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Digital Green Overview


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Digital Green overview - research, development, and scaling up. For more information, please visit Digital Green's website:

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Digital Green Overview

  1. 1. digitalGREEN<br /><br />
  2. 2. Agriculture in India<br />600M agriculture-dependent lives<br />Majority small landholders (<3 acres)<br /><$2 a day ($750 a year)<br />Growing debts ($300 per year per farmer)<br />Earlier technology intervention…<br />Green revolution had mixed results<br />Increased yields, but…<br />Led to rising input costs, declining soil fertility<br />Due to excessive use of fertilizers/pesticides<br />Indiscriminate use of technology partially responsible for current agrarian crisis<br />A farmer from Yellachavadi village,<br />outside of Bangalore<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Credit card<br />Agricultural Systems?<br />Low literacy in local lang<br />expert<br />farmer<br />No bank account<br />Poor roads<br />Market<br />No unique ID<br />Quantity <br />buyers<br />Poor quality <br />control<br />Expensive credit<br />Computing device and connectivity not enough!<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />4<br />Agriculture Extension<br />Dissemination of expert agriculture information and technology to farmers<br />“Training & Visit” extension popularized by the World Bank in 1970s<br />Face-to-face interactions of extension officers and farmers<br />100,000 extension officers in India<br />Extension agent-to-farmer ratio is 1: 2,000<br />610,000 villages in India with average 1,000-person population<br />Typical extension officer salary is<br />Rs. 4,000 per month<br />Extension officer “commuting” between farms<br />
  5. 5. IT & Indian Agriculture<br />Kiosks with Internet access <br /> for farmers<br />aAqua<br />Pull-based Question and Answer<br /> Krithi Ramamritham, IIT Mumbai<br />eSagu <br />Push-based Expert Review of Digital Photos<br /> Krishna Reddy, IIIT Hyderabad<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Agricultural Social Networks<br />?<br />Main source of information about new technology and <br />farm practices over the past 365 days (India: NSSO 2005)<br />6<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />How can the speed and effectiveness of agriculture extension be improved at a reasonable cost?<br />7<br />The Problem<br />Extension officer on-field demonstration<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Digital Video for Extension<br />Video provides…<br />Resource-savings: human, cost, time<br />Accessibility for non-literate farmers<br />8<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Early Experimentation<br />Parameters Varied<br />Early Experimentation<br />Background of actors in video, Types of content, <br />Location and timing of screening, Method of dissemination, <br />Degree of mediation, Background of mediator, etc.<br />Background of actors in video, Types of content, <br />Location and timing of screening, Method of dissemination, <br />Degree of mediation, Background of mediator, etc.<br />Six months in field trying various combinations<br />Over 200 days of surveys, ethnographic investigation, and iterative design<br />9<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Participatory Content Production<br />Digital Green System<br />Introduction to innovations<br />Standard extension procedure<br />Rough “storyboarding”<br />Repetitive pattern; easy to learn<br />Minimize post-production<br />Local farmers on their own fields<br />Reduce perception of “teachers”<br />Promote “local stars”<br />10<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Digital Green System<br />Video Database<br />Online video database<br />>1,300 videos of 8-10 minutes each<br />Quality-control, minor video editing, and metadata tagging<br />Indexed by type, topic, locale, season, crop, etc. <br />Distributed via memory cards<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Digital Green System<br />Mediated Instruction<br />Local mediator<br /><ul><li>Performance-based honorarium</li></ul>Human engagement<br /><ul><li>Field questions, capture feedback, encourage participation
  13. 13. Balance genders</li></ul>On-demand screenings <br /><ul><li>Choice time and place
  14. 14. Not “stand-alone” kiosk</li></ul>Support and monitoring <br /><ul><li>Daily metrics and feedback
  15. 15. Official extension staff</li></ul>12<br />
  16. 16. 13<br />Digital Green System<br />Structured Sequencing<br />Practices with longer-term visible rewards<br />Community Assessment<br />Practices with short-term visible rewards<br />Group Participation<br />Audience<br />Awareness<br />Season<br />Location<br />Time<br />13<br />
  17. 17. 14<br />Participatory content production<br />Video database<br />Mediated instruction<br />Structured sequencing<br />14<br />Digital Green System<br />
  18. 18. 15<br />Experimental Set-Up<br />Preliminary Evaluation<br />15-month study<br />21 villages in Karnataka:<br /><ul><li>Language: Kannada
  19. 19. Crops: Ragi, banana, mulberry, coconut
