Provide clean drinking water and sanitation
Population of 9.2 billion where 97 million people lack safe
1% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe
814 million have no sanitation services
Infant mortality rate of 5%
30% live in poverty
In India, diarrhoea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily
During the course of the 20th century, global water
consumption rose six fold, more than double the rate of
population growth. India is expanding by 200 million people
A report by the Indian Urban Development Ministry shows that
as many as 4,861 of the 5,161 cities across the country do not
have even a partial sewage network.
While we enter into a 64th year old independent India,
Most Indian’s still do not have access to modern
sanitation: for example, rural sanitation coverage
was estimated to have reached only 21% by 2008
according to the UNICEF/WHO joint monitoring
programme. There continue to be a number of
innovative efforts to improve sanitation including the
community led Total Sanitation Campaign and the
monetary rewards under the Nirmal Gram Puraskar.
Losses incurred on account of inadequate sanitation
were as high as the state incomes ofAndhra Pradesh or
Tamil Nadu and were more than Gujarat’s state income
India’s 1.1 billion people need access
to clean drinking water. The demand
for drinking water is divided between
the urban and rural populations, and
comprises about 4-6% of total water
Flush toilets and washing machines,
people living in cities tend to lead
more water intensive lives.
Population growth is going to
accelerate the water crisis in India,
especially as more and more people
move into the cities and become part
of the middle class.
•Irrigated agriculture has been
fundamental to economic
development, but unfortunately
caused groundwater depletion.
•Due to water pollution in rivers,
India draws 80% of its irrigation
water from groundwater.
•As water scarcity becomes a bigger
and bigger problem, rural and
farming areas will most likely be hit
India’s agricultural sector currently
uses about 90% of total water
•Water is both an important input for
many different manufacturing and
industrial sectors and used as a coolant
for machines, such as textile machines.
• Cheap water that can be rapidly pumped
from underground aquifers has been a
major factor in the success of India’s
•Latrine usage is extremely poor in rural areas of
the country; only 14% of the rural population has
access to a latrine.
•Hand washing is also very low, increasing the
spread of disease.
•Kerala, Manipur, Mizoram and Sikkim are states
that are ahead of the rest on rural toilet ownership.
States like Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Sikkim and
Goa have improved the most in toilet ownership
between 2001 and 2011. Also noted is
that relatively well-off states like Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka actually fall below the national average,
with Andhra Pradesh barely doing better.
•In many countries, women are
responsible for finding and
fetching water for their families.
Often the water is contaminated,
even deadly. In these instances,
they face an impossible choice –
certain death without water or
possible death from illness.
•The sanitation crisis for women
can be summed up in one word:
•In many countries, it is not
acceptable for a woman to relieve
herself during the day. They wait
hours for nightfall, just to have
privacy. This impacts health and
puts their safety at risk. About half
of all girls worldwide attend
schools without toilets.
• The lack of privacy causes many
girls to drop out when they reach
•India’s water crisis is predominantly a manmade problem. India’s climate is not
particularly dry, nor is it lacking in rivers and groundwater
Extremely poor management, unclear laws, government corruption, and industrial
and human waste have caused this water supply crunch and rendered what water is
available practically useless due to the huge quantity of pollution.
India’s water crisis is predominantly a
manmade problem. India’s climate is
not particularly dry, nor is it lacking in
rivers and groundwater.
Extremely poor management, unclear laws,
corruption, and industrial and human waste have
caused this water supply crunch and rendered what
water is available practically useless due to huge
quantity of pollution
Even Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
has warned against over-pumping, but
local officials won’t take any action,
such as raising electricity tariffs, that
would upset the huge farm lobbies.
The developer shall be required to develop the source for
drinking water (excluding ground water) or
secure firm commitment from any water supply
authority including the Municipal Corporation of
Greater Mumbai for meeting the daily minimum water
Maximum domestic water supply of 90 LPCD of potable
water is allowed. Sewage is to be treated to rather high
standards and is to be reused for flushing of toilets,
gardening and match the shortfall beyond 90 LPCD.
