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CHAPTER 3:
DEVELOPMENT
AFSHAN ARZOO
What is Development?
 Human development refers to the biological
and psychological development of
the human being throughout the lifespan. It
consists of the development from infancy,
childhood, and adolescence to adulthood. The
scientific study of psychological human
development is sometimes known
as Developmental psychology.
Physical development:
 Build reflexes. Simple unlearned response to a
stimulus.
 Motor development. Maturation and
experience both play key roles in motor
development.
Psychological development
 Perceptual development:
 Through the development of personality.
 Through cognitive development.
 Personality refers to individual differences in
characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and
behaving.
Sigmund Frued
 First psychodynamic personality theory
 Background
- Born 1856 Austro-Hungarian Empire
- Went into training as a medical doctor
- Theory based largely on sessions with his patients
- Nervous disorders sometimes didn’t make neurological
- Sense and talking often revealed emotional problems and
resolved symptoms
 Discussed cases with colleague Josef Breuer -- who
used hypnosis as a way to help cure patients with
various neuroses problems.
Sigmund
Frued
 1895 -- announced a new technique called free association.
 Patients express any random thoughts that enter their minds.
 Unconscious thoughts and memories brought to the conscious, allowing
the patient to understand them. This will hopefully free the patient from the
problem.
 Free association led to a therapy known as psychoanalysis.
- Focused biologically based instinctual drives, especially sex and
aggression.
- Very young children also have these drives and they influence fantasies,
problem solving and social interactions
Freud’s view of the mind
• conscious-- what you’re
aware of, can verbalize and
think about in a logical fashion.
• preconscious -- ordinary
memory. Not conscious, but
can be easily brought into
conscious.
• unconscious -- not directly
accessible. A dump box for
urges, feelings and ideas that
are tied to anxiety, conflict and
pain. These feelings and
thoughts still exert influence
on our actions and our
conscious awareness.
Three Portions of Personality in
Psychosexual Theory
 Id--(unconscious)-- sexual and aggressive
impulses -- represents biological needs and
desires, and requires immediate gratification
 Superego--(mainly unconscious) moral
ethical principles -- represents values of
society and conscience. A primitive knowledge
of right and wrong.
 Ego (mainly conscious) reality oriented
functions develops in early infancy and is the
conscious, rational part of personality It is the
mediator between the id and the superego
ID
SUPEREGO
EGO
consciou
s
unconsciou
s
The psychodynamic approach: How
does a child’s personality develop?
 Stages of Psychosexual Development
 According to Freud people have a libido
(psychosexual energy) = all the sensations of
excitement that arise from body stimulation.
 He believed that how we manage this aspect of
our development influences nearly all aspects of
our personality
 as we grow up, we go through 5 psychosexual stages
 how we deal with the stages ultimately determines
personality (“fixation”).
FIXATION
 If a person is fixated (or ‘stuck’) in one stage,
they are unlikely to be able to deal with other
emotional crises they confront in the later
developmental stages. According to Freud,
fixations prevent the development of a ‘normal’
personality and can be the basis of personality
and behavioural problems in later life
Psychosexual development
 1: the oral stage from birth – 18 mths
 focus on the mouth
 Pleasure is gained through sucking
 e.g. Breast feeding
 If child stays fixated in this stage in adulthood
can be
 Smoker
 Bite fingernails
 Sexually attracted to large breasts
Psychosexual Development
 2: The anal stage 18 mth – 3 years
 Focus on the anus
 Pleasure gained from going to the toilet
 e.g. TOILET training
 If child stays fixated in this stage in adulthood can be
 Anal retentive traits--being obsessively clean, overly
tidy, very orderly, controlled, punctual, stingy and
possessive. due to strict attitudes towards toilet
training.
 OCD (if punished during toilet training)
 Anal expulsive traits-- poorly organized and perhaps
aggressive. Due to lax attitudes towards toilet
training.
Psychosexual Development
 3: The phallic stage 3 – 6
years
 Focus on the genitals
 Exploration and interest in
genitals
 attracted to the opposite-sex
parent
 Go through either:
 The Oedipus Complex (for
Phallic Stage
 At this time the child is said to seek genital
stimulation and develop an unconscious
attraction to the parent of the opposite sex,
while at the same time developing unconscious
feelings of jealousy and hatred toward the
parent of the same sex.
