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Icidnews 11 4

  1. 1. Managing Water for Sustainable Agriculture 2011/4 Also available at http://www.icid.org Message from the PresidentDear Friends and members of ICID family, biofuel crop area, global food security scenario is becoming more and moreI am very pleased to write this first serious and complex. In 2010, the numbermessage as the new President of ICID. of undernourished population was 925It is indeed an honour to serve as your million. There are enormous challenges toPresident. First of all, I would like to achieve the MDG for food security.thank you and all National Committeesfor electing me as the President of ICID. Given these huge challenges, ICID willICID is the organization that I like to continue to promote the sustainablecontribute to and devote whole heartedly. development of irrigation and drainage toI wish to assure you that I will do my increase irrigation water use efficiency andbest to uphold the Office of the President water and land productivity. Current globaland to work closely with all National irrigated area is only 19% of the totalCommittees and members of various farmland of the world and about 55% ofworkbodies in order to fulfill our mission. the food production comes from irrigated/ drained land. Irrigation has played and willTaking this opportunity, on behalf of the continue to play an important role inentire ICID family I would like to express increasing global cereal production. To further reinforce the collaboration with theheartiest thanks once again to Iranian cope with climate change and water related international organizations.National Committee and Local Organizing scarcity threats, we need to modernize The 3rd African Regional ConferenceCommittee for their exceptional work and our existing irrigation and drainage will be held in Bamako, Mali, from 29efforts in hosting the 21st Congress, the infrastructure. Some countries have already November to 5 December. I am glad62nd IEC meeting and the 8th International enhanced their investment in irrigation to tell you that about 200 participantsMicro Irrigation Congress very success- sector. Thus, the good news is that there including the representatives from FAO,fully. My special thanks must go to are opportunities to extend new and the World Bank and other internationalProf. Chandra Madramootoo, President improved techniques and management organizations will attend this importantHon., Er. M. Gopalakrishnan, Secretary measures for increasing water use ICID event. I will attend this conferenceGeneral, Vice Presidents Hon. Dr. (Mrs.) efficiency and productivity. and hope that this event will help theSamia El-Guindy, Dr. Shinsuke Ota, and There is an urgent need to strengthen the African region in promoting irrigationProf. Lucio Ubertini for their valuable capacity building in irrigation and drainage development and contribute towardscontributions to ICID. sector, especially in the developing addressing the water and food securityDuring the past 62 years, ICID has countries. Exchange of experiences, in the region. I am aware that somededicated to enhance the worldwide knowledge and information among ICID developing countries, especially the leastsupply of food and fiber for all people by fraternity will make a difference for the developed countries (LDCs) have financialimproving water and land management and developing countries to increase their water problems to attend ICID events. In thisthe productivity of irrigated and drained use efficiency and productivity, and help regard, we have to seek ways to helplands through appropriate management of address their food and water security them. I am pleased to inform you thatwater, environment and application of concerns. The world needs a strong ICID, CNCID will support 6 delegates fromirrigation, drainage and flood management which is based on the strength of our African countries to attend the 3rd Africantechniques. ICID has made remarkable National Committees and various Regional Conference.contribution to the sustainable development workbodies with the active involvement In our member countries, there are manyof irrigated agriculture, global food supply of irrigation and drainage professionals, remarkable and historic irrigation, drainageand poverty alleviation. However, with especially young professionals. We need to and flood control projects. These projectsgrowing population, water scarcity, impact work actively to strengthen the cooperationof climate change, and expansion of among ICID National Committees and Continued on page 2/-International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage IN THIS ISSUE(ICID) was established in 1950 as a scientific, technical • Report from Tehran Congress 2-3 • SonTek – Believe in infinite possibility 6and voluntary not-for-profit non-governmental • New Office Bearers /Award Winners 4 • Conserving Rainwater for Enhancinginternational organization. The ICID News is published Crop Productivity 7 • Key Recommendations of the 5quarterly by ICID Central Office, New Delhi, India. 21st Congress and 8th IMIC • Tehran Declaration 8ICID News 2011/4 1