Thus, Mumbai is breaking new ground by becoming the
first city in India making sewage water treatment and
reuse mandatory for all the HRBs.
The Saqayti standpipe
•The Saqayti standpipe is a proposal by Veolia environment in Morocco, billed as
a sustainable alternative to open-access fountains, which it says often weigh
heavily on the budgets of local authorities
•The standpipe works with pre-paid cards that users insert into the metal box.
Insert the card, water flows. Remove the card, water stops.
•Local authorities can add credit to cards held by poorer households
•When this credit runs out, users can top-up their cards at special "social
• While the proposal might be a technical one, its consequences are also clearly
political: the cards help "create new links between citizens and their local
•The standpipe is more than a technology – it can also help engineer new
relationships between water users, companies, and local authorities
SINGAPORE NATIONAL WATER AGENCY
In just four decades, Singapore has overcome water shortages despite its lack of
natural water resources and pollution in its rivers.
THE WATER LOOP STRATEGY Four National Taps Provide Water for
Driven by a vision of what it
takes to be sustainable in
water, Singapore has been
investing in research and
technology. Today, the
nation has built a robust,
diversified and sustainable
water supply from four
different sources known as
the Four National Taps
(water from local catchment
areas, imported water,
reclaimed water known as
NEWater and desalinated
•As done by TNAU, farmers can cultivate crops which need less
water, grow medicinal plants and increase the area under
pulses, oilseeds, cotton and vegetables.
• This can help them reap maximum benefits
Farmers switch to
less use of water
•The main supply line can be made connected to the truck’s
tank and hence water can be distributed easily to all
•It is cost efficient and time saver
Prevent waiting in
long lines to fetch
•A effective and a proper management and execution can only
24 hrs supply of
fresh water in taps
•people have begun to dig neighbourhood wells, depleting
groundwater even further.
•Prior to digging wells, Intensive training and motivation
seminars on sanitation and proper cleaning can be
conducted through campaigns
Two of India's most
industrialised states, Tamil
Nadu and Gujarat, are the
keenest among the lot.
Removing salt from
seawater to make fresh
Desalination, while being a
source of fresh water, does
nothing to address the
challenge of managing those
extra million litres of
Recycled water, on the other
hand, solves the twin
problems in a single shot.
Lack of access to sanitation aggravates and is
aggravated by poverty, inequity and poor health
•Children miss out opportunities to improve
their own lives with dignity and good health
•Faecal pollution of drinking-water can lead to a
number of diseases, including cholera, typhoid
fever, paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis,
shigellosis, Giardiasis, hepatitis and
•Providing access to sanitation and hygiene
interrupts the disease transmission cycle and
reduces the incidence of infectious diseases.
•Incoporated in primary schools as a fundamental component of sanitation and water supply
•To obtain the full health benefits of sanitation programmes, key issues will need to be
1.how to change habits and long-held beliefs about hygiene;
2.how to discuss sanitation issues in societies where the topic is unmentionable; and
3.how to achieve the necessary commitment of effort and time.
CRITICAL ROLE OF HEALTH &ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONAL:
Publish and do
Advocate Role model
Total sanitation campaign
1. MAJOR PROBLEM :OPEN
•Makes children sick and stunt their
•Open defecation is a society’s
•Govt action is necessary
2.EFFECTS OF TCS
•Made children healthier taller and
better able to reach their cognitive
•Reduce infant mortality
•Promoted and incentivized latrine
3. TSC successful because it had its
focus in village level incentives
4. Rewards villages where everybody
Policy Lesson 1. Improving sanitation – meaning
safe excreta disposal – must be a top priority for
India. Because open defecation has negative
externalities, it is everybody’s problem, and
requires government action.
