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  1. 1. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Manthan Topic : Towards Cleaner India Providing Clean Drinking Water and Proper Sanitation Facility to All Towards Cleaner India (Topic 12) Team Details 1. Arnab Mandal 2. Dipanwita Basak 3. Kshitij Ghumaria 4. Lokesh Malviya 5. Utpal Das arnab12@iimshillong.in dipanwita12@iimshillong.in kshitij12@iimshillong.in lokesh12@iimshillong.in utpal12@iimshillong.in Institute – Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, Shillong PGP 2012-2014
  2. 2. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan The Situation as it is Now India and the World (Developed, Developing/ Emerging & Underdeveloped) 1 56% 5% 4% 4% 4% 3% 2%1%1%1% 19% Profile of 1.1 billion who practice Open Defecation Source-WHO 2010 report on Sanitation & Drinking Water India indonesia China Ethiopia Pakistan 1 2 3 35 50 25 1 2 3 65 1 70 1 2 3 100 0 100 1 2 3 29 14 20 1 2 3 21 45 9 1 2 3 81 4 92 1 2 3 100 0 84 1-Use of Improved Sanitation Facility, 2-Open Defecation, 3-Water Piped on Premises India lacks in all 3 aspects Ethiopia Kenya China India Brazil USA UK
  3. 3. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan The Situation as it is Now The Sorry State of Sanitation in India • India with other 9 Countries contribute nearly 81% of Open Defecation Population • 50% of slums lack drainage facilities and 81% (75 million) toilets • 30% deaths of Indians under 5 are diarrhoea related,2nd largest no. of polio cases in world • Regular illness resulting in chronic malnourishment, physical and cognitive disorders • Girls are often forced to miss or drop out of school due to poor sanitation • Productivity Loss of Rs 2.4 trillion ( USD 53.8 billion ) , per capita loss of Rs 2,810 (2006) • Far more people in India have access to a mobile phone than to a toilet, United Nations 1 0% 4% 1% 12% 1% 66% 16% Cost of India's Missing Toilets (Total $ 31 billion), 2006 Malaria Measles Trachoma ALRI Intestinal Worms Diarrhoea Others
  4. 4. Present Scenario  Estimated annual water demand till 2030 is 468 Bn m3 :  Agriculture:338 Bn m3  Industry: 89 Bn m3  Municipal and domestic: 40 Bn m3  Low agricultural water productivity and efficiency, combined with aging supply infrastructure, make severe supply-demand gaps  Different regions face different issues: No generalization Historical Steps for matching supply-demand  Energy intensive measures such as desalination  Expensive than  Traditional surface water supply infrastructure  Efficiency measures such as irrigation scheduling in agriculture  Won’t be able to fill the whole gap  To cover remaining gap higher cost will be incurred India Supply Vs. Demand scenario  The growing population coupled with improved lifestyle increases consumption  Projected 2030 demand:  Agriculture: 1,200 billion m3 or 80% of total water demand  Projected municipal and domestic: 108 billion m3  Industry: 196 billion m3 ( quadruple from present demand) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 2012 2020 2030 Rice Wheat Sugar Oil Crops Maize Cotton Other crops 2.4% Agriculture water demand Gap b/w existing supply & projected demand Courtesy: 2030 water recourses group  From the map, we can see majority of the locations will face severe 20%-80% water gap  Only Brahmaputra and Godavari feed areas be performing well Water scenario in India  Ability of current infrastructure to buffer the gap is low  Therefore difficulty of accessible and reliable supply  Water not distributed uniformly across India causing the stark gap in supply  We estimate severe deficit in Indian rivers if the current situation prevails Supply measures face steep margin cost curve Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan
