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Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud 
 Born in 1856 
 Spent his life working in Vienna but left in 
1938 after the Nazi takeover 
 Died in 1939 in London 
 Originally trained as a doctor – was 
influenced by Joseph Breuer who was using 
hypnosis to treat ‘hysterical reactions’ in 
female patients 
2
Freud’s consulting room
Psychodynamic Approach 
The key 
assumption of the 
psychodynamic 
approach is that all 
human behaviour 
can be explained in 
terms of inner 
conflict of the mind.
The Mind 
The conscious. The 
small amount of mental 
activity we know about. 
The preconscious. 
Things we could be 
aware of if we wanted 
or tried. 
The unconscious. 
Things we are unaware 
of and can not become 
aware of. 
Thoughts 
Perceptions 
Memories 
Stored knowledge 
Fears 
Unacceptable desires 
Violent motives 
Irrational wishes 
Immoral urges 
Selfish needs 
Shameful experiences 
Traumatic experiences 
Bad 
Worse 
Really Bad
Freud (1856-1939) 
Theory of Personality 
ID = Latin for ‘it’
The Mind 
Id: 
Instincts 
Superego: 
Morality 
Ego: 
Reality
The Mind 
 This diagram is 
often used to 
represent Freud’s 
view of the mind 
and personality.
The Id Need food... 
 According to Freud, 
the id is the 
personality construct 
that we are born 
with. 
 Its energy is called 
the “libido”. 
 It operates on the 
pleasure principle. 
 What does this 
mean? 
 How will the id inform 
behaviour? 
need drink... 
need comfort... 
need burping... 
need sleep... 
need it NOW!
The Superego 
 The superego is the 'ideal' 
force, the civilised, socially 
acceptable figure the 
person strives to be. 
 It includes our 
understanding of right and 
wrong. 
 It opposes the id and is 
essentially an 
internalisation of rules 
passed down from our 
parents.
The ego 
 The ego is the reality 
principle. 
 It must balance the 
drives of the id and the 
control of the 
superego.
A balancing act 
 The strength of each 
individual force is a 
factor in personality – 
 If a person's superego 
is too strong, they are 
seen as rigid, anxious 
or self righteous. 
 If a person's id is too 
strong, they are seen 
as delinquent, 
antisocial or self 
centred.
Personality Development 
 Freud believed that the id, ego and 
super ego were separate and conflicting 
forces, 
 They need to be balanced for good 
mental health and normal behaviour
EGO 
ID SUPEREGO
There is one cake left on the 
table. 
 ID – want the cake, needs to take the cake, 
isn't concerned about others. 
 SUPEREGO – I mustn’t have the cake, I 
should leave it for someone else, I will let 
someone else have it, don’t be greedy. 
 EGO – I will wait for a few minutes, see if 
anyone else has it, I am rather hungry, if it is 
still there in 5 minutes then I’ll take it.
Development of the ID, EGO and 
SUPEREGO 
 At birth, personality is ruled by ID (pleasure 
principle) 
 Early childhood, EGO starts to develop 
(reality principle) 
 Later childhood, the SUPER EGO emerges 
(Morality principle)
Healthy Psyche 
Ego 
OK Guys – I’m in charge. 
Anything you want has to go 
through me. 
Id Superego 
OK. 
OK.
Neurotic Psyche 
Listen up! I’m in charge, and you are not 
here to enjoy yourselves. Get ready for a 
double-size portion of anxiety with a side 
Id 
Superego 
order of guilt! 
Ego 
No fun. 
>whimper<
Psychotic Psyche 
Id 
Sex! Food! Drink! Drugs! 
NOW! 
Who 
turned out 
the lights? 
Ego Superego
Link to abnormality 
 Ego too weak – allows id and superego to 
dominate, 
 Id too strong – selfish, out of control, could 
become psychopathic- destructive 
tendencies & uninhibited sexual behaviour 
 Superego too strong – strict, anxious, 
obsessive – depression, anxiety, OCD
What happens if there is a conflict 
between the id, ego & superego? 
