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Lecture 2 freud

Newham College University Centre Stratford Newham
Newham College University Centre Stratford Newham
Newham College University Centre Stratford NewhamHead of School Counselling and Psychology at Newham College University Centre Stratford Newham

Basic Introduction to Freud in an Introduction to Counselling Level 4 course at NUC Newham College London

Lecture 2 freud

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Kevin Standish 
Introduction to Counselling
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sj2JFI4BsRQ&(2 min)
 Historical context and schools of 
psychodynamic thought 
 Freudian concepts the idea of psychic 
conflict; 
 Models of the mind: topographical model; 
structural model 
 Developmental model of personality 
 Psychopathology conceptualised and 
defensive mechanisms 
 Critical limitations
Psychoanalytic Approach was 
developed by Sigmund Freud. 
Psychoanalysis is both an 
approach to therapy and a 
theory of personality. 
The basic assumption is that 
everything is directed by the 
unconscious.
 Sigmund Freud was born on 6 
May 1856 to Galician Jewish 
parents in Příbor Moravia, 
Austrian Empire, now Czech 
Republic. 
 He studied medicine at the 
University of Vienna, he 
specialized in neurology. 
 In October 1885 Freud went 
to Paris on a travelling 
fellowship to study with 
Europe's most renowned 
neurologist, Jean Martin 
Charcot, who used hypnosis 
to cure hysteria. 
 In 1899 he published The 
Interpretation of Dreams 
 He died on September 23, 
1939.
1. Classical Freudian psychoanalysis:To make the 
unconscious conscious through “Insight” 
2. Analytic-psychotherapy: Jung:I ts aim is 
wholeness through the integration of 
unconscious forces and motivations underlying 
human behavior using archetypal psychology, 
employs the model of the unconscious mind as 
the source of healing and development in an 
individual. 
3. Ego Psychology (Anna Freud) - enhancing and 
maintaining ego function according to the 
demands of reality.
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Lecture 2 freud