  5. 5. Proposed Solutions  Relevant for countries with limited infrastructure but abundant resources  Has been preferred solution  But resources have started to get exhausted o Increase the efficiency of the existing water-use process o Technology intensive o Hard to implement  Country make conscious choice of moving away from water- intensive activities  The challenge is to compare different options  We propose analysis of marginal cost curve to choose the activity/activities  The most cost effective solution for India is to improve agriculture productivity agriculture  Increase crop/drop  No-till farming and improved drainage, utilization of germplasm, optimizing fertilizer use, and application of crop stress management Agriculture Efficiency in industry and municipal systems  Industry and urban waste growing at rapid pace  Aggressive water-conscious programs  New stronger reforms Quality of water  Important from practical and environment point of view  Better waste management in industry will saves them millions 80 % National Government •Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation •Provides guidelines at districts for TSC, monitoring and awards NGP •Policy formulation State Government •Rural Development/ Public Health engineering Department •Provides strategy, hardware funding, supports districts for implementation, capacity building, communication, monitoring District Government •Headed by Collector, CEO. Departments like Rural Water supply, Health, Education •Coordinates programs, facilitates financial, technical and capacity support Blocks (Sub-District) Government •Headed by BDO, Field Officers of various Departments •Reports at District Level Village level •Gram Panchayat •Responsible for implementing villagers in actual planning, implementation and O&M Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Decentralized model Partnership between local communities and private players Each plant requires between Rs. 13, 60, 000 to Rs. 16, 32, 000 as an upfront cost in fixed assets followed by monthly operational cost of Rs. 16320 to Rs. 19040 and can break even quickly Financial Implications
  6. 6. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Framework for Sanitation in Urban Slums: USE- Urban Slum Sanitation System 6 Sustainable Ecosystem of USE Local Govt. MFI Slum Communit y Organizati ons/ NGO Facilitator Technolog y Partner • Local Government- Provide and maintain drainage and toilet facilities, Subsidize toilet infrastructure and specialized awareness campaigns, legal environment , regulator, maintains trunk infrastructure and approves individual household levels • Micro Financial Institutions- Link funds to projects and infrastructure • Slum Household Support-Sense of ownership among households-chit fund concept, improved maintenance, target must be willing for initial contribution • Community Based Organizations-Acts as link between Government/ MFIs and households, motivates the slums and attracts the Government, Guides families to connections, Attracts entrepreneurs for opportunity at the bottom of the pyramid and guides and trains facilitators in motivating individual households • Facilitator-motivates households, people’s representative, involved in decision making, convenes meetings • Community Based Organizations- Start ups gaining credibility by being in Government projects, cheap technology providers and advisors Active Government Participation Community Based Finances Community Mobilization Technology & Infrastructure Support Sustainable Ecosystem Needs
  7. 7. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Focus on Change at Different Levels • Knowledge, Attitude, Skills- KSA Individ ual • WOM among family and friends Interpers onal • Social Networks and Cultural Habits Community • Organizational Strategies Institutional • National, State, District Laws Public Policies • Infrastructu re Physical Enable all households to have access to and use toilets Ensure all government schools and anganwadis have functional toilets, urinals and access to safe drinking water Ensuring Sustainability of Drinking Water Sources and Systems Enable rural communities to monitor and keep surveillance on their drinking water sources Objectives of the proposed Framework for Sanitation Solution to Sanitation Related Issues
  8. 8. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Solution to Sanitation Related Issues 6 Community Behavior Change Tools •Dialog with communityRapport Building •Visits to actual sites (choked drains) to understand current waste management practices •understanding of reasons behind the same Environmental Walk •Estimation of actual magnitude of solid and liquid wasteWaste Calculation •Amount spend to calculate the hidden cost apart from O&M costs for SLWM Calculation of Medical Expenses •Can cover large areas- can overcome challenge of literacy and language, radio for media dark region Mass Media •Includes public campaigns and mobile media campaigns Outdoor Media •To attract innovators, for government medium of communication Social Media Campaigns •Press releases and video packages to engage journalists Print and Audio Visual Communication •One of the largest attraction for Indians- movie stars such as Aamir Khan having previous TV serial “Satyamev Jayate” and involved in socially relevant causes Celebrity Spokesperson Tools To raise Community Awareness Criteria for the selection of location for pilot runs Population- Number & density Past success in selecting Point of Contact of a Gram Panchayat Quantity of waste generated Location- pilgrimage, tourist spot Indicators like disease history and drop in attendance Willingness to be involved
