
• Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
• Fatigue
• Impaired movement
• Loss of appetite (anorexia)
• Lower limb swelling
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Common peritoneal mesothelioma symptoms may
overlap with symptoms of ascites. Peritoneal
mesothelioma symptoms include weight loss, a full
abdomen, a general feeling of discomfort (malaise)
and abdominal discomfort. Malignant peritoneal
mesothelioma patients also report feeling overly full
and/or nauseous.
• As a patient’s underlying disease progresses,
symptoms such as ascites may worsen. This may
lead to increased abdominal discomfort. Talking
with a healthcare provider at the onset of symptoms
may help target the cause sooner. Some diseases,
such as mesothelioma and other cancers, are more
likely than others to lead to ascites.
Peritoneal Effusion Diagnosed:
• Diagnosing ascites is an important first step in pinpointing the underlying
condition. Doctors may use differential diagnosis to help rule out potential
causes.
• This process may include cytology testing to screen for cancer. The
diagnostic process may help doctors rule out other effusion-causing
cancers, such as ovarian cancer or breast cancer.
• A sample of fluid collected from the pericardial sac using a procedure called
a pericardiocentesis
• The diagnosis of malignant peritoneal effusion may include any
combination of the following:
• Abdominal paracentesis (removal of fluid) followed by ascitic fluid analysis
• Abdominal ultrasound
• Blood tests
• CT scan or other imaging tests
• Fluid biopsy
• Patient history
• Physical examination
• Tumor tissue biopsy
• If cancer has not already been diagnosed,
doctors may order a tumor tissue biopsy and
testing.
• This allows doctors to differentiate between
peritoneal effusion and malignant peritoneal
effusion.
• If diagnosed with mesothelioma, doctors may
classify patients by cell type and stage.
Depending on patients’ symptoms, doctors
may use various methods for treating ascites.
Peritoneal Effusion Treated:
• For patients, their mesothelioma cancer treatments may
also treat peritoneal effusions. Mesothelioma
doctors may also use other methods to manage
peritoneal effusion. Treatment methods for peritoneal
effusion include:
• Catheters and other drainage ports: Catheters are tubes
that can allow fluid to drain out of the peritoneum.
Some, such as shunts, can be implanted and used long-
term. Some catheters go through the skin, draining fluid
into an external container. Other catheters drain fluid
from the peritoneum into another area of the body.
Other types of drainage ports may also be used, such as
peritoneal ports.
• Diuretics: Doctors may prescribe medication that
increases the frequency of urination. This has shown a
reduction in peritoneal fluid buildup for some patients.
Diuretics may be more effective against ascites caused
by cirrhosis versus cancer.
• Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy
(HIPEC): Doctors use a heated,
localized chemotherapy to treat peritoneal
mesothelioma in this method. The chemotherapy is
heated to a temperature that kills cancer cells without
killing healthy cells. Often HIPEC is combined
with cytoreductive surgery.
• Palliative HIPEC: This method uses heated
chemotherapy alone, not in combination with surgery.
For some patients, it has shown complete resolution of
ascites and improvement in quality of life.
• Paracentesis: In this method, doctors insert a needle into
the abdominal cavity to drain the fluid buildup in the
peritoneum. Paracentesis is the most common
treatment for malignant peritoneal effusion. It is
effective at relieving symptoms of abdominal
discomfort, nausea, vomiting and breathing difficulty.
This method provides temporary relief for 90% of
patients. Symptoms may return quickly, so this method
is frequently repeated.
• Diuretics and paracentesis are the most common first-
line treatments. These methods can help treat and
manage peritoneal effusions.
• Ascites may recur, resulting in patients receiving
routine rounds of drainage or other treatment. In some
of these cases, palliative care options may also help
ease discomfort.
Reported Improvements From At-
Home Drainage Treatment:
• Cognitive function
• Difficulty breathing
• Emotional function
• Fatigue
• Insomnia
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and vomiting
• Pain
• Quality of life
• When managing peritoneal effusions and underlying diseases, early
detection, diagnosis and treatment matter. These factors may lead
to patients having different prognostic and treatment options.
Individuals experiencing symptoms of peritoneal effusion should
speak to a healthcare provider for further guidance.
Physical, Chemical:
• Transudate
• Most ascitic fluids are transudates and are caused by either
congestive heart failure or hepatic cirrhosis. Typical fluid
analysis results include:
• Physical characteristics—fluid generally appears clear or
straw-colored
• Protein—less than 3 g/dL
• Albumin level—low (typically evaluated as the difference
between serum albumin and peritoneal fluid albumin, termed
serum-ascites albumin gradient, or SAAG; values above 1.1
g/dL are considered evidence of a transudate.)
• Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) fluid/serum ratio—less than 0.6
• Glucose—equal to glucose level in the blood
• Cell count—few cells are present, usually lymphocytes
• Specific gravity—less than 1.015
Exudate
• Physical characteristics—fluid may appear cloudy
• Protein—greater than 3 g/dL
• Albumin level—higher than in transudates (typically
with a SAAG less than 1.1 g/dL)
• Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) fluid/serum ratio—
greater than 0.6
• Glucose—less than 60 mg/dL
• Cell count—increased
• Specific gravity—greater than 1.015
• Exudates can be caused by a variety of conditions and
diseases and usually require further testing to aid in the
diagnosis. Infections, trauma, various cancers, or
pancreatitis may cause exudates. The following is a list of
additional tests that a healthcare practitioner may order
depending on the suspected cause and typical results.
• Physical characteristics – the normal appearance of a
peritoneal fluid sample is usually straw-colored and clear.
Abnormal appearances may give clues to conditions or
diseases present and may include:
• Yellow with liver disease, milky from obstruction of the
lymphatic system, and greenish from bile
• Reddish peritoneal fluid may indicate the presence of blood,
most often due to trauma.
• Cloudy peritoneal fluid may indicate the presence of
microbes and/or white blood cells (WBCs), pointing to an
infection. It may also indicate lymph system blockage or
trauma.
Chemical tests – tests that may be
performed in addition to albumin may
include:
• Glucose—typically about the same as blood
glucose levels; may be lower with infection
• Amylase—increased with pancreatitis
• Tumor markers—to identify type of
malignancy
Microscopic :

