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WorldCALL 2013 Glasgow


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WorldCALL 2013 Glasgow

  1. 1. Does mobile learning need to move? Işıl Boy Gary Motteram
  2. 2. Introduction How has mobile learning been viewed? As, “essentially situated, spontaneous, personalized, and inclusive.” Kukulska-Hulme and Traxler (2005: 180)
  3. 3. Although mobile learning is regarded by some as an extension of e-learning, it is also said to provide: ● more flexibility to learners in terms of time and place of access to learning material and in communication It is also said to: ● alter the relationship between the learner and learning that is undertaken.
  4. 4. Context of the study Initial findings from a small-scale exploratory study of seven EFL classrooms that aims to gain insights into teachers’ use of mobile technologies. 3 private primary schools and 2 state schools in Turkey, and a college in the UAE.
  5. 5. Why this focus? A teacher perspective because they are so often ignored when it comes to the introduction of new technologies A learner focus is being undertaken in another study
  7. 7. Methodology Case Studies Initial research questions: 1- How do teachers see and use mobile devices in language learning? 2- What are the factors affecting teachers’ use of mobile technologies in teaching? 3- What are the roles teachers believe mobile technologies should have in teaching and learning?
  8. 8. We interviewed 7 teachers working in private primary schools, two state schools in Turkey and a college in the UAE and adopted an unstructured approach "as we have a clear idea of the purpose of the observation, but not so clear about the detail." (Bell 2010: 185)
  9. 9. ● Because of difficulties accessing teachers for face-to-face interviews we have used semi- structured email interviews. ● E-mail interviewing as a asynchronous communication is advantageous since it enables the interview think thoroughly before answering the questions, and edit them if necessary (Curasi, 2001).
  10. 10. Initial findings Five of the teachers are using iPads and two using Android tablets as a part of the Turkish Ministry of Education funded Fatih project ( Teachers are working in Turkey or the UAE, six out of seven are of Turkish origin. The final teacher is originally from the UK.
  11. 11. The seven teachers have been involved in teaching from 2-28 years, but have mostly only been using tablets in the classroom for 1 year (5 teachers), 1.5 years (1 teacher) and 3 years (1 teacher). These teachers did have prior experience of using technology in the classroom, in some cases they showed a lot of history in this regard.
  12. 12. History of technology use “After the Fatih Project started by the Ministry of Education my school has also taken part in it as it had already started using the netbooks and online learning systems such as Moodle a couple of years ago before that. We started to use the iPads with our 5th graders and tablet PC’s with the 9th graders.” P1 (14 years experience) “I have used technology to support learning for many years. First it was through computers in computer labs, then laptops and now mobile devices, such as tablets and smart phones.” P2 (13 years experience)
  13. 13. UAE In the UAE the iPads are being introduced as the sole classroom technology with other traditional technologies banned.
  14. 14. There are inevitable issues around the technology itself in some of the contexts, teachers describing *poor performance of the tablets *control of access to the internet and online sites
  15. 15. Initial codes Motivation Individual vs group activity Typical class activity Broadening of teaching approaches Vocabulary work Management Tablet as games platform (neg) Tablet as a games platform (pos) Tablet as a tool Tablet as a curriculum tool Finding the 'right' apps Tablet as a creative tool Training History of technology in the language classroom Technology on the move Teachers views of learners
  16. 16. Some instances of mobile technologies being used as creative tools and in one case outside of the classroom mirroring previous research in other subject areas (Purcell et al. 2013) Tablets as creative tools
  17. 17. “I also embrace the learning by doing method and encourage students to create content, such as eBooks, podcasts, vodcasts and screencasts. I use screencasts for flipped teaching, as necessary.” P2 “I only focus on creativity. I prefer audio creation and video creation apps. By the way I should add apps are just the tools the information comes from the web and the teacher.” P3 “Currently, we are using “Minecraft” in language learning. Since we are working on creative writing and reading, I let them play Minecraft in my classes. It includes gamification, blended learning and fun! They create their own stories based on their written stories. Therefore, they are always motivated enough for learning and interacting with the others.” P4
  18. 18. Creativity from the perspective of a teacher “When I was in university, I had a linguistics class which I had to prepare some projects. Almost all my friends prepared worksheet and powerpoint presentations. But I wanted to do something different. So I decided to use Adobe Flash to create animated movies that might be interesting for both students and teachers. It was really hard for me to do that because it was really difficult to create animations without appropriate skills/knowledge. But at the end, I was able present my movies to my teacher and he was really happy with the outcome. But it was still a problem for me to create those animations because I had to spend a lot of time on then. When I discovered the use of iPad for these kind of projects, I gave it a try and it was perfect. It was easy to use, time saver and it