  2. 2. are not only the facilities and structures our goals. I am ready to work closely with more and contribute more to thefor better water management, but also are all members of ICID family to fulfill the sustainable development of irrigatedthe great cultural heritage. I am always mission of ICID. Currently under the agriculture, which eventually contributeencouraged and moved by the wonders leadership of President Hon. Prof. Bart to global food security and povertyof these projects and we can draw spirits Schultz, we are actively involved in the alleviation.from them towards sustainable develop- preparations of the Thematic Priority 2.2ment of irrigation, drainage and flood ‘‘Contribute to food security by optimal Best regards to all.control schemes. use of water’’ of the 6th World Water Yours truly, Forum. The Australian National CommitteeNo doubt, we are facing many challenges, is fully geared up in preparation of thebut we also have many opportunities. It is 63rd IEC meeting and 7th Asian Regionalthe spirit of ICID family to unite and work Conference, which are only 7 months Dr. Gao Zhanyi,together and to help each other to realize away. Let us work together to achieve President, ICID Report from Tehran CongressMore than 1200 professionals, scientists, irrigation managers, policy makers, consultants, and students from 55 countries andinternational organizations gathered in Tehran from 15 to 23 October 2011 to participate in ICID’s 21stInternational Congress onIrrigation & Drainage, the 8thInternational Micro-irrigation Congress, and the 62nd meeting of the International Executive Council. Photo: www.President.ir H.E. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President, I.R. of Iran (inset) addressing delegates at the Opening Ceremony of the 21st CongressT he 21st ICID Congress was opened by H.E. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,President, I.R. of Iran. The event was The event was hosted by the Iranian National Committee (IRNCID) with the leadership of H.E. M.R. Attarzadeh, FAO side event on Investment in North Africa; Australian Special Session; FAO- ICID Special Session, Special Session ongraced by the presence of high profile Deputy Minister of Energy for Water and 6th World Water Forum, and the Youngguests and dignitaries - H.E. Pawan Kumar Wastewater Affairs, and Chairman, Professionals meeting. During the OpeningBansal, Minister of Water Resources from IRNCID and Dr. S.A. Assadollahi, Session, three publications (a) TowardsIndia; H.E. Khalialian, Minister of Jihad-e- Secretary General, supported by several Sustainable Development of Tidal Areas:Agriculture, H.E. Namjoo, Ministry of Ministries and National Organizations Some Principles and Experiences (PreparedEnergy, I.R. of Iran; H.E. Dr. Shavkat (Private and Government) from Iran. All by WG-SDTA); (b) Half a Century withKhamraev, Deputy Minister of Water and the events were held at the magnificent IRNCID; and (c) History of WaterAgriculture, Uzbekistan; H.E. Li Guoying, IRIB International Conference Center in Ancient Iran, prepared by IRNCIDVice Minister, Ministry of Water (IICC), Tehran. were released.Resources, China; H.E. Eng. C.K.Chiza,Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Republic The theme of the Congress was “Water Post-congress technical tours toof Tanzania, Pres. Chandra Madramootoo, Productivity towards Food Security”. Mazandaran Province on the north,Presidents Hon. Aly Shady, Prof. Bart More than 200 papers were presented and Khuzestan on the south of IranSchultz, Peter Lee and serving Vice during the Congress. Besides the were organized.Presidents and Vice Presidents Hon., and Congress, meetings of 30 ICIDSenior Officers from the FAO, ADB, workbodies, workshops and a largeand WWC. technical exhibition were held. The other side events held wereICID News 2011/4 2