More Related Content

Similar to Effusions peritoneal fluids.pptx

Similar to Effusions peritoneal fluids.pptx (20)

Gastrointestinal bleeding.pdf
Gastrointestinal bleeding.pdfGastrointestinal bleeding.pdf
Gastrointestinal bleeding.pdf
 
Cirrhosis of liver
Cirrhosis of liverCirrhosis of liver
Cirrhosis of liver
 
Presentation (1) (2).pptx
Presentation (1) (2).pptxPresentation (1) (2).pptx
Presentation (1) (2).pptx
 
Liver cancer
Liver cancerLiver cancer
Liver cancer
 
Pancreatic cyst and tumour
Pancreatic cyst and tumourPancreatic cyst and tumour
Pancreatic cyst and tumour
 
Gastric cancer
Gastric cancerGastric cancer
Gastric cancer
 
Cancers of the digestive system.pptx
Cancers of the digestive system.pptxCancers of the digestive system.pptx
Cancers of the digestive system.pptx
 
COLITIES.pptx
COLITIES.pptxCOLITIES.pptx
COLITIES.pptx
 
APD complications and surgical management.pptx
APD complications and surgical management.pptxAPD complications and surgical management.pptx
APD complications and surgical management.pptx
 
Differential Diagnosis of Cloudy effluent in Peritoneal Dialysis
Differential Diagnosis of Cloudy effluent in Peritoneal DialysisDifferential Diagnosis of Cloudy effluent in Peritoneal Dialysis
Differential Diagnosis of Cloudy effluent in Peritoneal Dialysis
 
Renal cancer
Renal cancerRenal cancer
Renal cancer
 
Surgical Options for Ruptured Gallbladder.pdf
Surgical Options for Ruptured Gallbladder.pdfSurgical Options for Ruptured Gallbladder.pdf
Surgical Options for Ruptured Gallbladder.pdf
 
Pancreatitis
PancreatitisPancreatitis
Pancreatitis
 
kidney cancer.pptx
kidney cancer.pptxkidney cancer.pptx
kidney cancer.pptx
 
Gastric cancer
Gastric cancerGastric cancer
Gastric cancer
 
Acute GI bleed
Acute GI bleedAcute GI bleed
Acute GI bleed
 
peptic ulcer disease.pptx
peptic ulcer disease.pptxpeptic ulcer disease.pptx
peptic ulcer disease.pptx
 