 ANXIETY 
 The ego tries to avoid anxiety & uses ego 
defence mechanisms to maintain a 
balance in relation to the id & superego 
21
Proof of the unconscious? 
 ‘Freudian slips’ 
 “A Freudian slip is saying 
one thing and meaning 
your mother” 
 http://www.youtube.com/w 
atch?v=Mvxe04wGmTw&f 
eature=related
Ego Defence Mechanisms 
 The constant conflict of between Id, Ego 
and Superego produces anxiety. To 
manage this anxiety, the ego has defence 
mechanisms; 
1. Denial 
2. Projection 
3. Displacement 
4. Repression
 Displacement: you redirect your feelings to 
another target 
It’s not my fault my marriage 
is over. It’s the newspapers’. 
And those women for selling 
their stories… And Cheryl’s 
for not being there enough… 
And my mum’s for not 
breastfeeding me. I hate 
them all!
Other Defence Mechanisms 
 Regression – regressing back to earlier 
childhood behaviour 
– e.g. a child anxious mother will reject him once 
new baby bro/sis arrives can revert to tantrums, 
bed wetting, soiling etc 
 Reaction Formation – hiding real feelings by 
acting in the opposite way 
– e.g. talking loudly when nervous
 Regression: You re‘vmert to an old, usually 
immature, behaviour 
I’m going home to me Mam, 
so she can cook me beans 
on toast, and stroke me 
hair and tell me that 
everything is going to be 
alright.
 Rationalisation: You try to justify 
uncomfortable thoughts or feelings with 
socially acceptable motives 
I don’t hate women… I 
love them… that’s why 
I can’t keep it in my 
pants!
Defence Mechanisms 
can lead to Mental Disorder 
 unacceptable desires and impulses, traumatic 
events, etc ‘managed’ by defence mechanisms 
can; 
– re-emerge as symptoms of anxiety or other emotional 
disorders. 
– Still affect behaviour, leading to distress as person 
doesn’t understand why they’re behaving as they are 
– Be triggered by similar life event, leading them to re-experience 
original event leading to depression.
33 
Psychodynamic Approach 
Main Assumption 
 The Psychodynamic Model assumes that 
experiences in our earlier years can affect our 
emotions, attitudes and behaviour in later years 
without us being aware that it is happening. Freud 
suggested that abnormal behaviour is caused by 
unresolved conflicts in the Unconscious. These 
conflicts create anxiety, and we use defence 
mechanisms such as repression and denial to 
protect our Ego against this anxiety.
Freud’s psychosexual 
development theory 
 Another key element in Freud’s psychoanalytic 
theory of normal/abnormal behaviour 
 A child goes through a series of stages & the id 
looks for gratification in different bodily areas 
(erogenous zones) 
 If a child is deprived or over-gratified at a particular 
stage they may become fixated which will affect 
their adult behaviour 
34
Psychosexual 
Development 
1. Oral 
2. Anal 
3. Phallic 
4. Latency 
5. Genital 
• ‘Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness’
The FIVE psychosexual stages 
 The Oral (Birth - 1 year) 
 The Anal (1 - 3 years) 
 The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years) 
 The Latency (6 - puberty) 
 The Genital (adulthood)
Stage 1 - the ORAL stage 
 Mouth (sucking) is the source of pleasure 
 The ID is in control 
 Successful completion of this stage is 
demonstrated by weaning – eating 
independently
In the ORAL stage ……. 
 Fixation caused by 
 Oral receptive (not allowed to suck 
freely) – passive, needy, sensitive to 
rejection – overeats and drinks, bite 
nails, may smoke 
 Oral aggressive (allowed to suck too 
often/too long) – hostile and verbally 
abusive, sarcastic
Stage 2 - the ANAL Stage 
 Elimination of faeces is the source 
of pleasure 
 18 months to 3 years 
 Defecation is main source of 
pleasure 
 Successful completion marked by 
potty training
In the ANAL stage …. 
 Fixation (a) Anal expulsive: 
symptoms: giving to charity, potters, gardeners, 
(sublimating the wish to smear), disorganised. 