  3. 3. Challenges of Food and Water SecurityPresident Prof. Chandra Madramootoo in his opening remarks at the 62nd Council meeting highlighted the current key drivers as -the continuing food crisis and volatile food prices, climate variability - floods and droughts, competition from other water users,population growth, Lack of water storage capacity, growing demands for energy and alternative fuels, changing dietary patterns,weak institutional capacity, lack of investments in agriculture and water, weakened applied research and technology transfercapabilities, and environmental and water quality degradation. The following are excerpts from his speech. rising demand for water from industrial infrastructure rehabilitation and maintenance Photo: IRNCID and domestic sectors at the expenses of and also in research and development, agriculture” said President Madramootoo. technology transfer, and in capacity In the Province of Alberta, Canada, for development/ building," said the President. example, the competition for water from other sectors of the economy has been Groundwater irrigation has many benefits in growing significantly. Adopting the package terms of its availability on demand and not of improved technology in water application, been constrained by institutional systems and seeds, fertilizers, and farm machinery, supply variability. In countries like India and farmers in Alberta could dramatically China, tube well irrigation has expanded rapidly, while canal irrigation remained very decrease the irrigation water application modest. Groundwater irrigated areas in India from about 900 mm per annum in mid is about 39 million ha, in China 19 million 1950s to only 380 mm today. At the same ha, and in the USA it is 17 million ha and time barely yields have actually increased the area is increasing. Pres. Madramootoo over the same period from about 2.5 tonnes said that we must be concerned in per hectare in mid 1950s to about 6.5 protecting our aquifers to avoid depletion tonnes per hectare today. Farmers of of groundwater resources. ICID needs to payT“ he challenge of doubling the food production over the next 25 years tomeet the food requirements of worlds rising Southern Alberta have come to realize that they can remain comparative in an international market and sell their produce attention to this subject and that there is a need to develop a better framework of groundwater management and its protection.population has to be met with the reduction across the world. "We therefore need toin cropped area in many countries and the continue investment in irrigation The Irrigation Sector Shift from Construction to Modernization: What is required for Success?On 19 October, the 8th N.D. Gulhati Memorial Lecture was delivered by Prof. Dr. Charles M. Burt, Chairman, Irrigation Trainingand Research Center (ITRC) at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly) San Luis Obispo, USA. He stressed the need forimprovement of irrigation performance through modernization of irrigation schemes while caring for the environment. Dr. Burt,with his vast experience spanning over 33 years in irrigation project modernization, elucidated common pitfalls to avoid by citingpractical experience in the western USA. The following are excerpts from his lecture. canals have diminished and should have Photo: IRNCID but most importantly: the irrigation sector must do more with less (i.e., crop production a vision of re-organizing to meet today’s must increase per unit of water and energy complex irrigation demands. “ICID can play consumed), and the environment must be an important role in effectively promoting protected. this new approach,” suggested Prof. Burt. In the past, irrigation projects have tradi- Dr. Burt said that the shift to modernization tionally operated as autonomous entities that must be addressed in a successful program are answerable only to their own bureau- that will provide excellent service to farmers cracies and regulations. However, continually while strengthening the environment. Such increasing external pressures on irrigation programs require a dedicated cadre of projects to improve performance no longer technical specialists with extensive experience allow this to hold true. The main factors that in successful modernization. Developing that impact not only irrigation agencies, but the cadre takes many years, serious funding, and environment, governmental policies, and the pragmatic training – an effort that is as large public in general are declining groundwater as, and more important than, building several levels, increasing and more affluent popu- large dams. Modernization is expensive, andD lations, environmental restrictions for must be approached slowly with excellent ecades of international irrigation construction of new dams, and climate attention to detail. The good news is that modernization development have change impacts on usable water supply. there is tremendous potential, throughclarified certain requirements for success, as modernization, to improve the environmentwell as illuminated indicators of project Strong irrigation departments in most and increase the “crop per drop” of waterfailure. Of particular importance are required countries were built with a focus on the and energy consumed, concluded Prof. Burt.shifts within the state and national irrigation construction of dams and large canals.bureaucracies, as well as universities. The Irrigation departments need to recognize that The full text of the lecture can be accessed atirrigation sector faces numerous challenges, the days of construction of new dams and <http://www.icid.org/nd_gulhati_2011.pdf>ICID News 2011/4 3
