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  1. 1. SPJIMR -Team Spartans “ Towards cleaner India , providing safe drinking water and proper sanitation to all. “
  2. 2. Clean Drinking Water and Sanitation… Problems Access to safe drinking water • On an average, a rural woman walk 12 miles a day to carry 90 liters of water • 840 million people in India don’t have access to safe drinking water. Health Hazards • 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually • 1.5 million children die of diarrhea Economic Burden • Burden of USD 600 million per annum • 6.4& of India’s GDP Is spent on Clean drinking water and sanitation Depletion of Natural water resources • Average Rainfall decline of 33 cm per year in North- western states • Annual water table decline exceeding 4 meters throughout India Causes Bacterial Contamination • Due to Organic pollution • Presence of Coliform Contamination due to over-exploitation • Increase in fluoride concentration • Excess iron, nitrates and brackishness Effluents and Industrial waste • Increase fertilizer and pesticide use • Presence of heavy metal such as Lead, Zinc Behavioral Practices • Absence of improved sanitation • Wastage during use Cultural Practices • Immersion of idols in surface water bodies • Various offerings and bathing in river
  3. 3. AVAILABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY ACCESSIBILITY Traditional Emerging Leading We suggest a 3-A framework as a solution to all water related problems.. Making Water Available Making Water Usable Source: Continuous improvement • Water quality monitoring o Laboratories in Rural area o Institutional framework for water quality monitoring • Water treatment plants o Recycling of waste water and sewage treatment o Decentralized distillation units Accountability of both: • Consumer through o Meters & Tariffs o Contribution for schemes • Government through o Speedy arbitration of conflicts o Enactment of Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) on lines of USA • Measures to Stop wastage of water o Maintenance pipelines o Monitoring theft in transit • Joining of water bodies o To prevent rivers from drying in summer o Construction of canals • Ensuring Supply through o Rainwater harvesting o Desalination of sea water
  4. 4. Monitoring, Sensitizing and Tariffing would help make water Available for all AVAILABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY • Water meters to be installed for proper usage and monitoring, and tariffs collection • Strong penalty on those who are found to steal water by amendment as per IPC • Restrictions on wastage of water on mundane uses such as car wash • Use of technology to prevent misuse of water pumps to extract extra water • All the major rivers should be connected through dams and canals so that there cannot be water shortage or excess water at any particular part of the country The support of all Construction companies, Public & Government is required to ensure availability of water for all Government Support would involve the following measures • Theft of water should be considered as crime and active police action should be enforced • CGWB should draft guidelines on usage of ground water in a restricted way • A huge government machinery need to be involved • Need for Collaboration with state government to construct dams and canals • Support of National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) to locate the rivers which specifically needs to be connected Resources required • Technological resources to make a water meter temper proof • Enforcement agencies to act proactively • Team of architects, engineers and construction contractors and workers. It is going to be a huge activity • Ministry of Environment and Forests to set up special department for this activity Source of Funding • This should be included in NRDWP and for the same budget is allocated by both central and state government • To set aside funds and make it a planned investment in next 5-year plan • Support of World Bank, UNICEF and Asian Development Bank • Issue bonds and raise money from general public and give them tax exemption Steps to be taken Stakeholders & Support Required Resources & Funding Needed
  5. 5. Involvement of construction cos., NGO’s and technology efficient solutions would help in Clean Drinking Water ACCESABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY • Setting up a task force to provide guidelines on monitoring • Involvement of local bodies & NGO’s & Training to people in rural areas • Construction of new buildings across India must have water treatment facility. • Industrial wastage should not be discharged into rivers directly without processing. • Small distillation units should be prepared so that in rural areas, safe water can be made available Apart from Government & NGO’s, Private manufacturers of distillation units, Construction companies the public at large is also responsible for ensuring clean drinking water Government Support • BIS to help prepare guidelines for water quality monitoring & • Empower local bodies such as panchayat etc. • CWC responsible for regulating surface water should be made responsible for this task. • Promoting Private players to set up treatment plants and manufacture distillation units by giving