 Fixation (b) Anal retentive 
symptoms: miserly, thrifty, orderly, obstinate, tidy, 
stubborn, obsessive.
Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage 
 The Superego develops 
 The Oedipus conflict (boys) 
 The Electra conflict (girls)
The latency stage 
 Age 6 to puberty approximately 
 Sexual urges sublimated into sports and 
other hobbies 
 Focus on developing same sex friendships 
 No particular requirements for successful 
completion 
 Lull before the storm of puberty!
The genital stage 
 Puberty into adulthood 
 Focus on genitals but not to 
same extent as phallic stage 
 Task is to develop healthy 
adult relationships 
 This should happen if earlier 
stages have been negotiated 
successfully
Little Hans 
 Freud believed that the case 
study of Little Hans supported 
his theory of psychosexual 
stages and the Oedipus complex 
in particular 
 http://goanimate.com/movie/0Ott 
U_subTrM/1
Your task : 
 Using your text book write three evaluation 
points of the psychodynamic approach to 
abnormal behaviour 
45
Strengths 
 One strength of the Psychodynamic Model is that 
it reminds us that experiences in childhood can 
affect us throughout our lives. 
 It accepts that everybody can suffer mental 
conflicts and neuroses through no fault of their 
own. 
 The model also suggests there is no need for 
medical intervention such as drugs, ECT or 
psychotherapy, and that the patient, with the help 
of a psychoanalyst, can find a cure which 
empowers the individual & discourages 
helplessness)
Strengths of the Psychodynamic 
Perspective 
 Practical applications: huge 
impact on the world of 
counselling, psychotherapy and 
psychiatry. 
 Face validity. 
 It treats the whole person, the 
cause, not just the symptoms. 
 Recognises the importance of 
childhood.
Weaknesses 
 The main limitation of the Psychodynamic Model is that it cannot be 
scientifically observed or tested. Abstract concepts. 
 Any evidence recovered from a patient must be analysed and 
interpreted by a therapist. This leaves open the possibility of serious 
misinterpretation or bias because two therapists may interpret the 
same evidence in entirely different ways. 
 Psychoanalysis is time-consuming and expensive. It may not even 
work: in a comprehensive view of 7000 cases, Eysenck (1952) claimed 
that psychodynamic therapy does more harm than good. 
 Sexist – unbalanced, Electra Complex for example not thorough / 
vague in detail. Reflective of Cultural bias of the time Freud worked 
(women were not considered as equal to men)
Weaknesses of the Psychodynamic 
Perspective 
 The case study method is 
unrepresentative and therefore 
there are concerns about 
generalisability 
 Criticised for too much emphasis 
on SEX.

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AS Psychodynamic approach abnormality

  • 2. Sigmund Freud  Born in 1856  Spent his life working in Vienna but left in 1938 after the Nazi takeover  Died in 1939 in London  Originally trained as a doctor – was influenced by Joseph Breuer who was using hypnosis to treat ‘hysterical reactions’ in female patients 2
  • 4. Psychodynamic Approach The key assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that all human behaviour can be explained in terms of inner conflict of the mind.
  • 5. The Mind The conscious. The small amount of mental activity we know about. The preconscious. Things we could be aware of if we wanted or tried. The unconscious. Things we are unaware of and can not become aware of. Thoughts Perceptions Memories Stored knowledge Fears Unacceptable desires Violent motives Irrational wishes Immoral urges Selfish needs Shameful experiences Traumatic experiences Bad Worse Really Bad
  • 6. Freud (1856-1939) Theory of Personality ID = Latin for ‘it’
  • 7. The Mind Id: Instincts Superego: Morality Ego: Reality
  • 8. The Mind  This diagram is often used to represent Freud’s view of the mind and personality.
  • 9. The Id Need food...  According to Freud, the id is the personality construct that we are born with.  Its energy is called the “libido”.  It operates on the pleasure principle.  What does this mean?  How will the id inform behaviour? need drink... need comfort... need burping... need sleep... need it NOW!