  9. 9. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Financial Analysis (for sanitation and wastewater treatment) 7 Where can financing be required Solid and Liquid Waste Management Financing Operatio ns & Mainten ance Hardwar e (Constru ction) Software / Technolo gy Typical cost norms for solid waste management for a community of 300 households Particulars Estimate Hardware Compost Pit Preparation ₹ 50,000.00 Tricycle(3) ₹ 30,000.00 Containers (600) for Segmentation of waste (2 per Household) ₹ 30,000.00 Uniforms for Workers ₹ 20,000.00 Construction of segregation shed ₹ 400,000.00 Tools ₹ 10,000.00 Sub Total ₹ 540,000.00 Personnel Supervisor salary ₹ 6,000.00 Workers' (10) salary per month ₹ 30,000.00 Sub Total ₹ 36,000.00 Grand Total ₹ 576,000.00 Particulars Estimate Capex Soak pit (unlined) (1 per household) ₹ 600.00 ₹ 600.00 Stabilization Pond ₹ 80,000.00 ₹ 267.00 Drainage Channel (10,000 per square meters) ₹ 100,000.00 ₹ 333.00 Sub Total ₹ 180,600.00 ₹ 1,200.00 Particulars Primary treatment system Primary + ultra filtration system Primary + ultra filtration system + reverse osmosis Capital Cost (Rs. Lakh) 30.0 90.64 145 Annualized Capital Cost (@ 15 % p.a. interest & depreciation) 5.79 18.06 29.69 Operation and maintenance cost (lakhs/annum) 5.88 7.04 12.63 Annual burden (Annualized cost + O&M cost) Rs. Lakh 11.85 27.1 42.5 Treatment Cost Rs./kl (Without interest and depreciation) 34.08 52.40 73.22 Economies of different levels of treatment through conventional measures (Source: R Kaur, SP Wani, AK Singh and K Lal, Wastewater production, treatment and use in India, Water Technology Centre, IARI New Delhi)
  10. 10. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Impact of sanitation in India 7 The annual sanitation market is estimated to grow from Rs. 300 billion (US$6.6 billion) in 2007, to Rs. 683 billion (US$15.1 billion) in 2020 Rs. 2.5 trillion (US$54 billion or 36 percent) in operations and maintenance services Rs. 4.4 trillion (US$97 billion or 64 percent) in infrastructure The national cumulative sanitation market has the potential of Rs. 6.87 trillion (US$152 billion) over the 2007-2020 period This signifies a potential gain of Rs. 1,321 (US$29) per capita Potential gain of about Rs. 1.48 trillion (US$32.6 billion, which was the equivalent of 3.9 percent of GDP in 2006)
  11. 11. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Future Plans for Sanitation in India 8 Involving the community Time-line of the history and activities of beneficiary groups Monitoring the contribution of beneficiaries Mapping the progress of construction Involving local people through policy intervention
  12. 12. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Appendix 2 References • Report of Sanitation and Hygiene Advocacy and Communication Strategy Framework 2012-2017 • The economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India by The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) • Meeting the financing challenge for water and sanitation, water and sanitation program January 15 2003 • A strategy for fluoride mitigation in rural drinking water systems, A case study of Maharashtra • R Kaur, SP Wani, AK Singh and K Lal, Wastewater production, treatment and use in India, Water Technology Centre, IARI, New Delhi • Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches, WaterAid • Using Innovative, Low – cost Solutions to Provide Safe Drinking Water in India, 2012, India Knowledge@Wharton • Dr. Sridhar Vedachalam, Water supply and sanitation in India: Meeting targets and beyond, Global Water Forum • Water Treatment, University of Waterloo • Cledan Mandri – Perrott, Social contract formulas in rural areas: the India Naandi Foundation water treatment plants