grants, tax exempts • CPCB should be empowered to take stricter actions against industries polluting surface water Resources required • Zonal laboratories can be set up with state governments. Additional R&D and administrative staff will be required. • Additional expenses incurred for maintaining laboratories, conducting trainings, salary of additional staff etc. • R&D to be done so that effective distillation units can be manufactured and set up in rural areas which can provide safe drinking water to at least 100 people per day • Effective monitoring of industries which are prone to discharge untreated industrial waste in rivers Source of Funding • Allocate funds to CWC through union budget. Funds can also be allocated from other defunct schemes • HUDCO must launch a scheme to support private players and fund the installation units in rural areas Steps to be taken Stakeholders & Support Required Resources & Funding Needed
  6. 6. Though the Impact of the solution would affect all stakeholders yet the challenges need to be taken care of IMPACT • Due to water quality monitoring, rural areas will have supply of safe drinking water • Increased co-ordination between government agencies • Water treatment plants and distillation units to ensure more supply of water • The calamities such as flood and drought can be controlled by joining major rivers • Speedy arbitration will be helpful in case of water related disputes • Available of funds to ensure infrastructure development • Involvement of Panchayats, Irrigation Department, PWD etc. at the local level to ensure governance Environmental • Rivers are used as dumping place by industries. • Due to deforestation, the ground water is not recharging. Political Due to coalition government, it takes a lot time to pass a bill. Safe Drinking Water Bill is not the priority of government. Economical • Burden on tax payers as more infrastructure needs • Lack of financial market from where cheap capital can be raised Technological • Higher cost of desalination of sea water • Lack of efficient R&D Social • Religious belief such as bathing and throwing ashes is polluting rivers. • Improper sanitation and lack of other infrastructure. Challenges and Mitigating Factors
  7. 7. Sanitation in India... The Cost of Missing toilets in India A staggering half of India’s 1.1 billion population lives without toilets Over 75 million people in rural India do not have access to proper sanitation Of the 1.1 million people in the world who defecate outdoors, more than half are in India Each year, India logs the highest number of diarrhea- related deaths worldwide More than 30 percent of all deaths among Indian children under the age of five are diarrhea-related Of the total wastewater generated in the metropolitan cities, barely 30 per cent is treated before disposal “Sanitation is more important than Political independence” – Mahatama Gandhi
  8. 8. Measures to Improve… Role of Local Government Micro Finance Institutions Slums Infrastructure Community-based organizations • Many slum settlements, especially those that have not been officially recognized by the government • Lack pipelines or other infrastructure to support supply of basic water and sanitation services to people’s homes • Local officials must be willing to establish and maintain infrastructure • to approve in-home water and sewage connections • to subsidize household-level infrastructure costs. must link affordable microloans to water sanitation projects. to provide the up-front capital investment in water sanitation infrastructure • One Ahmedabad study found that having individual households contribute to the costs of the initial infrastructure “inculcated a sense of ownership” of the facilities, which helps ensure maintenance of toilets over the long term.) • must motivate community demand for adoption of new facilities • behavioral change is often the hardest thing to accomplish), mobilize government initiatives • assist with technical aspects of construction such as materials sourcing and design
  9. 9. CONCLUSION • Households, communities, local and national governments, civil society, and private companies all need to work together. Media and public opinion around the world can influence political leaders to act now. • Mostly women and children are responsible for fetching and carrying water from distant sources. Thus, improved water sources , such as piped household water connections, public standpipes , protected wells or springs, and rainwater collection systems, can have a crucial impact on a community's health and wellbeing. • Where there is no access to basic sanitation, people must dispose of human waste in places like rivers and streams, or they must dispose of it in the open. • Improve potable water storage facilities and work with community members to improve public awareness of water, sanitation. • There can be little doubt that water is a basic necessity for the survival of humans. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. • When it comes to dealing with maintaining water quality, the users and in large the communities have to play a key role in maintaining hygiene near water sources. One has to improve the ways in which we collect and store water so as to avoid contamination while collection, storage and use.