CLEANER INDIA: Providing clean drinking
water and proper sanitation facility to all
WATER AND SANITATION
GOOD FOR PEOPLE AND GOOD FOR
QUALITY 5 SAVIOURS
◦About 70% population lack basic sanitation.
◦Only 28,000 grama panchayats out of 2.5 lakh in India have achieved
open defecation free village.
◦Although access to increased sanitation is steadily increasing in India
since 2000, the pace of change is too slow.
◦Inadequate sanitation costs India 2.4 trillion which is about 6.4% of
India’s GDP in 2006.
Unavailability of portable water
◦About 226 million people lack access to safe water.
◦Access to water is not a matter of choice but it is everyone’s
◦one in six people still lack reliable access to portable water in
◦Women spends 200 million hours a day collecting water.
There are totally 37 disease causing death in the world
out of which 21 diseases are related to water and
India has the second highest rainfall in the world, averaging about 1,150 mm, and
ranks among the top ten water rich countries.
Owing to topographic constraints, adverse patterns of distribution, technical
limitations, increasing pollution and poor management, India is unable to realize the
full potential of its water resources.
According to national water security index, we are in hazardous water security stage
based on the following key dimension.
◦ Key Dimension 1: Household Water Security
◦ Key Dimension 2: Economic Water Security
◦ Key Dimension 3: Urban Water Security
◦ Key Dimension 4: Environmental Water Security
◦ Key Dimension 5: Resilience to Water-Related Disasters
causes 50% of
Description of National Water Security
Stages and National Water Security Index
More than 3.4 million people
die each year from water
sanitation and hygiene related
causes.90% are in developing
An American taking a five-minute
shower uses more water than the
average person in a developing
country slum uses for an entire day
SOLUTIONS FOR CLEAN DRINKING WATER AND
• SEEK NEW SOURCE:Avoid over exploitation of Surface and Groundwater.
• REDISTRIBUTE: Plugging Leaks from Tanks,Pipeline,Taps can save large
quantity of water
• REDUCE DEMAND: Reducing demand of water from Agricultural and
• RECYCLE:` grey’ water can be used to recharge groundwater
• INVESTMENT IN RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT:to avoid pollution in origin
• EFFICIENT COLLECTION OF WATER TAX: Self help groups
• Implementation of low-cost sanitation system with lower subsidies
• Greater household involvement
• Range of technology choices
• Options for sanitary complexes for women
• Involvement of NGOs and local groups
• Emphasis on school sanitation
• Appropriate forms of private participation and public private partnerships
• Emphasis on sustainability with political commitment are prerequisites to
bring the change
MERITS OF SOLUTIONS
• DESALINATION PLANTS: Can be used in coast line of 7516
km satisfy the demand by 15%. Cost of Rs.50 perKilolitre
• less than 1 % of the world’s drinking water comes from the sea,
with advances in reverse osmosis, the percentage is likely to
• water lost from Mexico City’s leaky supply system, which
serves 17 million people, would be enough to meet the needs of
3 million people
• Amount of water consumption is decreased by SRI method
• Recharge ground water
• 24×7 water supply:Saving people time,water and energy cost
• Use Solar Energy for Dual pump scheme
• Prioritise the allocation of funds for water and Sanitation
• Community Led Total Sanitation
• Reducing Open Disposal of Human Feaces
• Focussed to use of Feaces on Agriculture
• Models such as Dry toilet,Eco san etc.,
• Dry toilet may cause rs.6500 for installation(25 person)
by water illness
Impacts of the solution and it’s mitigation
◦ The main impact of using desalination technique is the reject
wastewater generated. The reject wastewater from desalination
technology reaches the TDS of around 70,000 ppm. Disposing such
a reject wastewater is going to be a greater problem.
◦ Detecting leaks in the water distribution system is going to be a
difficult task, because in India we still use sound and visual
detection methods to identify leaks.
◦ In order to reduce water demands it is necessary to the change
existing traditional practices, that will require social acceptance,
which is very difficult to attain.
◦ Recycle and reuse of wastewater and grey water without proper
treatment will cause severe health and ecological damage.
India loses 22.5 million DALYS (Disability Adjusted Life Years) every year
to water deficit and inadequate sanitation
◦ Brine solution with TDS>35,000 ppm is disposed into deep saline
aquifers are surface waters with higher salt content. It can also be
dispersed by diluting with treated effluent and by spraying on golf
courses or other open spaces.
◦ Sensor based detection techniques is the best proposed option for the
replacement of existing detection methods.
◦ Making them aware of success stories through highly respected
people of their own society.
◦ In order to avoid the damages caused by the usage of untreated
wastewater, proper treatment techniques must be followed in
accordance with the standards.
780 million people lack access to an improved water
source approximately 1 in 9 people
Implementation of the solution
•Government should earmark upto 30% for
tackling water Quality Problem.
•Informative Education and
Communication(IEC) is disseminated by
High Priority and Institutional Mechanism
•Integrated Water Resource Management
•Maintaining toilet plays a vital role
•All Gram panchayat officers and
NGO works towards clean
•Enable participatory planning
Action plan for implementation
• Increase water and sanitation coverage
• Build new Drinking Water Systems (DWS).
• Rehabilitate deteriorated DWS
• Organize water boards.
• Conduct training programs for water boards in AOM.
• Perform follow-up on water boards
• Reduce the prevalence of ADD in under-5-year-olds.
• Give health-and-hygiene education to families so that
• They will adopt healthy behavior patterns.
• Promote community planning and participation.
• Execute water and sanitation projects.
• Implement organization to ensure the sustainability of the water and sanitation services.
Open defecation is a socially accepted traditional behavior
Lack of awareness in using a toilet, safe disposal of feces &
A significant gap exists between knowledge and practice
Access to toilet does not mean it is used or maintained
It is considered totally acceptable for some people in society not to have
Building and owning a toilet is not perceived as aspirational.
In Uttarpradesh and Bihar only 5% are convinced to proper
Govt annually investing RS.6700 crore anually
Making Service Providers
Treatment of water from contaminated sources with cost-effective,
Inter Agency Coordination
Installing Water Meters,Leak detection Equipment amd Monitoring
Asian Water Development Outlook,2013
Millineum development Report 2013
Meeting the MDG Drinking water and Sanitation Target,UNICEF 2012,
Sanitation and Hygiene Advocacy framework and Strategy 2012-2017,unicef 2017
Drinking water in Rural India ,Ministry of Rural Development
UN Water for Life Decade. (2005). United Nations Department of Public
United Nations (WHO and UNICEF). (2010). Progress on Sanitation and Drinking
Water Update 2013