PORTAL HYPERTENSION.pptx
PORTAL HYPERTENSION.pptxPORTAL HYPERTENSION.pptx
PORTAL HYPERTENSION.pptx
 
Ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitisUlcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitis
 
peptic ulcer disease.pptx
peptic ulcer disease.pptxpeptic ulcer disease.pptx
peptic ulcer disease.pptx
 

More from Jyoti Balmiki

Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.ppt
Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.pptHema II Chapter 4_OFT.ppt
Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.pptJyoti Balmiki
 
Cytological tests.pptx
Cytological tests.pptxCytological tests.pptx
Cytological tests.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Staining methods.pptx
Staining methods.pptxStaining methods.pptx
Staining methods.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptxUNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptx
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptxRole of minerals, ions and water in.pptx
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdf
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdfNational Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdf
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdfJyoti Balmiki
 
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptx
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptxEtiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptx
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Effusions pleural.pptx
Effusions pleural.pptxEffusions pleural.pptx
Effusions pleural.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Effusions pericardial.pptx
Effusions pericardial.pptxEffusions pericardial.pptx
Effusions pericardial.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Examination of urine.pptx
Examination of urine.pptxExamination of urine.pptx
Examination of urine.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptx
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptxClinical Pathology unit -1.pptx
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptx
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptxLaboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptx
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Unit -4 pathology.pptx
Unit -4 pathology.pptxUnit -4 pathology.pptx
Unit -4 pathology.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptx
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptxCauses and Types of cell injury.pptx
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptxJyoti Balmiki
 

More from Jyoti Balmiki (20)

Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.ppt
Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.pptHema II Chapter 4_OFT.ppt
Hema II Chapter 4_OFT.ppt
 
Cytological tests.pptx
Cytological tests.pptxCytological tests.pptx
Cytological tests.pptx
 
Staining methods.pptx
Staining methods.pptxStaining methods.pptx
Staining methods.pptx
 
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptxUNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx
UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx
 
Viruses.pptx
Viruses.pptxViruses.pptx
Viruses.pptx
 
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptx
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptxRole of minerals, ions and water in.pptx
Role of minerals, ions and water in.pptx
 
vitamins.pptx
vitamins.pptxvitamins.pptx
vitamins.pptx
 
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdf
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdfNational Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdf
National Health Policy 2019_DoHS Annual Report_Public Health Update.pdf
 
Viruses.pptx
Viruses.pptxViruses.pptx
Viruses.pptx
 
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptx
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptxEtiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptx
Etiology of cancer (carcinogenic agents).pptx
 
Effusions pleural.pptx
Effusions pleural.pptxEffusions pleural.pptx
Effusions pleural.pptx
 
Effusions pericardial.pptx
Effusions pericardial.pptxEffusions pericardial.pptx
Effusions pericardial.pptx
 
Examination of urine.pptx
Examination of urine.pptxExamination of urine.pptx
Examination of urine.pptx
 
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptx
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptxClinical Pathology unit -1.pptx
Clinical Pathology unit -1.pptx
 
Depression.pptx
Depression.pptxDepression.pptx
Depression.pptx
 
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptx
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptxLaboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptx
Laboratory diagnosis of cancer.pptx
 
Cyto-pathology.pptx
Cyto-pathology.pptxCyto-pathology.pptx
Cyto-pathology.pptx
 
Cytological tests
Cytological testsCytological tests
Cytological tests
 
Unit -4 pathology.pptx
Unit -4 pathology.pptxUnit -4 pathology.pptx
Unit -4 pathology.pptx
 
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptx
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptxCauses and Types of cell injury.pptx
Causes and Types of cell injury.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxlancelewisportillo
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptxJonalynLegaspi2
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseCeline George
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1GloryAnnCastre1
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxMichelleTuguinay1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptxQ4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
Q4-PPT-Music9_Lesson-1-Romantic-Opera.pptx
 
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptxweek 1 cookery 8  fourth  -  quarter .pptx
week 1 cookery 8 fourth - quarter .pptx
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptxDIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
DIFFERENT BASKETRY IN THE PHILIPPINES PPT.pptx
 