  4. 4. ICID Elects New Office Bearers Best Performing NationalAt the 62 Council meeting held in Tehran, ICID elected a new President and three nd Committee/ Workbody and Bestnew Vice Presidents and also ratified the appointment of the new Secretary General. Paper Awards President Vice Presidents Photo: IRNCID Photo: IRNCID Photo: Editor South African National Committee on Prof. Dr. Gao Zhanyi (China) was elected as (From Right) Prof. Tai Cheol, Kim (South Korea) Irrigation and Drainage (SANCID) has wonthe 22nd President of ICID for three years term is the Professor in Irrigation, Drainage and Rural the 4th Best Performing National Committee (2011-2014). He took over from Dr. Chandra Engineering in Chungnam National University; Award for its outstanding achievements and Madramootoo whose Presidential term ended Mr. Adama Sangare (Mali) is the President of contributions to ICID activities. The Trophyafter the Tehran Council meeting. Dr. Zhanyi is the Mali National Committee (AMID) and was received by VPH Felix Reinders, the Director, National Centre for Efficient Co-Director of the BETICO; and Dr. Gerhard Chairman, SANCID Irrigation Technology Research. He has also Backeberg (South Africa) is the Director of served as the Vice President of ICID (2005- Water Utilization in Agriculture at Water2008). He is the youngest ICID President so far. Research Commission. Photo: IRNCID Photo: IRNCID Photo: IRNCID The 3rd BPWA was presented to the ICID Working Group on Sustainable Development of Tidal Areas (WG-SDTA). Dr. Park Sang Hyun (Korea), Chairman, Secretary General M. Gopalakrishnan will The 62nd IEC ratified the selection and WG-SDTA received the award be retiring at the end of December 2011 appointment of Mr. Avinash C. Tyagi as after serving ICID for 8 years. He was the Secretary General with effect from honoured by presenting a plaque by 1 January 2012. Mr. Tyagi presently is the President Chandra Madramootoo Director at the World Meteorological Photo: IRNCID Organization (WMO), Geneva Winners of WatSave Awards 2011 Prof. Dr. Subhash for their work on “SAPWAT 3: Irrigation Taley (India) has won Water Planning Tool”. the WatSave Innovative Mr. Jerry Erstrom (USA) hasPhoto: IRNCID Water Management Award 2011 for his won the WatSave Farmer work on “Participatory Award 2011 for his work on Rainwater Conservation “The Willow Creek Piping of Rainfed Agriculture of Vidarbha Region Project”. The Best Paper Award 2011 was presented to (Maharashtra), India”. Please see page 7. Messrs Yanbo Huang, Guy Fipps, Stephan J. Messrs. Pieter S van Maas, and Reginald S. Fletcher (USA) to the Heerden and paper titled “Airborne Remote Sensing for Charles T Crosby Detection of Irrigation Canal Leakage” The award winning water saving/ conser- published in Volume 59, No. 5, (South Africa) have vation contributions can be accessed:at won the the December, 2010. The award was <http://www.icid.org/awards.html#watsave> received by VPH Larry D. Stephens, WatSave Techno- logy Award 2011 Executive Vice President, USCIDICID News 2011/4 4
  5. 5. Key Recommendations of the 21st Congress on Irrigation and Drainage and 8th Micro Irrigation CongressQuestion 56: “Water and Land ness of water allocated to agriculture • The concept of crop water requirement from economic and environmental needs to be reconsidered with the aimProductivity Challenges” consideration, particularly within the to focus on the actual water consumedPrepared and presented by VPH Dr. Saeed water stressed region. The definition of by crops. Irrigation technology shouldNairizi (Iran), General Reporter IWP should be framed based upon the be deployed to minimize the real water different objectives, and scales. losses.• Irrigation efficiencies should be studied and recommended for planning and • Evaporation from the field is an actual • In order to achieve high water decision making based on basin water productivity, other important factors like water loss within the irrigation schemes, balance rather than measurement at the proper agro-technology, improving the which is not recoverable. So attempts farm level. soil condition, better seeds, appropriate should be directed to the technology and fertilizer application, and above all the Irrigation water productivity (IWP) is a management of irrigation planning and• better farm management should be given promising tool to evaluate the effective- operation to minimize such water losses. due attention.Question 57: “Water Management productivity especially in water scares the role of women and youth need to be areas. given special attention.in Rainfed Agriculture” • Water harvesting through both micro- • Increased support to research to fillPrepared by