 In girls, Freud calls this the Electra complex,
when the girl loves her father and competes with
her mother for the father's affection and
attention. In boys, this is called the Oedipus
complex, when the boy is attracted to his mother
and envies his father
Phallic Stage
• Resolving the conflicts caused by these
developmental problems is crucial to
healthy ‘psychosexual’ development.
• Those individuals not able to resolve the
conflicts may develop long-lasting
psychological problems.
• For a boy, resolving the Oedipus complex
will lead to controlling his envy and
hostility towards his father and trying to
be like him.
• For a girl, resolving the Electra complex
and ultimately developing ‘normally’
means overcoming her attraction towards
her father, identifying with her mother and
finally looking for a male to take the place
of her father.
Psychosexual development
 The Latent Period (About 6 years to
adolescence)
 The child in this period suppresses his or her
psychosexual interest. Children in this age group tend
to play mostly with same sex peers.
 There is some evidence that the “latent period” is a
cultural artifact. Children in some non-industrialized
societies do not experience a period of “latency.”
Psychosexual development
 The Genital Stage (Adolescence and beyond)
 The individual in this period has a strong sexual
interest in other people. If he or she has completed
the other stages successfully, primary psychosexual
satisfaction will be gained from partner.
 The individual who is fixated in an early period of
development has little libido left for this stage.
Table 1: Freud’s stages of psychosexual development.
Defense mechanisms and
anxiety
 Freud proposed that defense mechanisms reduce
anxiety by denying, falsifying or distorting
reality at an unconscious level; that is, the ego
interprets events in a way which denies or
changes reality so that we can believe there is no
need to feel anxious or ‘psychologically uneasy’.
This usually happens without us being aware that
we are actually doing it.
 According to Freud, it is our way of protecting
ourselves from psychological harm. Defense
mechanisms usually would not reduce anxiety if
we recognised we were actively trying to cover up.
Criticisms of Freud
 Psychoanalytic theory & concepts are
vague and not operationally defined
 Theory is good history, but bad science -
does not reliably predict what will occur
 Theories were developed from speculation
based on clinical experience with patients
in therapy for serious problems
 Developmental theory was not based upon
observations or studies of children
 Theory minimizes traumatic experiences by
reinterpreting memories as fantasies
 It is male centered
Psychosocial Stages of
Personality Development
 FOUNDER: ERIC ERICKSON
Psychosocial Stages of Personality
Development
 8 successive stages over the lifespan
 Addresses bio, social, situational, personal
influences
 Crisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope
with task in each developmental stage
 Respond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for
next developmental stage
 Respond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt
to later problems
 Basic strengths: Motivating characteristics and
beliefs that derive from successful resolution of
crisis in each stage
Stage 1: Basic Trust vs.
Mistrust
 Birth to age 1.5
 Significant relationship – maternal person
 Totally dependent on others
 Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust
 Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops
mistrust
 Basic strength: Hope
 Belief our desires will be satisfied
 Feeling of confidence
 Fear. When a crisis occurs, they may feel hopeless,
anxious, and insecure.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt
 Ages 1.5 -3
 Child able to exercise some degree of choice
 Child’s independence is thwarted: child
develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in
dealing with others
 Basic Strength: Will
 Determination to exercise freedom of choice in
face of society’s demands
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
 Ages 3-6
 Significant relationship – basic family
 Child expresses desire to take initiative in
activities
 Parents punish child for initiative: child
develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-
directed activity throughout life
 Basic strength: Purpose
 Courage to envision and pursue goals
Stage 4: Industriousness vs.