  • 10. The Superego  The superego is the 'ideal' force, the civilised, socially acceptable figure the person strives to be.  It includes our understanding of right and wrong.  It opposes the id and is essentially an internalisation of rules passed down from our parents.
  • 11. The ego  The ego is the reality principle.  It must balance the drives of the id and the control of the superego.
  • 12. A balancing act  The strength of each individual force is a factor in personality –  If a person's superego is too strong, they are seen as rigid, anxious or self righteous.  If a person's id is too strong, they are seen as delinquent, antisocial or self centred.
  • 13. Personality Development  Freud believed that the id, ego and super ego were separate and conflicting forces,  They need to be balanced for good mental health and normal behaviour
  • 15. There is one cake left on the table.  ID – want the cake, needs to take the cake, isn't concerned about others.  SUPEREGO – I mustn’t have the cake, I should leave it for someone else, I will let someone else have it, don’t be greedy.  EGO – I will wait for a few minutes, see if anyone else has it, I am rather hungry, if it is still there in 5 minutes then I’ll take it.
  • 16. Development of the ID, EGO and SUPEREGO  At birth, personality is ruled by ID (pleasure principle)  Early childhood, EGO starts to develop (reality principle)  Later childhood, the SUPER EGO emerges (Morality principle)
  • 17. Healthy Psyche Ego OK Guys – I’m in charge. Anything you want has to go through me. Id Superego OK. OK.
  • 18. Neurotic Psyche Listen up! I’m in charge, and you are not here to enjoy yourselves. Get ready for a double-size portion of anxiety with a side Id Superego order of guilt! Ego No fun. >whimper<
  • 19. Psychotic Psyche Id Sex! Food! Drink! Drugs! NOW! Who turned out the lights? Ego Superego
  • 20. Link to abnormality  Ego too weak – allows id and superego to dominate,  Id too strong – selfish, out of control, could become psychopathic- destructive tendencies & uninhibited sexual behaviour  Superego too strong – strict, anxious, obsessive – depression, anxiety, OCD
  • 21. What happens if there is a conflict between the id, ego & superego?  ANXIETY  The ego tries to avoid anxiety & uses ego defence mechanisms to maintain a balance in relation to the id & superego 21
  • 22. Proof of the unconscious?  ‘Freudian slips’  “A Freudian slip is saying one thing and meaning your mother”  http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=Mvxe04wGmTw&f eature=related
  • 23. Ego Defence Mechanisms  The constant conflict of between Id, Ego and Superego produces anxiety. To manage this anxiety, the ego has defence mechanisms; 1. Denial 2. Projection 3. Displacement 4. Repression
  • 24.  Displacement: you redirect your feelings to another target It’s not my fault my marriage is over. It’s the newspapers’. And those women for selling their stories… And Cheryl’s for not being there enough… And my mum’s for not breastfeeding me. I hate them all!
  • 25. Other Defence Mechanisms  Regression – regressing back to earlier childhood behaviour – e.g. a child anxious mother will reject him once new baby bro/sis arrives can revert to tantrums, bed wetting, soiling etc  Reaction Formation – hiding real feelings by acting in the opposite way – e.g. talking loudly when nervous
  • 26.  Regression: You re‘vmert to an old, usually immature, behaviour I’m going home to me Mam, so she can cook me beans on toast, and stroke me hair and tell me that everything is going to be alright.
  • 27.  Rationalisation: You try to justify uncomfortable thoughts or feelings with socially acceptable motives I don’t hate women… I love them… that’s why I can’t keep it in my pants!
  • 28. Defence Mechanisms can lead to Mental Disorder  unacceptable desires and impulses, traumatic events, etc ‘managed’ by defence mechanisms can; – re-emerge as symptoms of anxiety or other emotional disorders. – Still affect behaviour, leading to distress as person doesn’t understand why they’re behaving as they are – Be triggered by similar life event, leading them to re-experience original event leading to depression.