Dr. Theibe Oweis (ICARDA, catchments (soil water storage) and knowledge gaps on water managementSyria), General Reporter and presented by macro-catchments (surface and ground and associated aspects, especially on theDr. N. Heydari (Iran) water storage) are instrumental for impacts of climate change on rainfed climate change adaptation in reducing agriculture and its adaptation. Besides the• Policies need to be developed to runoff, erosion and floods in addition to research, capacity building is important to encourage the use of water efficient and increasing water availability to farmers disseminate and apply improved practices productive practices such as supplemental and crops. and technologies. irrigation, water harvesting and other rainfed farming inputs and tools. • Improved crop varieties and other • Access to markets was identified as the Supplemental irrigation for early sowing cultural practices should be supportive to most important and work on developing and for alleviating soil moisture stress improved yields and water productivity. markets in remote areas and improving during dry spells in the crops growing access to markets in rainfed areas need • Institutions should be developed in seasons is very effective in improving utmost attention. rainfed areas and existing ones should be rainfed agriculture. Deficit supplemental strengthened and empowered. Especially irrigation can maximize water8th International Micro Irrigation agricultural promoter’s researches to • Recognizing that increase in water improve designs and to increase micro- productivity based on crop per drop,Congress irrigation systems efficiency. it is recommended that climate changePrepared and presented by VPH Felix factors and droughts be seriously • Farmers should be educated while considered, and local knowledge andReinders (South Africa), Chairman WG-On- shifting from conventional surface modern technological information areFarm irrigation to drip irrigation, especially required to increase water use efficiency. in case of trees/ orchards to avoid any• Recognizing the priority of training adverse impact on their growth. (The Central Office, ICID has brought out farmers to adopt pressurized and micro- • Realizing that sub-surface drip irrigation Congress proceedings (printed volume) with irrigation systems in countries with low is more effective than the other drip ‘Abstracts’ and a ‘CD-ROM’ containing all literacy level of the farmers. irrigation systems in decreasing full length papers of 21st Congress and• There is an urgent need for extending evaporation losses and deep percolation 8th IMIC, both in English and French) and applying the results of the especially in arid regions and light soils. Launch of On this occasion, MoUs were signed with National Committees of Egypt, Indonesia, ICID-IGS MoU signed Tanzania, Mali, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan IRAN-IRPID to create a new ‘Knowledge Base’ and A MoU was signed between ICID and exchanges by cooperative efforts. the International Geosynthetics Society IRNCID launched “International Research (IGS) during the Council meeting at Program for Irrigation and Drainage Dr. Mohammad Javad Monem is the first Programme Manager of the new Tehran. The MoU was signed by (IRPID)”, the Nodal Centre for Central President Chandra Madramootoo on Asia and Middle East in Tehran on ICID-IRPID Centre in Tehran. behalf of ICID, and Eng. Eric Blond, 16 October 2011 in the hands of ICID Dr. Monem may be contacted at: Council member on behalf of IGS. Secretary General M. Gopalakrishnan. <monem@net.modares.ac.ir>ICID News 2011/4 5
  6. 6. ICID News 2011/4 6
  7. 7. Enhancing Crop Productivity in Rainfed Agriculture through Rainwater ConservationRainfed farming (aka dry land agriculture) is practiced on some 80% of the world’s cultivated land, contributing more than 50% ofglobal food production. The productivity of rainfall in most regions of the world is relatively low and there is a considerable scopeto improve through rainfall management and agro technological interventions. In Vidharbh region of Maharashtra State of India,some 93% (5 million ha) of the cultivated land is dependent on rainwater for crop production. Due to variable and uncertainrainfall in monsoon season, crop yields are quite low and unstable. Dr. Subhash Taley, Professor of Agri. Engineering and DirectorAgro-ecology & Environment Centre at Dr. P.D. Agriculture University, Akola has been promoting since 2007 various low costinnovative agronomic and engineering techniques of in-situ soil and rain water conservation and harvesting through farm ponds ina participatory approach. Prof. Taley received ICID Watsave Management Award 2011 for his innovative water conservation andsaving contribution. A brief:I n the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, contour cultivation