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UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION
Introduction to biochemistry and its importance
for health science students
Introduction to biochemistry
• Biochemistry or biological chemistry is the study of chemical
processes within and relating to living organisms.
• A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may
be divided into three fields: structural
biology, enzymology and metabolism.
• Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become
successful at explaining living processes through these three
disciplines.
• Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and
developed through biochemical methodology and research.
• Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which
allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur
within living cells and between cells, in turn relating greatly to the
understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure
and function.
• Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology which is the
study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.
Introduction to biochemistry
• Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living things.
• The terms biochemistry was given German chemist Carl Neuberg
in 1903.
• Formally biochemistry can be defined as a science concerned with
the basis of life.
• This includes organic and inorganic molecules and their chemical
reactions.
• Most people consider biochemistry to be synonymous with
molecular biology.
• Biochemistry is concepts of chemistry particularly organic and
physical chemistry, for elucidation of the living system.
• Biochemistry can also be define as the study of the molecular basis
of cellular function.
• It has evolved into the common language for translating the
advances of molecular genetics into cellular and chemical terms.
• Biochemists study a broad range of cellular functions from gene
transcription to the structure and function of macromolecules.
Molecules of Biochemists study
• The principal types of biological molecules or bio-
molecules are:
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Proteins
• Nucleic acids
Many of these molecules are complex molecules
called polymers, which are made up of monomer
subunits. Biochemical molecules are based on carbon.
Uses of biochemistry
• Biochemistry is used to learn about the biological processes
which take place in cells and organisms.
• Biochemistry may be used to study the properties of
biological molecules, for a variety of purposes. For example, a
biochemist may study the characteristics of the keratin in hair
so that shampoo may be developed that enhances curliness or
softness.
• Biochemists find uses for bio-molecules. For example, a
biochemist may use a certain lipis as a food additive
• Alternatively, a biochemist might find a substitute for a usual
bio-molecuale. For example, biochemists help to develop
artificial sweeteners.
• Biochemists can help cells to produce new products. Gene
therapy is within the realm of biochemistry. The development
of biological machinery falls within the realm of biochemistry.
Scope of Biochemistry
• Modern Biochemistry has two branches, descriptive
Biochemistry and dynamic Biochemistry.
• Descriptive Biochemistry deals with the qualitative and
quantitative characterization of the various cell
components and the dynamic Biochemistry deals with
the elucidation of the nature and the mechanism of the
reactions involving these cell components.
• Many newer disciplines have been emerged from
Biochemistry such of Enzymology (study of enzymes),
Endocrinology (study of hormones) Clinical
Biochemistry (study of diseases), Molecular
Biochemistry (Study of Biomolecules and their
functions). Along with these branches certain other
specialties have also come up such as Agricultural
Biochemistry, Pharmacological Biochemistry etc.
Objectives of Biochemistry
• The major objective of Biochemistry is the
complete understanding of all the chemical
processes associated with living cells at the
molecular level.
• To achieve this objective, biochemists have
attempted to isolate numerous molecules (Bio
molecules) found in cells, to determine their
structures and to analyze how they function.
• Biochemical studies have illuminated many aspects
of disease and the study of certain diseases have
opened up new therapeutic approaches.
In brief the objectives can be listed as
follows:
1. Isolation, structural elucidation and the
determination of mode of action of biomolecules.
2. Identification of disease mechanisms.
3. Study of in born errors of metabolism
4. Study of oncogenes in cancer cells
5. The relationship of biochemistry with genetics,
physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology
etc
Importance of biochemistry in
MEDICINE
• Physiology: Biochemistry helps one understand the
biochemical changes and related physiological alteration
in the body.
• Pathology: Based on the symptoms described by the
patient, physician can get clue on the biochemical change
and the associated disorder. For example if a patient
complains about stiffness in small joints, then physician
may predict it to be gout and get confirmed by evaluating
uric acid levels in the blood. As uric acid accumulation in
blood results in gout.
• Nursing and diagnosis: In nursing importance of clinical
biochemistry is invaluable. Also almost all the diseases or
disorders have some biochemical involvement. So the
diagnosis of any clinical condition is easily possible by
biochemical estimations.
Importance of biochemistry in PHARMACY
• Drug Constitution: Biochemistry gives an idea of the
constitution of the drug, its chances of degradation with varying
temperature etc. How modification in the medicinal chemistry
helps improve efficiency, minimize side effects etc.
• The half life and Drug storage: This is a test done on
biochemical drugs to know how long a drug is stable when kept
at so and so temperature. For example many enzymes, hormones
are stored for dispensing. These get deteriorated over time due to
temperature or oxidation, contamination and also due to
improper storage.