  • 29. 33 Psychodynamic Approach Main Assumption  The Psychodynamic Model assumes that experiences in our earlier years can affect our emotions, attitudes and behaviour in later years without us being aware that it is happening. Freud suggested that abnormal behaviour is caused by unresolved conflicts in the Unconscious. These conflicts create anxiety, and we use defence mechanisms such as repression and denial to protect our Ego against this anxiety.
  • 30. Freud’s psychosexual development theory  Another key element in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of normal/abnormal behaviour  A child goes through a series of stages & the id looks for gratification in different bodily areas (erogenous zones)  If a child is deprived or over-gratified at a particular stage they may become fixated which will affect their adult behaviour 34
  • 31. Psychosexual Development 1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic 4. Latency 5. Genital • ‘Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness’
  • 32. The FIVE psychosexual stages  The Oral (Birth - 1 year)  The Anal (1 - 3 years)  The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years)  The Latency (6 - puberty)  The Genital (adulthood)
  • 33. Stage 1 - the ORAL stage  Mouth (sucking) is the source of pleasure  The ID is in control  Successful completion of this stage is demonstrated by weaning – eating independently
  • 34. In the ORAL stage …….  Fixation caused by  Oral receptive (not allowed to suck freely) – passive, needy, sensitive to rejection – overeats and drinks, bite nails, may smoke  Oral aggressive (allowed to suck too often/too long) – hostile and verbally abusive, sarcastic
  • 35. Stage 2 - the ANAL Stage  Elimination of faeces is the source of pleasure  18 months to 3 years  Defecation is main source of pleasure  Successful completion marked by potty training
  • 36. In the ANAL stage ….  Fixation (a) Anal expulsive: symptoms: giving to charity, potters, gardeners, (sublimating the wish to smear), disorganised.  Fixation (b) Anal retentive symptoms: miserly, thrifty, orderly, obstinate, tidy, stubborn, obsessive.
  • 37. Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage  The Superego develops  The Oedipus conflict (boys)  The Electra conflict (girls)
  • 38. The latency stage  Age 6 to puberty approximately  Sexual urges sublimated into sports and other hobbies  Focus on developing same sex friendships  No particular requirements for successful completion  Lull before the storm of puberty!
  • 39. The genital stage  Puberty into adulthood  Focus on genitals but not to same extent as phallic stage  Task is to develop healthy adult relationships  This should happen if earlier stages have been negotiated successfully
  • 40. Little Hans  Freud believed that the case study of Little Hans supported his theory of psychosexual stages and the Oedipus complex in particular  http://goanimate.com/movie/0Ott U_subTrM/1
  • 41. Your task :  Using your text book write three evaluation points of the psychodynamic approach to abnormal behaviour 45
  • 42. Strengths  One strength of the Psychodynamic Model is that it reminds us that experiences in childhood can affect us throughout our lives.  It accepts that everybody can suffer mental conflicts and neuroses through no fault of their own.  The model also suggests there is no need for medical intervention such as drugs, ECT or psychotherapy, and that the patient, with the help of a psychoanalyst, can find a cure which empowers the individual & discourages helplessness)
  • 43. Strengths of the Psychodynamic Perspective  Practical applications: huge impact on the world of counselling, psychotherapy and psychiatry.  Face validity.  It treats the whole person, the cause, not just the symptoms.  Recognises the importance of childhood.
  • 44. Weaknesses  The main limitation of the Psychodynamic Model is that it cannot be scientifically observed or tested. Abstract concepts.  Any evidence recovered from a patient must be analysed and interpreted by a therapist. This leaves open the possibility of serious misinterpretation or bias because two therapists may interpret the same evidence in entirely different ways.  Psychoanalysis is time-consuming and expensive. It may not even work: in a comprehensive view of 7000 cases, Eysenck (1952) claimed that psychodynamic therapy does more harm than good.  Sexist – unbalanced, Electra Complex for example not thorough / vague in detail. Reflective of Cultural bias of the time Freud worked (women were not considered as equal to men)
  • 45. Weaknesses of the Psychodynamic Perspective  The case study method is unrepresentative and therefore there are concerns about generalisability  Criticised for too much emphasis on SEX.