the crop yields were Photos: Subhash Taley approximately 93% of its cultivated area higher by 39% to 88% and the water useis rainfed, and crop production is signifi- efficiency of 0.55 - 2.67 kg/ha-mm wascantly influenced by the monsoon. Rainfed achieved. Similarly trends of higher cropagriculture supports about 65% of the productivity and water use efficiency wererural population and is also the major observed in case of opening of alternateproducer of cereals, pulses and oilseeds. furrows in across the slope and in contourin order to enhance the crop productivity cultivation.and reduce the instability of crop yields Square basins (20 m x 20 m) prepared Tied (intermittently broken) furrows in cottonunder uncertain rainfall situations, farmers prior to commencement of rains enhancedwere motivated through participatory the yield of chickpea by 67% andapproach to adopt packages of in-situ rainwater use efficiency in the range ofrainwater conservation measures to 0.89 to 1.48 kg/ha-mm over the controlenhance soil moisture in-situ and also trial. Green manuring of the basins duringcapture runoff in farm ponds for “life kharif (rainy) season enhanced the soilsaving” irrigations during dry spells. He moisture content from 43% to 64%, yieldhas worked with about 9500 farmers from of chickpea by 38% and rainwater use115 villages conserving an estimated 227 efficiency from 0.89 to 1.22 kg/ha-mmmillion cubic meters of water on 21,000 over the control treatment.ha in 2009-10, plus 50,000 cubic meterswere made available for protective Farm pond storages Soybean+Pigeonpea cultivated on contourirrigation by promoting the construction layout with opening of alternate furrowsof 15,000 farm ponds, leading to a Runoff harvested from the cultivated fieldssignificant increase in crop yields. into farm ponds was used to provide protective irrigation during prolonged spellIn-situ rainwater conservation of rainfall in kharif and moisture stress in rabi (winter) seasons. A protective irrigationVarious rainwater conservation measures through a drip system enhanced the yieldadopted by farmers of Vidharba region of pigeon pea by 67% and water useincluded modified land configurations like efficiency between 0.89 to 1.38 kg/ha-mm.deep cultivation, contour and across the Two protective irrigations through dripslope cultivation, intercropping, opening system to cotton enhanced the yield levelof furrow in alternate crop rows and tied by 51% and water use efficiency betweenfurrows (intermittently broken) etc. The 1.61 to 2.13 kg/ha-mm. One protectivestudy indicated that in deep cultivation the irrigation to soybean through sprinkler Green manuring in basinswater use efficiency (kg/ha-mm) achieved system using farm pond storage enhancedwas between 1.24 - 1.49 for the sole crop the yield by 24% and water use efficiencyof soybean and 0.98 - 1.09 in case of from 2.15 to 3.48 kg/ha-mm over thecotton. Compared to shallow/ conventional controlled field treatment.cultivation, the crop yields in deep cultiva-tion were found to be higher by 11% to Field experiences of last three years have37%, runoff decreased by 8% to 13%, shown that the adoption of the modifiedand the soil loss reduced by 17% to 31%. land configurations like deep cultivation,The opening of tide furrows in cotton, across the slope/ contour cultivation, andsoybean, black gram, green gram and opening of furrows and tied furrows, green-sorghum enhanced the yield levels by manuring, square basin lay out, etc., can Sprinklers irrigation using farm pond water4% to 14% and water use efficiency from enhance rainfall storage in the soil profile1.18 to 2.82 kg/ha-mm than the conven- and made available to crops in terms of during prolonged dry spells. For effectivetional field layout. In case of across the enhanced soil moisture, crop yields and and successful implementation of theseslope cultivation higher crop yields up to water use efficiency and reduction in conservation measures, strong commitment50% and water use efficiency of 0.55 - runoff, soil and nutrient losses. Farm ponds of the Government agencies and full2.67 kg/ha-mm were achieved. Similarly in provide life saving irrigation to crops participation of farmers is necessary.ICID News 2011/4 7