Inferiority
 Ages 6-12
 Significant relationship – neighborhood, school
 Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in
task completion (school work, play)
 Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts:
child develops feelings of inferiority and
inadequacy
 Basci strength: Competence
 Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and
completing tasks
 Stages 1-4
 Largely determined by others (parents, teachers)
 Stages 5-8
 Individual has more control over environment
 Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in
each stage
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role
Confusion
 Ages 12-18
 Significant relationship:
peer groups and models of leadership
 Form ego identity: self-image
 Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with
certainty and confidence
 Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity
 Basic strength: Fidelity
 Emerges from cohesive ego identity
 Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships
with others
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
 Ages 18-40 (approximately)
 Significant relationship – partners in friendship,
sex, competition, cooperation
 Undertake productive work and establish
intimate relationships
 Inability to establish intimacy leads to social
isolation
 Basic strength: Love
 Mutual devotion in a shared identity
 Fusing of oneself with another person
Stage 7: Generativity vs.
Stagnation
 Ages 40-65 (approximately)
 Significant relationship – divided labor and
shared household
 Generativity: Active involvement in
teaching/guiding the next generation
 Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for
generativity
 Basic strength: Care
 Broad concern for others
 Need to teach others
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
 Ages 65+
 Significant relationship – “mankind”, “my kind”
 Evaluation of entire life
 Integrity: Look back with satisfaction
 Despair: Review with anger, frustration
 Basic strength: Wisdom
 Detached concern with the whole of life
Table 2: Erickson psychosocial
stages of development
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
ERICKSON AND FREUD
THEORY:
 Erikson’s theory bears some resemblances to Freud’s
psychosexual stage theory, but with some key differences.
 Freud focused on the influence of the id, while Erikson focused on
the ego.
 Freud believed that personality was largely shaped by the time a
child reached age five, while Erikson’s theory spans the entire
lifespan.
 Another important difference is that while Freud stressed the
importance of childhood experiences and unconscious desires,
Erikson placed a greater emphasis on the role of social and cultural
influences.
 There are three key components of Erikson’s theory:
 Ego identity: Our continually changing sense of self that emerges
due to our social interactions and experiences.
 Ego strength: This develops when people successfully master each
stage of development.
 Conflict: At each stage of development, people face some type of
conflict that serves as a turning point in the developmental process.
Criticisms of Erikson
 Ambiguous terms and concepts
 Lack of precision
 Some terms are not easily measured empirically
 Experiences in stage may only apply to males
 Identity crisis may only apply to those affluent enough to
explore identities
 Not all people experience Erickson’s crises to the
same degree or at the same time.
 Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of
one psychosocial stage influences personality at a
later stage.
 Although support for Erikson's stages of personality
development exists. CRISIS of his theory provide evidence
suggesting a lack of discrete stages of personality
development.
Piaget Theory of Cognitive
Development:
 Founder: Jean Piaget
 Time: 1896 1980
Who was Piaget?
 Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Switzerland,
and died in 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland.
 At age 11, he wrote a paper on an albino
sparrow, which was published and was the
start of his famous career.
Who was Piaget? (cont.)
 After graduating high school, he attended the
University of Zurich, where he became
interested in psychoanalysis.
 He married in 1923 and had three children,
Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent.
 Piaget studied his children’s intellectual
development from infancy.
Theory of Cognitive Development
 While studying his children, Piaget
developed theories concerning how
children learn.
 His theory of Cognitive Development
consists of four stages of intellectual
development.
Cont:
 He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a
fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as
a process which occurs due to biological
maturation and interaction with the environment.
 Piaget (1936) was the first psychologist to make a
systematic study of cognitive development. His
contributions include a stage theory of child
cognitive development, detailed observational
studies of cognition in children, and a series of
simple but ingenious tests to reveal different
cognitive abilities.
Cont:
 To Piaget, cognitive development was a
progressive reorganization of mental
processes as a result of biological
maturation and environmental experience.
Children construct an understanding of the
world around them, then experience
discrepancies between what they already
know and what they discover in their
environment.
There Are Three Basic
Components To Piaget's
Cognitive Theory:
 Schemas
 (building blocks of knowledge).
 Adaptation processes that enable the transition
from one stage to another ( assimilation,
and accommodation).
 Stages of Cognitive Development:
 sensorimotor,
 preoperational,
 concrete operational,
 formal operational.
TERMS:
 ASSIMILATION: According to piaget, the
inclusion of a new event into existing schema.
