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  2. 2. Availability of proper drinking water and sanitation is a major concern today in India. It is estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually, 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone. Access to Drinking Water in India: 63%12% 25% Access To Drinking Water Lack Safe Water Access To Drinking Water on their premises Sanitation Problems: 31% 69% Use improved Santation Facilities Do not use Sanitation Facilities • 97 Million people in India lack safe water. • World Bank estimates that 21% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water. • In India, Diarrhea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily. • 814 Million people in India have no sanitation services. • Only 14% of the rural population has access to a latrine. • In India majority of the girls drop out of school because of lack of toilets. Only 22% of them manage to even complete class 10. This effects development of nation.
  3. 3. Effortshavebeenmadeby government ,schemes havebeenimplemented,croresof rupees havebeenspent,resultingonlyin 23 % accessto drinkingwater!WHY? Government Scheme: NRDWP Aim of this program is to ensure permanent drinking water security in rural India. Problems Reasons Solution Government says 96% area is covered . But only 23% access to drinking water. Infrastructure is there but there is no supply of Water , water sources are not sustainable. Local water bodies must be used and these water bodies must be saved from encroachment, cleaned and used No infrastructure for water supply at many places . Lack of Awareness of the people or difficult to reach . A small scale centralised distribution system of pure drinking water with multiple outlets at relevant places . Government spend 45000 Crore Rs. still only 23% access to drinking water. Why? Ineffective Monitoring System at each level of the system and also lack of awareness in people . A more effective monitoring system can be used and a portal can be setup for Problems Sustainability and workability of these measures. Water sources are not sustainable and investments are also not sustainable. Instead of using water from distant sources local body sources can be used and rain water harvesting should be used to secure these sources.
  4. 4. SANITATION • Providing environmentally-safe sanitation to millions of people is a huge challenge, especially in the second most populated country of the world. • An estimated 55% of all Indians, or close to 600 million people, still do not have access to any kind of toilet • The task is rendered further difficult by the fact that new technologies, which challenge people’s traditions and beliefs, are generally not accepted well • To address the problem of sanitation, we need a multi- pronged strategy with changes in policy, introduction of new technologies and changing the mind-set of public and policy makers. 1% 2% 5%4% 9% 15%14% 22% 24% 38% 57% 74% 94% 94% 98% 1991-1992 1998-1999 2005-2006 Percentageofhouseholdswithtoilets Year Poorest quntile 2nd poorest Middle 2nd Richest Richest Quntile “Sanitation services for the lowest income group improved the least between 1992–93 and 2005–06. Instead, much of the advances have been enjoyed by the middle and upper- middle classes.” : Asian Development Bank Old Way of thinking • Sanitation is of high cost • The poor have more important needs than sanitation so they can afford it • Sanitation is not a high priority for Government New way of thinking • Sanitation is affordable when right kind of technology is installed and reasonable financing is offered. • Households –even poor ones are willing to pay for sanitation. • Making Sanitation a priority provides benefits to the country
  5. 5. Current State-Wise Distributions
  6. 6. FUNDS Public Fund Raiser SANITATION DRINKING WATER Generating investments into field of Sanitation and Drinking Water through innovative partnerships between Government and NGOs and different organizations.
  7. 7. The Proposed Solution For Solving Sanitation Crisis in India. SANITATION Where People Can Pay Or are Willing to Pay for Using Toilets Where People Can’t Pay Or Are Not to Willing to Pay (Slums) Surplus Amount A Maintenance Workforce comprising chiefly of erstwhile Manual Scavengers SELF-SUSTAINING Pay Per use Model Reduced Rates For Uses Different Tariff Schemes for people. Payment can be through Cash or Smart Card
  8. 8. Drinking Water POLICY CHANGES Use of EXISTING Technology Use of NEW Technology The Proposed Solution for Solving Drinking Water Crisis in India. To improve the drinking water condition we have to do certain things : • Change the existing policies e.g. Use of local water bodies. • Using existing technology like rain water harvesting to make the water sources sustainable . • Developing new cost effective technologies like Parchment Filtration
  9. 9. Details of The Model The solution involves participation of community-government-private sector. It seeks the establishment of an autonomous body, free from bureaucratic red-tape, which can build economical toilets and water drinking facilities on pay per use model.  There will be multiple phases of implementation: Phase-I begins with construction of toilets and water drinking facilities at small railway stations so as to test its working and do away with any flaws. To manage the waste generated, we seek the involvement of people/students from technical institutes as well as various NGOs. Thereafter, it will be formed as a public utility and be expanded as a corporation. The revenue model of this set-up is going to be self-sustaining as shown in the infographic. The surplus revenue will be sent to a central location and can be used as per the need. The amount that remains after all this will be used for expansion and awareness generation. Phase-II involves bringing about policy changes to start rainwater harvesting and replenish the groundwater which is a fast depleting source of drinking water. This will be done by using new as well as age old technologies like “johads”,etc. Phase-III involves improving the local water-bodies in the cities so that they can be used for meeting the demands of cities. This will reduce dependency of transported water which will be a relief to people of area from where water is drawn. This phase will also involve working on the nullahs by cleaning them and introducing fish species that feed on nymphs of flies. Phase-IV involves introduction of new technologies like parchment filtration, etc. This is a cost-effective technology working on reverse osmosis where a parchment is pressed over a column of water. This phase will see setting up of centralized purification plants in villages with outlets at centers of public importance. Here also, the maintenance of the utility will be through community participation with technical expertise being provided by private-government participation.
  10. 10. Problems, Challenges and Solutions: • The government departments, with some exceptions, are famous for their inefficiency and corruption. • Involvement of women is important but difficult to implement in certain parts. • Obtaining funding will be challenging as many policy makers still have negative idea regarding “Universal Sanitation Campaign”. • Awareness campaigns for public can be ineffective. • Monitoring of problems is difficult. • We plan to build an independent organization through community-government-private participation with minimal interference from existing government bureaucracy and political influences. • The accounts will be audited time to time by external auditors . • Involving women is challenging but it can be done with the help of village elders and existing NGOs working in this area. • Funding can be obtained as when the people see the benefits, they will be happy to participate. Besides, our initiative also generates employment which can be used for getting funding from other sources. • Reaching out to public through talks, etc. is definitely not a viable option. Instead, we are going to stage street plays (“nukkad natak”), competitions, etc. through collaboration with societies in order to inculcate values like saving drinking water and promoting sanitation. SOLUTIONSPROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTATION
  11. 11. • For monitoring, we plan to use TECHNOLOGY:  A website will be developed where people can register their problem. Each toilet will be having a distinct number like TDeCND12345 where T means combined toilet (for urinals its U) De is for Delhi state, C is for zone C (each state will be divided into zones), ND is for New Delhi district and 12345 is the unique number of that toilet. Similarly, each water outlet will have an identification number. This data will be segregated by means of a program that looks for codes at particular places and sends to concerned person. The realtime status of problem will be shown. If there are any problems and the local staff isn’t helpful, a complaint can be directly filed.  In case, we miss some area, a picture can be clicked with geo-tagging enabled and uploaded by means of an app. For basic phones, an SMS can be sent from that location and the location can be obtained by the nearest cell tower. MONITORING : Solution to a BIG problem
  12. 12. REFERENCES • Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Website . • • UNICEF facts on water sanitation. • ADB report on sanitation. • Facts on DRINKING WATER in INDIA • NSSO – National Sample Survey Organisation survey • NRDWP Guidelines