• Drug metabolism: It also gives an idea of how drug molecules
are metabolized by many biochemical reactions in presence of
enzymes. This helps to avoid drugs which have poor metabolism
or those with excessive side effects from being prescribed or
dispensed to the patient.

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UNIT 1 biochem and micro.pptx

  • 1. UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION Introduction to biochemistry and its importance for health science students
  • 2. Introduction to biochemistry • Biochemistry or biological chemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. • A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. • Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. • Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. • Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure and function. • Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.
  • 3. Introduction to biochemistry • Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living things. • The terms biochemistry was given German chemist Carl Neuberg in 1903. • Formally biochemistry can be defined as a science concerned with the basis of life. • This includes organic and inorganic molecules and their chemical reactions. • Most people consider biochemistry to be synonymous with molecular biology. • Biochemistry is concepts of chemistry particularly organic and physical chemistry, for elucidation of the living system. • Biochemistry can also be define as the study of the molecular basis of cellular function. • It has evolved into the common language for translating the advances of molecular genetics into cellular and chemical terms. • Biochemists study a broad range of cellular functions from gene transcription to the structure and function of macromolecules.
  • 4. Molecules of Biochemists study • The principal types of biological molecules or bio- molecules are: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids Many of these molecules are complex molecules called polymers, which are made up of monomer subunits. Biochemical molecules are based on carbon.
  • 5. Uses of biochemistry • Biochemistry is used to learn about the biological processes which take place in cells and organisms. • Biochemistry may be used to study the properties of biological molecules, for a variety of purposes. For example, a biochemist may study the characteristics of the keratin in hair so that shampoo may be developed that enhances curliness or softness. • Biochemists find uses for bio-molecules. For example, a biochemist may use a certain lipis as a food additive • Alternatively, a biochemist might find a substitute for a usual bio-molecuale. For example, biochemists help to develop artificial sweeteners. • Biochemists can help cells to produce new products. Gene therapy is within the realm of biochemistry. The development of biological machinery falls within the realm of biochemistry.
  • 6. Scope of Biochemistry • Modern Biochemistry has two branches, descriptive Biochemistry and dynamic Biochemistry. • Descriptive Biochemistry deals with the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the various cell components and the dynamic Biochemistry deals with the elucidation of the nature and the mechanism of the reactions involving these cell components. • Many newer disciplines have been emerged from Biochemistry such of Enzymology (study of enzymes), Endocrinology (study of hormones) Clinical Biochemistry (study of diseases), Molecular Biochemistry (Study of Biomolecules and their functions). Along with these branches certain other specialties have also come up such as Agricultural Biochemistry, Pharmacological Biochemistry etc.
  • 7. Objectives of Biochemistry • The major objective of Biochemistry is the complete understanding of all the chemical processes associated with living cells at the molecular level. • To achieve this objective, biochemists have attempted to isolate numerous molecules (Bio molecules) found in cells, to determine their structures and to analyze how they function. • Biochemical studies have illuminated many aspects of disease and the study of certain diseases have opened up new therapeutic approaches.
  • 8. In brief the objectives can be listed as follows: 1. Isolation, structural elucidation and the determination of mode of action of biomolecules. 2. Identification of disease mechanisms. 3. Study of in born errors of metabolism 4. Study of oncogenes in cancer cells 5. The relationship of biochemistry with genetics, physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology etc
  • 9. Importance of biochemistry in MEDICINE • Physiology: Biochemistry helps one understand the biochemical changes and related physiological alteration in the body. • Pathology: Based on the symptoms described by the patient, physician can get clue on the biochemical change and the associated disorder. For example if a patient complains about stiffness in small joints, then physician may predict it to be gout and get confirmed by evaluating uric acid levels in the blood. As uric acid accumulation in blood results in gout. • Nursing and diagnosis: In nursing importance of clinical biochemistry is invaluable. Also almost all the diseases or disorders have some biochemical involvement. So the diagnosis of any clinical condition is easily possible by biochemical estimations.
  • 10. Importance of biochemistry in PHARMACY • Drug Constitution: Biochemistry gives an idea of the constitution of the drug, its chances of degradation with varying temperature etc. How modification in the medicinal chemistry helps improve efficiency, minimize side effects etc. • The half life and Drug storage: This is a test done on biochemical drugs to know how long a drug is stable when kept at so and so temperature. For example many enzymes, hormones are stored for dispensing. These get deteriorated over time due to temperature or oxidation, contamination and also due to improper storage. • Drug metabolism: It also gives an idea of how drug molecules are metabolized by many biochemical reactions in presence of enzymes. This helps to avoid drugs which have poor metabolism or those with excessive side effects from being prescribed or dispensed to the patient.