 SCHEMA: According to piaget, a hypothetical
mental structure that permits the classification
and organization of new information.
 ACCOMMODATION: According to piaget, the
modification of schema so that information
inconsistent with existing schemas can be
integrated or understand.
 For example: whales
PIAGET STAGES OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT:
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to age 2
 The first of piaget’s stages of cognitive development,
characterized by coordination of sensory
information and motor activity, early exploration of
the environment, and lack of language.
 This stage is dominated by learning to coordinate
perception of self and of the environment with motor
activity.
 Reflexes.
 1month: assimilate stimuli into existing schemas.
Such as sucking
 Auditory and olfactory stimuli are not for purposeful
search.
Cont:
 3-4 months: Fascinated by her own hands or legs.
 Develop interest on the environment sounds.
 Behavior becomes inc: intentional and purposeful.
 4-8 months: explore cause-and-effect relationship such
as kicking a hanging toy.
 Object permanence: recognition that objects removed
from sight still exist, as demonstrated in children by
continued pursuit.
 Between 1 to 2 yrs: children begins to show interest in
how things are constructed. Ex: by touching parents
faces and their own.
 End of 2 yr: engage in mental trial and error before they
try out overt behavior.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE:
Age 2-7
During this stage, the child begins to develop:
 Ability to represent objects with images and
words
 Language skills
 Imagination
Children learn through imitation and play
during this stage. They begin to use
reasoning, however it is mainly intuitive,
instead of logical.
CONT:
 Preoperational stage: the second stage of
piaget theory, characterized by illogical use of
words and symbols, spotty logic, and
egocentrism.
 Egocentrism: According to piaget, the
assumption that others view the world as one
does oneself.
 PREOPERATIONAL CHILDREN CANNOT
UNDERSTAND THAT OTHER PEOPLE DO
NOT SEE THINGS THE SAME WAY THEY
DO.
Stage 3—Cognitive Development Theory
Concrete Operational Stage
Age 7-12
During this stage, the child begins to develop:
 The fundamentals of logic generally involve
 Ability to sort objects
 Ability to classify objects
 Concept of reversibility: recognition that process can
be undone, that things can be made as they were.
 Understanding of conservation (physical quantities do
not change based on the arrangement and/or
appearance of the object)
CONT:
 Capable of decentration: simultaneous
Focus on more than one dimension of a
problem, so that flexible, reversible thought
becomes possible.
Like: moral judgments, conservation.
 Conservation according to piaget, recognition
that basic properties of substances and mass
remain the same when superficial features
changes.
 Subjective in their judgment. Aware about the
wrongdoers and amount of damage.
Stage 4—Cognitive Development Theory
Formal Operational Stage
Age 11-15
During this stage, the child begins to develop:
 Ability to hypothesize, logical thought, classify
and reevaluate hypotheses.
 Central features are ability to think about ideas
as well as objects and to group and classify
ideas – symbols, statement and entire theory.
 Children begin thinking in a formal systematic
way.
 Egocentricism:
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3rd chp.pptx

  • 2. What is Development?  Human development refers to the biological and psychological development of the human being throughout the lifespan. It consists of the development from infancy, childhood, and adolescence to adulthood. The scientific study of psychological human development is sometimes known as Developmental psychology.
  • 3. Physical development:  Build reflexes. Simple unlearned response to a stimulus.  Motor development. Maturation and experience both play key roles in motor development.
  • 4. Psychological development  Perceptual development:  Through the development of personality.  Through cognitive development.  Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
  • 5. Sigmund Frued  First psychodynamic personality theory  Background - Born 1856 Austro-Hungarian Empire - Went into training as a medical doctor - Theory based largely on sessions with his patients - Nervous disorders sometimes didn’t make neurological - Sense and talking often revealed emotional problems and resolved symptoms  Discussed cases with colleague Josef Breuer -- who used hypnosis as a way to help cure patients with various neuroses problems.