Effusions peritoneal fluids.pptx

  • 2. • Peritoneal effusion, or ascites, is a collection of fluid in the abdomen. This fluid collects in the lining of the lower abdomen, which is called the peritoneum. • With ascites, an abnormal amount of fluid builds up between the two layers of the peritoneum. • This fluid can put pressure on abdominal organs, potentially causing pain, swelling and other symptoms. • Based on severity, physicians classify peritoneal effusion into three categories: • Grade 1: The patient has a mild effusion, only detectable by ultrasound. • Grade 2: The patient has a moderate effusion, with equal amounts of abdominal swelling (distension) on each side of the abdomen. • Grade 3: The patient has a large effusion, with marked abdominal distension.
  • 3. • Treatment may vary depending on the ascites classification and cause. Often, the cause is cirrhosis of the liver or cancer. • If cancer is the cause, it is considered malignant peritoneal effusion. • This diagnosis has related treatment options to help reduce fluid buildup and prevent it from recurring. • Peritoneal Effusion and Mesothelioma • Peritoneal effusion, or ascites, may be a symptom of peritoneal mesothelioma. Some research shows ascites in 60 – 100% of newly diagnosed peritoneal mesothelioma patients. This symptom may be one of the first things to make patients seek medical care. • Doctors may classify peritoneal mesothelioma cases based upon the presence of ascites. Patients can fall into two general classifications:
  • 4. • Dry painful type: Patients have abdominal pain due to a large tumor in the abdomen. • Wet type: Patients present with ascites and increasing abdominal girth, not tumors. • Diagnostic tests may help doctors diagnose patients with ascites and, subsequently, peritoneal mesothelioma. Once a patient is diagnosed with mesothelioma, some treatments may seek to resolve peritoneal effusions. These treatments may help improve patients’ comfort and limit the recurrence of ascites.
  • 6. Causes of Peritoneal Effusion • Multiple conditions may cause peritoneal effusion, including mesothelioma and other cancers. Non- malignant diseases related to abdominal organs may also cause ascites. • Peritoneal mesothelioma patients may develop ascites from fluid produced by aggressive tumors. This fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity. If cancer cells migrate to the lymphatic system, they can block lymph drainage. This may also cause ascites.
  • 7. Peritoneal Effusion Causes • Cancer, including mesothelioma • Cirrhosis (liver disease) • Dialysis • Heart failure • Pancreatic disease • Tuberculosis
  • 8. Symptoms of Peritoneal Effusion • Peritoneal effusion may cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain and nausea. For some patients, the symptoms of ascites may be the first step towards another diagnosis. Individuals should seek medical care for stomach distention that feels full and painful. • Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Effusion • Abdominal pain • Dyspnea (difficulty breathing) • Fatigue • Impaired movement • Loss of appetite (anorexia) • Lower limb swelling • Nausea • Vomiting
  • 9. • Common peritoneal mesothelioma symptoms may overlap with symptoms of ascites. Peritoneal mesothelioma symptoms include weight loss, a full abdomen, a general feeling of discomfort (malaise) and abdominal discomfort. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma patients also report feeling overly full and/or nauseous. • As a patient’s underlying disease progresses, symptoms such as ascites may worsen. This may lead to increased abdominal discomfort. Talking with a healthcare provider at the onset of symptoms may help target the cause sooner. Some diseases, such as mesothelioma and other cancers, are more likely than others to lead to ascites.
  • 10. Peritoneal Effusion Diagnosed: • Diagnosing ascites is an important first step in pinpointing the underlying condition. Doctors may use differential diagnosis to help rule out potential causes. • This process may include cytology testing to screen for cancer. The diagnostic process may help doctors rule out other effusion-causing cancers, such as ovarian cancer or breast cancer. • A sample of fluid collected from the pericardial sac using a procedure called a pericardiocentesis • The diagnosis of malignant peritoneal effusion may include any combination of the following: • Abdominal paracentesis (removal of fluid) followed by ascitic fluid analysis • Abdominal ultrasound • Blood tests • CT scan or other imaging tests • Fluid biopsy • Patient history • Physical examination • Tumor tissue biopsy
  • 11. • If cancer has not already been diagnosed, doctors may order a tumor tissue biopsy and testing. • This allows doctors to differentiate between peritoneal effusion and malignant peritoneal effusion. • If diagnosed with mesothelioma, doctors may classify patients by cell type and stage. Depending on patients’ symptoms, doctors may use various methods for treating ascites.
  • 12. Peritoneal Effusion Treated: • For patients, their mesothelioma cancer treatments may also treat peritoneal effusions. Mesothelioma doctors may also use other methods to manage peritoneal effusion. Treatment methods for peritoneal effusion include: • Catheters and other drainage ports: Catheters are tubes that can allow fluid to drain out of the peritoneum. Some, such as shunts, can be implanted and used long- term. Some catheters go through the skin, draining fluid into an external container. Other catheters drain fluid from the peritoneum into another area of the body. Other types of drainage ports may also be used, such as peritoneal ports.
  • 13. • Diuretics: Doctors may prescribe medication that increases the frequency of urination. This has shown a reduction in peritoneal fluid buildup for some patients. Diuretics may be more effective against ascites caused by cirrhosis versus cancer. • Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC): Doctors use a heated, localized chemotherapy to treat peritoneal mesothelioma in this method. The chemotherapy is heated to a temperature that kills cancer cells without killing healthy cells. Often HIPEC is combined with cytoreductive surgery. • Palliative HIPEC: This method uses heated chemotherapy alone, not in combination with surgery. For some patients, it has shown complete resolution of ascites and improvement in quality of life.
  • 14. • Paracentesis: In this method, doctors insert a needle into the abdominal cavity to drain the fluid buildup in the peritoneum. Paracentesis is the most common treatment for malignant peritoneal effusion. It is effective at relieving symptoms of abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting and breathing difficulty. This method provides temporary relief for 90% of patients. Symptoms may return quickly, so this method is frequently repeated. • Diuretics and paracentesis are the most common first- line treatments. These methods can help treat and manage peritoneal effusions. • Ascites may recur, resulting in patients receiving routine rounds of drainage or other treatment. In some of these cases, palliative care options may also help ease discomfort.
  • 15. Reported Improvements From At- Home Drainage Treatment: • Cognitive function • Difficulty breathing • Emotional function • Fatigue • Insomnia • Loss of appetite • Nausea and vomiting • Pain • Quality of life • When managing peritoneal effusions and underlying diseases, early detection, diagnosis and treatment matter. These factors may lead to patients having different prognostic and treatment options. Individuals experiencing symptoms of peritoneal effusion should speak to a healthcare provider for further guidance.
  • 16. Physical, Chemical: • Transudate • Most ascitic fluids are transudates and are caused by either congestive heart failure or hepatic cirrhosis. Typical fluid analysis results include: • Physical characteristics—fluid generally appears clear or straw-colored • Protein—less than 3 g/dL • Albumin level—low (typically evaluated as the difference between serum albumin and peritoneal fluid albumin, termed serum-ascites albumin gradient, or SAAG; values above 1.1 g/dL are considered evidence of a transudate.) • Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) fluid/serum ratio—less than 0.6 • Glucose—equal to glucose level in the blood • Cell count—few cells are present, usually lymphocytes • Specific gravity—less than 1.015
  • 17. Exudate • Physical characteristics—fluid may appear cloudy • Protein—greater than 3 g/dL • Albumin level—higher than in transudates (typically with a SAAG less than 1.1 g/dL) • Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) fluid/serum ratio— greater than 0.6 • Glucose—less than 60 mg/dL • Cell count—increased • Specific gravity—greater than 1.015
  • 18. • Exudates can be caused by a variety of conditions and diseases and usually require further testing to aid in the diagnosis. Infections, trauma, various cancers, or pancreatitis may cause exudates. The following is a list of additional tests that a healthcare practitioner may order depending on the suspected cause and typical results. • Physical characteristics – the normal appearance of a peritoneal fluid sample is usually straw-colored and clear. Abnormal appearances may give clues to conditions or diseases present and may include: • Yellow with liver disease, milky from obstruction of the lymphatic system, and greenish from bile • Reddish peritoneal fluid may indicate the presence of blood, most often due to trauma. • Cloudy peritoneal fluid may indicate the presence of microbes and/or white blood cells (WBCs), pointing to an infection. It may also indicate lymph system blockage or trauma.
  • 19. Chemical tests – tests that may be performed in addition to albumin may include: • Glucose—typically about the same as blood glucose levels; may be lower with infection • Amylase—increased with pancreatitis • Tumor markers—to identify type of malignancy