  8. 8. Tehran DeclarationThe 21st ICID Congress, the 8th International Micro-irrigation Congress and the 62nd IEC meeting of ICID were held between15-23 October 2011 in Tehran, Iran. More than 1200 delegates from 55 countries attended. More than 200 papers were presented.Representatives from FAO, ADB joined the IEC events, given the importance of topics of the Congresses, and other sidelinejoint meetings on Investment in Agricultural Water Sector.While the Congress was focused on Photo: Subhash Taleyconsidering the theme on “Waterproductivity towards food security,” theMicro-irrigation Congress deliberated onissues related to “Innovations in Technologyand Management of Micro-irrigation forthe enhanced productivity.” As a resultof intense deliberations following thepresentations, the followingrecommendations emerged:1. Throughout the world the increasing signs of water stress, accentuated by the climate change are too imminent. The changes in the pattern of precipitation and temperatures impacts agricultural sector severely, particularly the rainfed. measures in addition to optimizing water should be directed to the technology and Increasing physical water productivity management. management of irrigation planning and reduces the need for additional water operation to minimize such water losses. 5. Cost of desalination of water for required in irrigated lands to meet the agriculture use is prohibitively high. 9. Supplemental irrigation is the key increasing demand for doubling food Therefore water productivity efforts strategy, so far underutilized on a production, meeting other water requirements, while at the same time should focus on: regional basis to unlock the yield providing sufficient water for the potential under rainfed water scarcity (i) decreasing water losses in different conditions. Realizing that sub-surface sustainability of ecosystems. phases of supply, distribution and drip irrigation is more effective than2. As water becomes a more limiting consumption; conventional drip irrigation systems resource than land and other resources (ii) improving irrigation methods, in decreasing water evaporation and it is logical to focus on “maximizing optimizing farming, garden and deep percolation especially in warm water productivity.” Creating an enabling green area patterns; and regions and light soils. environment allows the adoption of improved water management and other (iii) reuse of wastewater for agricultural 10. The concept of crop water requirement rainfed agriculture technologies to achieve and city green areas. needs to be reconsidered with the aim to this productivity increase. Where needed, focus on the actual water consumed by 6. Irrigation Water Productivity (IWP) is crops. Irrigation technology should be the national policies can be changed a promising tool to evaluate the directed to the systems which minimize involving all stakeholders to encourage effectiveness of water allocated to losses and hence moving towards more maximizing water productivity by valuing agriculture from econo-mical and water productivity. water. A financial policy which reallo- environment consideration particularly cates to water use efficient practices and within water stressed regions. Local 11. Water management practices and techno- options can yield the desired results. knowledge and modern techno-logical logies with high irrigation efficiencies3. Rainfed agriculture is very important to information are required to increase should be studied and recommended for enhance food security and ecosystems water user efficiency. planning and decision making, based on sustainability. However, the rainfed basin water balance rather than produces much below the potential 7. It is important to realize that irrigation measurement at the farm level. achievable. Returns on investment in has only a part role in the crop rainfed systems is high and hence production process. In order to have 12. There is an urgent need to improve essential in many areas where with of high water productivity there are other designs and to increase micro-irrigation supplemental irrigation, water harvesting important key players in this process systems efficiency by incorporating latest and soil and water conservation in which should be aligned with irrigation research findings. Recognizing the priority addition to facilitating access to necessary technology and management. The of training illiterate farmers to apply inputs, better results are achievable. examples are, proper agro technology, pressurized and micro-irrigation systems improving the soil condition, better in countries with low literacy level of4. Impacts of climate change and droughts seeds, appropriate fertilization, and the farmers. on rainfed production require more above all the importance of farm emphasis and consideration. It is impor- 13. Recognizing that increase in water management is to be emphasized. tant to increase support to research and productivity based on crop for drop capacity building in rainfed agriculture. 8. Evaporation from the field is an actual needs to be given prime importance in Especially for understanding the impacts water loss within irrigation schemes, the 21st century. of climate change and adaptation which is not recoverable. So attempts Editor: Dr. S.A. Kulkarni, Executive Secretary, DTP: K.D. Tanwar, ICID Central Office, New Delhi, India Tel: +91-11-2611 6837/5679, E-mail : icid@icid.orgICID News 2011/4 8