  • 6. Sigmund Frued  1895 -- announced a new technique called free association.  Patients express any random thoughts that enter their minds.  Unconscious thoughts and memories brought to the conscious, allowing the patient to understand them. This will hopefully free the patient from the problem.  Free association led to a therapy known as psychoanalysis. - Focused biologically based instinctual drives, especially sex and aggression. - Very young children also have these drives and they influence fantasies, problem solving and social interactions
  • 7. Freud’s view of the mind • conscious-- what you’re aware of, can verbalize and think about in a logical fashion. • preconscious -- ordinary memory. Not conscious, but can be easily brought into conscious. • unconscious -- not directly accessible. A dump box for urges, feelings and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. These feelings and thoughts still exert influence on our actions and our conscious awareness.
  • 8. Three Portions of Personality in Psychosexual Theory  Id--(unconscious)-- sexual and aggressive impulses -- represents biological needs and desires, and requires immediate gratification  Superego--(mainly unconscious) moral ethical principles -- represents values of society and conscience. A primitive knowledge of right and wrong.  Ego (mainly conscious) reality oriented functions develops in early infancy and is the conscious, rational part of personality It is the mediator between the id and the superego ID SUPEREGO EGO consciou s unconsciou s
  • 9. The psychodynamic approach: How does a child’s personality develop?  Stages of Psychosexual Development  According to Freud people have a libido (psychosexual energy) = all the sensations of excitement that arise from body stimulation.  He believed that how we manage this aspect of our development influences nearly all aspects of our personality  as we grow up, we go through 5 psychosexual stages  how we deal with the stages ultimately determines personality (“fixation”).
  • 10. FIXATION  If a person is fixated (or ‘stuck’) in one stage, they are unlikely to be able to deal with other emotional crises they confront in the later developmental stages. According to Freud, fixations prevent the development of a ‘normal’ personality and can be the basis of personality and behavioural problems in later life
  • 11. Psychosexual development  1: the oral stage from birth – 18 mths  focus on the mouth  Pleasure is gained through sucking  e.g. Breast feeding  If child stays fixated in this stage in adulthood can be  Smoker  Bite fingernails  Sexually attracted to large breasts
  • 12. Psychosexual Development  2: The anal stage 18 mth – 3 years  Focus on the anus  Pleasure gained from going to the toilet  e.g. TOILET training  If child stays fixated in this stage in adulthood can be  Anal retentive traits--being obsessively clean, overly tidy, very orderly, controlled, punctual, stingy and possessive. due to strict attitudes towards toilet training.  OCD (if punished during toilet training)  Anal expulsive traits-- poorly organized and perhaps aggressive. Due to lax attitudes towards toilet training.
  • 13. Psychosexual Development  3: The phallic stage 3 – 6 years  Focus on the genitals  Exploration and interest in genitals  attracted to the opposite-sex parent  Go through either:  The Oedipus Complex (for
  • 14. Phallic Stage  At this time the child is said to seek genital stimulation and develop an unconscious attraction to the parent of the opposite sex, while at the same time developing unconscious feelings of jealousy and hatred toward the parent of the same sex.  In girls, Freud calls this the Electra complex, when the girl loves her father and competes with her mother for the father's affection and attention. In boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, when the boy is attracted to his mother and envies his father
  • 15. Phallic Stage • Resolving the conflicts caused by these developmental problems is crucial to healthy ‘psychosexual’ development. • Those individuals not able to resolve the conflicts may develop long-lasting psychological problems. • For a boy, resolving the Oedipus complex will lead to controlling his envy and hostility towards his father and trying to be like him. • For a girl, resolving the Electra complex and ultimately developing ‘normally’ means overcoming her attraction towards her father, identifying with her mother and finally looking for a male to take the place of her father.
  • 16. Psychosexual development  The Latent Period (About 6 years to adolescence)  The child in this period suppresses his or her psychosexual interest. Children in this age group tend to play mostly with same sex peers.  There is some evidence that the “latent period” is a cultural artifact. Children in some non-industrialized societies do not experience a period of “latency.”
  • 17. Psychosexual development  The Genital Stage (Adolescence and beyond)  The individual in this period has a strong sexual interest in other people. If he or she has completed the other stages successfully, primary psychosexual satisfaction will be gained from partner.  The individual who is fixated in an early period of development has little libido left for this stage.