  • 3.  Historical context and schools of psychodynamic thought  Freudian concepts the idea of psychic conflict;  Models of the mind: topographical model; structural model  Developmental model of personality  Psychopathology conceptualised and defensive mechanisms  Critical limitations
  • 4. Psychoanalytic Approach was developed by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality. The basic assumption is that everything is directed by the unconscious.
  • 5.  Sigmund Freud was born on 6 May 1856 to Galician Jewish parents in Příbor Moravia, Austrian Empire, now Czech Republic.  He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, he specialized in neurology.  In October 1885 Freud went to Paris on a travelling fellowship to study with Europe's most renowned neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot, who used hypnosis to cure hysteria.  In 1899 he published The Interpretation of Dreams  He died on September 23, 1939.
  • 6. 1. Classical Freudian psychoanalysis:To make the unconscious conscious through “Insight” 2. Analytic-psychotherapy: Jung:I ts aim is wholeness through the integration of unconscious forces and motivations underlying human behavior using archetypal psychology, employs the model of the unconscious mind as the source of healing and development in an individual. 3. Ego Psychology (Anna Freud) - enhancing and maintaining ego function according to the demands of reality.
  • 7. 4. Object Relations: Klein: human beings are always shaped in relation to significant others 5. Selfpsychology – Kohut:the self as perceived in relation to the establishment of boundaries and the differentiations of self from others.
  • 8.  Based on his clinical observations,:  Developed a theory of how the human mind is organized and operates internally, and how human behavior both conditions and results from this particular theoretical understanding.  He favored certain clinical techniques for attempting to help cure psychopathology.  He theorized that personality is developed by the person's childhood experiences.
  • 9. 1. The topographic model (conscious, preconscious, unconscious processes) 2. The structural model (id, ego, superego) 3. Libido gives the energy to the personality 4. Psychosexual developmental stages 5. Defense mechanisms (Anna Freud)
  • 11.  1. Conscious mind – like the top of the iceberg, only a small portion of our mind is accessible to us.  2. Preconscious mind – material that is unconscious, but can be easily brought into awareness.  3. Unconscious mind – is completely outside of our awareness (could produce anxiety if made conscious).
  • 13. Top of the iceberg: Conscious mind (smallest part – say, 10%). We can access this, we are aware of this part of “us.” We understand it logically.
  • 14. Middle of iceberg: Preconscious (medium size, about 10-15%). Ordinary memory. You don’t keep a lot of information in your conscious mind all the time – why?  If you need to know something (where you parked your car, your sister’s birthday, your 7th grade Stardust Dance, etc.) you can bring it “up”) to your Conscious mind.
  • 15. Bottom of iceberg: Unconscious (huge – dwarfs the other two, 75-80% of our mind). “Underwater” The unconscious: Plays a very large role in how we function as human beings. Most of the work among the Id, Ego, and Superego happens here.
  • 17. THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND:  A “dumping ground” for all of our desires, anxieties, urges, especially those which are painful – why?  Nothing in the unconscious goes away. Even if we aren’t aware of it, what is in the unconscious influences us every day in every way.  Can’t directly or easily access the unconscious with conscious mind. “Speaks” a different language (ex. Dreams).
  • 18. Freud’s theory of Identity is based on a CONFLICT MODEL Important! Radical notion! (Keep in mind that with Freud, identity becomes confusing – hard to use pronouns to describe ourselves. Who am “I”? Is “I” really “We”?)
  • 19.  Conflict Model: The self is NOT UNIFIED; it is not a coherent, singular entity. Not entirely rational, not entirely in control of yourself .  There are competing elements within ourselves.  No way to resolve competing elements – only way to stay healthy is to not let any one of them “get the upper hand” or sickness (i.e. neurosis or psychosis) can occur.
  • 20.  1. Id – unconscious impulses that want to be gratified, without regard to potential punishment. Is source of psychic energy (libido).  2. Ego (primarily conscious) – tries to satisfy id impulses while minimizing punishment, guilt.  3. Superego – the moral center of our personality (somewhat conscious).
  • 22. Freud’s conflict model is based on the idea of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. These are the components of the self. First:  THE ID: The oldest part of our mind – most primal, most fundamental, most primitive.  The Id precedes culture! And is universal.
  • 23. Home of instinctual Drives “I want it and I want it NOW” Completely unconscious Present at birth Operates on the Pleasure Principle and Primary Process Thinking
  • 24.  Pleasure Principle: constant drive to reduce tension thru expression of instinctual urges.  The source for libido (psychic energy, not just sexual in meaning like today’s connotation)  Psychic energy fuels our thoughts, memories, sexual desires, perceptions, etc.  Primary Process Thinking: Not cause-effect; illogical; fantasy; only concern is immediate gratification (drive
  • 25. “Id” does NOT stand for “Identity.” Rather, it means “It” It is irrational, emotional, demanding…and STRONG
  • 26. Created by the ID to help it interface with external reality Mediates between the ID, Superego, and reality Partly conscious Uses Secondary Process Thinking: ◦ Logical, rational
  • 27.  The Ego employs “ego defense mechanisms”  They serve to protect an individual from unpleasant thoughts or emotions ◦ Keep unconscious conflicts unconscious  Defense Mechanisms are primarily unconscious
  • 28. Result from interactions between the ID, Ego, and Superego Thus, they’re compromises: ◦Attempts to express an impulse (to satisfy the ID) in a socially acceptable or disguised way (so that the Superego can deal with it)
  • 29.  Less mature defenses protect the person from anxiety and negative feelings, but at price  Some defense mechanisms explain aspects of psychopathology: ◦ Ex. Identification with aggressor: can explain tendency of some abused kids to grow into abusers
  • 30. Conflict arises when the ID’s drives threaten to overwhelm the controls of the Ego and Superego Ego pushes ID impulses deeper into the unconscious via repression Material pushed into unconscious does not sit quietly- causes symptoms
  • 31. Internalized morals/values-sense of right and wrong Suppresses instinctual drives of ID (thru guilt and shame) and serves as the moral conscience
  • 32.  Largely unconscious, but has conscious component  Develops with socialization, and thru identification with same-sex parent (via introjection) at the resolution of the Oedipal Conflict  Introjection: absorbing rules for behavior from role models
  • 33. Conscience: Dictates what is proscribed (should not be done/ prohibited); results in guilt Ego-Ideal: Dictates what is prescribed (should be done); results in shame
  • 34.  If, as an adult, your Id is too dominant?  (very self-absorbed, don’t care about others, only out for yourself)  If, as an adult, your Ego is too dominant?  (distant, rational, efficient, unemotional, cold)  If, as an adult, your Superego is too dominant?
  • 35.  Stage1: Oral  Stage 2: Anal  Stage 3: Phallic  Stage 4 : Latent  Stage 5: Genital
  • 36.  The first five years are the most important.  Personality development is result of conflicts we resolve in childhood. We learn to satisfy id impulses while handling social pressures.  Freud defined 5 psychosexual stages, each associated with a particular erogenous zone fixation.
  • 38.  If a conflict is not resolved during a psychosexual stage, the fixation persists.  This fixation can be manifested either in overexpressing or under-expressing specific activities.  This is often regarded as neurosis by psychodynamic theorists and clinicians.
  • 39. Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure Weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood.
  • 40.  Anus is associated with pleasure  Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Fixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood.
  • 41.  Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals. Oedipus or Electra complex can occur. Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females. Sex roles are internalized through identification to the parent of the same sex.
  • 42.  Sexuality is repressed  Children participate in hobbies, school and same-sex friendships. Achievement and knowledge are in focus.
  • 43.  Sexual feelings re-emerge and are oriented toward others.  Healthy adults find pleasure in love and work, fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages.
  • 44. Life Instinct Biological urges that perpetuate: -the individual -the species Death Instinct Destructive energy that is reflected in: -aggression -recklessness -life threatening or self-defeating behaviors The fight between the two instincts determines activities and mental health.
  • 45.  Id, Ego, & Superego continually in conflict  Conflict generates anxiety  Psychopathology results from conflicts among these unconscious forces. Fixation  – Too little or too much gratification leads to  fixation at that stage  – When stressed, individual regresses to earlier stage
  • 47.  Defined: Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety. 1.Repression - keeping anxiety producing thoughts out of the conscious mind. 2.Reaction formation - replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite. 3.Displacement - when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego.
  • 48. 4.Sublimation - displacement to activities that are valued by society 5.Projection - reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else 6.Rationalization - reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts 7.Regression - retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development
  • 49.  “Talking cure”  Free associations  Interpretation of dreams  Patients attend five x fifty minute sessions weekly,  usually for several years,  working with their psychoanalyst to examine and to explore unconscious conflicts of feeling, emotion and phantasy that are at the root of their symptoms and the problems that are troubling them.
  • 50.  Freud had no scientific data to support his theories.  Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed.  Theory explains behavior after the fact. Observations are not representative of population.
  • 51.  He argued that childhood experiences are important in personality development.  Information outside of awareness does influence us.  Defense mechanisms provide good descriptions of some of our behaviors.
  • 52.  Not particularly “psychological”  Interesting and popular  Not much evidence of their efficacy  Not listed among empirically supported treatments  Exception is Interpersonal Psychotherapy
  • 53.  Traditional psychoanalysis – economically not feasible  Lack of emphasis upon behavior change – frustrating to many consumers  Brief forms of psychodynamic therapy are the future  Increasing pressure to empirically test psychodynamic therapies  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrOpqg8ipQA&list=a discussion video on psychodynamic therapy session
  • 54.  Karen Horney’s focus on security  Object relations theories (Melanie Klein, D. W. Winnicott)  Alfred Adler’s individual psychology  Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development  Carl G. Jung’s analytical psychology  Selfpsychology - Hartmann, Kohut  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrOpqg8ipQA&list=TLQH2ew8ggi9MUmUaqH8EPgVzkkEeYoKMT a discussion video on psychodynamic therapy session
  • 56.  1.McLeod J. (2009) An Introduction to Counselling. Chap 4  2.Corey, G. (2009) Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy. Chap 4 & 5  3. Colledge, R (2002) Mastering Counselling Theory. Chap 1 & 2  4.Dryden, W ( 2007) Dryden’s Handbook of Individual therapy (5th ed). Chap 2  5.Cave, S (1999) Therapeutic Approaches in Psychology, Chap 3  Advanced reading  1. Andrews & Brewin (2000)What did Freud get right  2. Weinberger & Westen (2001) Science and Psychodynamics From Arguments About Freud to Data  3. Fonagy (1999) Relation of theory and practice in psychodynamic therapy  4. Dryden (2007) chap 2, 3; 4

Editor's Notes

  1. ((Use a funny picture of someone, perhaps of an MS1))
  2. ((Show Eggo Waffles picture))
  3. ((Show clip from PBS))