Policy Lesson 2. By promoting and incentivizing
latrine use, the TSC has had positive initial impacts
on children’s health and human capital.
Policy Lesson 3. The TSC and clean village prize
together are a comparatively very inexpensive way
to save babies’ lives.
Policy Lesson 4. Villages are a critical level of
governance for sanitation intervention.
Policy Lesson 5. Incentives to local leaders for
outcomes are useful and should be strengthened by
both Increasing the monetary incentive and
devoting resources to ensure accurate evaluation
Policy Lesson 6. The additional benefit of
extending effective TSC implementation to
children would probably substantially exceed the
Policy Lesson 7. Achieving total sanitation
coverage will require both safeguarding the quality
of administrative data – perhaps by providing
resources for data sources that bypass bureaucratic
– and investing in large datasets about health
• JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION
1.Aims at encouraging reforms and fast track planned development
programmes of identified cities.
2.Focus is on efficiency in urban infrastructure and delivery mechanisms
and community participation
•NATIONAL RURAL DRINKING WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND
1. Launched in February 2005
2. All drinking water sources must be tested at least twice a year
for bacteriological contamination and once a year for chemical
Development by no supply driven
approach: Leads to insufficient
cost recovery leading to
insufficient and proper use of
Decentralization of services:
Ineffective financial performance,
rigid bureaucacy,low budget
hampers centralized services
Proper operation and maintenance
of sanitation system: Should be
viewed as a pure technical issue
since they have connections with
many institutional and
Incorporate Hygiene behaviour:
Hygiene behaviour is a crucial link
between sanitation ,water supply
Neglected school sanitation is a
typical indicator that hygiene
education is not a
priority in schools, especially in
poor urban agglomerations and in
Thus a Need to implement a full
prevention package including the
hygiene promotion and the use of
improved sources of drinking
water and sanitation facilities.
The current system of financing sanitation and clean drinking water is fragmented
between the national and state governments which poses several delivery challenges
•The increasing demand for water by the rising population has placed a burden on the
existing water resources
•Socio-economic factors like poverty and caste discrimination among the poor and
SCs/STs have led to lower reach of sanitation and clean drinking water among them.
•A substantial amount of water is wasted during transportation
•Climate changes such as higher temperatures, increase in precipitation, a greater
amount of evaporation and a late freezing cycle will also have a negative effect on
•Factors such as agricultural and industrial waste, invading exotic species and the
creation of dams and water diversions are the primary causes for the disruption of fresh
A lack of political will and budgetary priority: governments have little interest in dealing
with sanitation issues.
• Poor policy on sanitation at country level.
• Fragmented institutional framework: responsibilities for sanitation are fragmented and
coordinated among country agencies.
•There is general lack of awareness, especially in the rural areas, about the importance of proper sanitation
Inadequate and poorly used resources: scarce financial resources are frequently used inefficiently,
such as for improving existing services.
Low prestige and recognition: promoting low-cost sanitation and hygiene education has never been
popular with politicians and technical staff because such projects carry little prestige.
• Inappropriate approaches: frequently, the approach used to provide sanitation services is not in
line with local culture, technical limitations or affordability criteria.
• Weak demand on sanitation services: ineffective promotion and low public awareness: often both
the potential users of sanitation services and those responsible for policy and decision-making are
not aware or convinced of the importance of good sanitation for health.
• Inequity in service provision: (i) low importance given to women and children and other
marginalized groups; (ii) methods/technology ill-suited to context. The low importance given to
women and children: women are potential agents of change in hygiene education, and children are
the most vulnerable to poor sanitation.
• Low involvement of users: sanitation programmes should consider user preferences for
affordability, cultural aspects, etc.
HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND
In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly
recognized access to safe drinking-water and sanitation
as a human right
The resolution includes various characteristics against
which the enjoyment of the right can be assessed:
• availability, safety, acceptability, accessibility,
affordability, participation, non- discrimination and