  • 18. Table 1: Freud’s stages of psychosexual development.
  • 19. Defense mechanisms and anxiety  Freud proposed that defense mechanisms reduce anxiety by denying, falsifying or distorting reality at an unconscious level; that is, the ego interprets events in a way which denies or changes reality so that we can believe there is no need to feel anxious or ‘psychologically uneasy’. This usually happens without us being aware that we are actually doing it.  According to Freud, it is our way of protecting ourselves from psychological harm. Defense mechanisms usually would not reduce anxiety if we recognised we were actively trying to cover up.
  • 20.
  • 21. Criticisms of Freud  Psychoanalytic theory & concepts are vague and not operationally defined  Theory is good history, but bad science - does not reliably predict what will occur  Theories were developed from speculation based on clinical experience with patients in therapy for serious problems  Developmental theory was not based upon observations or studies of children  Theory minimizes traumatic experiences by reinterpreting memories as fantasies  It is male centered
  • 22. Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development  FOUNDER: ERIC ERICKSON
  • 23. Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development  8 successive stages over the lifespan  Addresses bio, social, situational, personal influences  Crisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope with task in each developmental stage  Respond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stage  Respond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problems  Basic strengths: Motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from successful resolution of crisis in each stage
  • 24. Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust  Birth to age 1.5  Significant relationship – maternal person  Totally dependent on others  Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust  Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust  Basic strength: Hope  Belief our desires will be satisfied  Feeling of confidence  Fear. When a crisis occurs, they may feel hopeless, anxious, and insecure.
  • 25. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  Ages 1.5 -3  Child able to exercise some degree of choice  Child’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with others  Basic Strength: Will  Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands
  • 26. Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt  Ages 3-6  Significant relationship – basic family  Child expresses desire to take initiative in activities  Parents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self- directed activity throughout life  Basic strength: Purpose  Courage to envision and pursue goals
  • 27. Stage 4: Industriousness vs. Inferiority  Ages 6-12  Significant relationship – neighborhood, school  Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)  Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacy  Basci strength: Competence  Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
  • 28.  Stages 1-4  Largely determined by others (parents, teachers)  Stages 5-8  Individual has more control over environment  Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage
  • 29. Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion  Ages 12-18  Significant relationship: peer groups and models of leadership  Form ego identity: self-image  Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence  Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity  Basic strength: Fidelity  Emerges from cohesive ego identity  Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others
  • 30. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation  Ages 18-40 (approximately)  Significant relationship – partners in friendship, sex, competition, cooperation  Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationships  Inability to establish intimacy leads to social isolation  Basic strength: Love  Mutual devotion in a shared identity  Fusing of oneself with another person
  • 31. Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation  Ages 40-65 (approximately)  Significant relationship – divided labor and shared household  Generativity: Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generation  Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for generativity  Basic strength: Care  Broad concern for others  Need to teach others
  • 32. Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair  Ages 65+  Significant relationship – “mankind”, “my kind”  Evaluation of entire life  Integrity: Look back with satisfaction  Despair: Review with anger, frustration  Basic strength: Wisdom  Detached concern with the whole of life
  • 33. Table 2: Erickson psychosocial stages of development
  • 34. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ERICKSON AND FREUD THEORY:  Erikson’s theory bears some resemblances to Freud’s psychosexual stage theory, but with some key differences.  Freud focused on the influence of the id, while Erikson focused on the ego.  Freud believed that personality was largely shaped by the time a child reached age five, while Erikson’s theory spans the entire lifespan.  Another important difference is that while Freud stressed the importance of childhood experiences and unconscious desires, Erikson placed a greater emphasis on the role of social and cultural influences.  There are three key components of Erikson’s theory:  Ego identity: Our continually changing sense of self that emerges due to our social interactions and experiences.  Ego strength: This develops when people successfully master each stage of development.  Conflict: At each stage of development, people face some type of conflict that serves as a turning point in the developmental process.