  19. 19. In most cases, in the limited data we have analysed so far, teachers are using tablets in similar ways to other computer technologies: as tools to teach the curriculum, to practise language, particularly vocabulary, and to motivate learners. Tablet as a curriculum tool
  20. 20. “We are using them in Grade 5. My subject is English. We use them for preparing flashcards for the target vocabulary SS learn. They are also using it for creating comic strips, story time lines, etc. We also use online websites such as “Quizlet and Jeopardy labs” for comprehension. It enables us to use these tools both individually and in groups in class. The use of other web tools like Edmodo, Linoit are also much easier this way. We also use them for reading-for-pleasure time.” P1 “My main aims as a teacher have not changed dramatically. I still primarily aim to cover the learning objectives in my institution's syllabus and help students improve their English language skills. ” P2
  21. 21. Specific apps mentioned Futuba -- Multiplayer vocabulary game for kids -- Group work Ebackpack -- eBackpack is an assignment, storage, and collaboration service. -- P2 Minecraft -- various devices -- P4 Quizlet -- various devices -- P1 -- P1 Edmodo -- P1 -- P1 Poplet -- P2 Comic Life -- P2 Creative Book Builder -- P2 Socrative -- P2 iBooks Author -- P2 iWorks -- P2 iMovie -- P2
  22. 22. Some of the teachers talked about the difficulties of managing the tablets in the classroom with the learners only interesting in playing games; one teacher talks about the harnessing of those same games to stimulate language practice. Management of activity
  23. 23. “Ts were concerned about the misuse of internet in the classroom.” P1 “[T]hey have access to up-to-date course information anywhere anytime and that they can stay connected with their teachers and peers outside the classroom.” P2 “They access up-to-date course information, such as changes in exam times or venues, receive reminders for homework, collaborate with their friends on Edmodo by sharing written or spoken work and commenting on peers' posts.” P2 “They need guidance in using iPads in class, such as not playing games during class time or using particular Apps.” P2
  24. 24. Do mobile technologies need to move? “They use them specifically for research and making movies. Unfortunately, they are mostly interested with the games they play but still some use for research and reading. (online libraries and/or e- books) They also need to complete some online tasks where they work on their on like creating posters etc.” P1 “We assign them online quizzes, prezi/PPT/keynote presentations. Some HW is only available on Moodle or Edmodo.” P1 “Do you ask your students to take their iPads out into an authentic context like a museum to access information? If yes, please provide some examples. - No. Thinking about my subject I say no.” P1 “They also use their iPads to stay connected with their friends through facebook, twitter and instagram and to play games.” P2
  25. 25. “Well, it is basically about the learning on the road. I always try to read and learn something new about my profession and interests. But it was really hard for me to do that 5-6 years ago. I was limited by the books that I have with me on the road. There was no chance for me to bring new perspectives by reading different comments/things about the book that I was reading at that time. By taking mobile learning into consideration, it brought a new way of learning. It is fast enough to get you different perspectives. By the help of this term, you can read, listen, watch, share and explore at the same time.” P4 “They share, create their contents that are related to out topics before class. They watch and explore the content that I shared on iTunes U, They do tasks that I send them before the class. And of course they PLAY GAMES” P4
  26. 26. Current issues in our minds Tablet computers in our study so far appear to be being used in schools and colleges in similar ways to the other implementations of technology in the language classroom. Does this matter? Is this a natural social shaping of the technology by teachers? Is this social shaping a problem because some of the teachers are what Prensky pejoratively called "digital immigrants"? Is it that the curriculum was shaped in non-digital times? Is it because teachers have a positive contribution to make in the classroom?
  27. 27. Gap Analysis What is the desired state for mobile technologies in the language classroom? Is this the debate that we need to have?
  28. 28. References Bell, J. (2010). Doing your research project: A guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science (5th ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press. Curasi, C.F. (2001). A critical exploration of face-to-face interviewing versus computer- mediated interviewing. International Journal of Market Research, 43(4), 361-375. Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Traxler, J. (2005). Mobile learning: A handbook for educators and trainers. London: Routledge Purcell, K., Heaps. A., Buchanan J., Friedrich , L. (2013). How Teachers Are Using Technology at Home and in Their Classrooms. Retrieved from: gywithmethodology_PDF.pdf.
  29. 29. THANK YOU! Gary Motteram @garymotteram Işıl Boy @isilboy