  20. 20. Population: 50-80 households
  21. 21. Irrigation: 10-20 households with access
  22. 22. Television: 15-20 households </li></ul>Metrics:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge: Before-and-after
  23. 23. Attendance: Farmers at each screening
  24. 24. Interest: Intent to take-up a practice
  25. 25. Adoption: Number of households taking up each new farming practice or technology</li></ul>Classical GREEN (8)<br />Same as usual<br />Expert<br />Digital Green (9)<br />3 sessions per week<br />Cost:<br />Rs. 9,500 ($240) for TV/DVD per village<br />PC / camera costs shared<br />Extension officer shared<br />Mediator salary<br />Accountability:<br />Daily metrics and feedback<br />Official extension staff<br />Research Assistant<br />Extension Officer<br />Local Mediator<br />Local Mediator<br />Local Mediator<br />Poster Green(3)<br />Same as Digital Green with local mediator, but no TV/DVD<br />Mediator makes posters and holds regular group sessions<br />Farming Community<br />Farming Community<br />Farming Community<br />Audio Green (1)<br />Same as Poster Green with<br />MP3 audio tracks from videos<br />15<br />
  26. 26. 16<br />7 times more adoptions over classical extension<br />Sustained local presence<br />Mediation<br />Repetition (and novelty)<br />Integration into existing extension operations<br />Social homophily between mediator, actor, and farmer<br />Desire to be “on TV”<br />Trust built from identities of farmers and villages in videos<br />15 months: <br />13 villages, 3 nights a week, 1,000 regulars<br />16<br />Digital Green: Early Results<br />
  27. 27. 17<br />Cost-Benefit<br />Note: Decreasing amortized cost of hardware with time and scale<br />Digital Green is at least 10 timesmore effective <br />per dollar spent than classical extension!<br />17<br />
  28. 28. 18<br />Incremental Adoptions, Incremental Incomes<br />In first 8 months, adoption of improved practices increased the incomes of farmers by an average of $242!<br />
  29. 29. $100<br />$150<br />
  30. 30. 20<br />Digital Green System<br />Network Effect<br />Viral Web 2.0 in the Web-less world <br /><ul><li> Content ecosystem: education, entrepreneurship, entertainment
  31. 31. Cost-realistic access: pico projectors, TVs, DVD players, and camcorders</li></ul>Reinforce existing social networks to diffuse innovations through communities<br />Local “idol” competitions to be a better farmer<br />3<br /> 1<br />20<br />2<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. 22<br />Digital Green System<br />Platform<br />Locations<br />Partners<br />Online/Offline <br />Connectivity<br />Access<br />Points<br />Global<br />Database<br />Regular<br /> Digital Green <br />Intense Eval<br />Control<br />22<br />
  34. 34. 23<br />Digital Green System<br />Platform<br />Online<br />Offline (no/low connectivity)<br />Browser-based input<br />Data stored in local database<br />Synchronized when connectivity available<br />Cloud-based central database<br />Synchronized with local databases<br />23<br />
  35. 35. Digital Green System<br />COCO | Connect Online, Connect Offline<br /><br />
  36. 36. 25<br />Digital Green System<br />Platform<br />Robust system to share, track, and analyse data to manage operations and target interventions over time<br />Analytics dashboard built on top of a simple yet robust data<br />entry system that can toggle between online and offline connectivity modes<br /><br />100,000 simultaneous offline users<br />Offline mode 10x faster than online<br />25<br />
  37. 37. Digital Green System<br />Analytics<br /><br />
  38. 38. Digital Green System<br />Analytics<br /><br />
  39. 39. Digital Green System<br />Voice Services<br />
  40. 40. Digital Green System<br />Voice Services<br />
  41. 41. Digital Green System<br />Voice Services<br />
  42. 42. Non-Non-Profit Digital Green<br />Subsidize agriculture <br />extension with ads?<br />Digital Green’s value to farmers is established – viewers contribute Rs. 2-4 per screening.<br />Could DG also be supported by ads?<br />Advertisers get access to a distributed, captive audience with demonstrated interest in better agriculture.<br />Ads follow Digital Green’s distribution channels.<br />To do: <br />Scale Digital Green<br />Devise mechanism for ensuring appropriate ads<br />Quantify ad effectiveness<br />Quantify ad value to advertisers<br />Digital Green DVD title screen<br />
  43. 43. Digital Green System<br />Analytics<br />
  44. 44. Digital Green System<br />
  45. 45. Digital Green System<br />
  46. 46. Digital Green System<br />
  47. 47. 36<br />
  48. 48. 37<br />
  49. 49. Ministry of <br />Rural Development<br />(Govt of India)<br />38<br />
  50. 50. VARRAT<br />39<br />
  51. 51. 40<br />
  52. 52. Digital Green 1.0<br />Digital Green is at least 10 timesmore effective <br />per dollar spent than classical extension!<br />
  53. 53. Digital Green 2.0<br />Over three years, improve the cost-effectiveness of the existing people-based extension systems of our partners by a factor of 3-times, per dollar spent, to improve the livelihoods of 60,000 smallholder farmersin 1,200 villagesin India.<br />
  54. 54. Thanks!<br /><br /><br />