  • 35. Criticisms of Erikson  Ambiguous terms and concepts  Lack of precision  Some terms are not easily measured empirically  Experiences in stage may only apply to males  Identity crisis may only apply to those affluent enough to explore identities  Not all people experience Erickson’s crises to the same degree or at the same time.  Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of one psychosocial stage influences personality at a later stage.  Although support for Erikson's stages of personality development exists. CRISIS of his theory provide evidence suggesting a lack of discrete stages of personality development.
  • 36. Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development:  Founder: Jean Piaget  Time: 1896 1980
  • 37. Who was Piaget?  Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Switzerland, and died in 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland.  At age 11, he wrote a paper on an albino sparrow, which was published and was the start of his famous career.
  • 38. Who was Piaget? (cont.)  After graduating high school, he attended the University of Zurich, where he became interested in psychoanalysis.  He married in 1923 and had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent.  Piaget studied his children’s intellectual development from infancy.
  • 39. Theory of Cognitive Development  While studying his children, Piaget developed theories concerning how children learn.  His theory of Cognitive Development consists of four stages of intellectual development.
  • 40. Cont:  He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.  Piaget (1936) was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.
  • 41. Cont:  To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.
  • 42. There Are Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory:  Schemas  (building blocks of knowledge).  Adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another ( assimilation, and accommodation).  Stages of Cognitive Development:  sensorimotor,  preoperational,  concrete operational,  formal operational.
  • 43. TERMS:  ASSIMILATION: According to piaget, the inclusion of a new event into existing schema.  SCHEMA: According to piaget, a hypothetical mental structure that permits the classification and organization of new information.  ACCOMMODATION: According to piaget, the modification of schema so that information inconsistent with existing schemas can be integrated or understand.  For example: whales
  • 44. PIAGET STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Sensorimotor Stage Birth to age 2  The first of piaget’s stages of cognitive development, characterized by coordination of sensory information and motor activity, early exploration of the environment, and lack of language.  This stage is dominated by learning to coordinate perception of self and of the environment with motor activity.  Reflexes.  1month: assimilate stimuli into existing schemas. Such as sucking  Auditory and olfactory stimuli are not for purposeful search.
  • 45. Cont:  3-4 months: Fascinated by her own hands or legs.  Develop interest on the environment sounds.  Behavior becomes inc: intentional and purposeful.  4-8 months: explore cause-and-effect relationship such as kicking a hanging toy.  Object permanence: recognition that objects removed from sight still exist, as demonstrated in children by continued pursuit.  Between 1 to 2 yrs: children begins to show interest in how things are constructed. Ex: by touching parents faces and their own.  End of 2 yr: engage in mental trial and error before they try out overt behavior.
  • 46. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: Age 2-7 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  Ability to represent objects with images and words  Language skills  Imagination Children learn through imitation and play during this stage. They begin to use reasoning, however it is mainly intuitive, instead of logical.
  • 47. CONT:  Preoperational stage: the second stage of piaget theory, characterized by illogical use of words and symbols, spotty logic, and egocentrism.  Egocentrism: According to piaget, the assumption that others view the world as one does oneself.  PREOPERATIONAL CHILDREN CANNOT UNDERSTAND THAT OTHER PEOPLE DO NOT SEE THINGS THE SAME WAY THEY DO.
  • 48. Stage 3—Cognitive Development Theory Concrete Operational Stage Age 7-12 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  The fundamentals of logic generally involve  Ability to sort objects  Ability to classify objects  Concept of reversibility: recognition that process can be undone, that things can be made as they were.  Understanding of conservation (physical quantities do not change based on the arrangement and/or appearance of the object)
  • 49. CONT:  Capable of decentration: simultaneous Focus on more than one dimension of a problem, so that flexible, reversible thought becomes possible. Like: moral judgments, conservation.  Conservation according to piaget, recognition that basic properties of substances and mass remain the same when superficial features changes.  Subjective in their judgment. Aware about the wrongdoers and amount of damage.
  • 50. Stage 4—Cognitive Development Theory Formal Operational Stage Age 11-15 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  Ability to hypothesize, logical thought, classify and reevaluate hypotheses.  Central features are ability to think about ideas as well as objects and to group and classify ideas – symbols, statement and entire theory.  Children begin thinking in a formal systematic way.  Egocentricism: