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Reducing Malnutrition and Rural Poverty in Nigeria

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Approximately 200 million people in Africa derive high-quality and low-cost proteins from fish. However, the consumption of fish is not fully exploited to combat the “triple burden” of malnutrition—obesity, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies which are the leading causes of poor health in the region.

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Reducing Malnutrition and Rural Poverty in Nigeria

  1. 1. REDUCING MALNUTRITION AND RURAL POVERTY IN NIGERIA: THE NEED TO REFOCUS ON AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES PRODUCTION. PROF. YEMI AKEGBEJO-SAMSONS FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, DEPARTMENT OF AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT, ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA. 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT 4. WHY SDGS 5. POVERTY AND MALNUTRITION IN NIGERIA - A CURSE OR A CULTURE 6. AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES – A RESCUE MISSION 7. ARE WE DOING ENOUGH? 8. THE WAY OUT 9.CONCLUSION 2
  3. 3. ABSTRACT The Fisheries and Aquaculture sectors in Africa are increasingly contributing to food and nutrition security, foreign exchange, employment, and livelihood support services. Approximately 200 million people in Africa derive high-quality and low-cost proteins from fish. However, the consumption of fish is not fully exploited to combat the “triple burden” of malnutrition—obesity, undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies which are the leading causes of poor health in the region. Globally, approximately 800 million people depend on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods The United Nation’s 2030 development agenda adopted in 2015 outlines, 17 sustainable development goals (SDGS) with a corresponding 169 targets that are expected to guide national, regional, and international agencies’ actions to achieve sustainable development over the next decade. 3
  4. 4. ABSTRACT….. 2 Despite significant progress being made towards reducing hunger and combating malnutrition and food insecurity, significant challenges persist. This paper, reviews the available literature with the aim of assessing and quantifying the extent to which fish contributes towards the reduction of malnutrition and rural poverty in Nigeria. It also highlights the numerous contributions of fish and fisheries as food, source of employment, income earner and poverty alleviation enterprise. This paper recommends a re-focus on the entrepreneurial importance of fish farming and a review of the fish farming methods and fisheries that guarantee improved modern day technological methods and indigenous knowledge. 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIO N ►In the year 2000, the millennium development goals (MDGS) were adopted by 189 member countries of the UN including Nigeria. The focus was to fast track key developmental issues which include improving and increasing the availability of basic life sustaining goods, raising the standard of people’s living as well as expanding the barometer of economic and social choices. ► A set of eight goals to be achieved by 2015 was adopted by the united nations which were to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger among others. The MDGS which comprises eight major goals and 18 targets were time bound till 2015 to halve developmental issues in comparison with the 1990 figures. Essentially, these goals seek to address key areas of development such as: poverty, education, health care, environmental sustainability and international cooperation. 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION…….Contd ► The 17 SDGS carry on the work begun by the millennium development goals (MDGS), which galvanized a global campaign from 2000-2015 to end poverty in its various dimensions. Yet while the MDGS only applied to developing countries, the SDGS will apply universally to all UN member states, and are considerably more comprehensive and ambitious than the MDGS ► Essentially, these goals seek to address key areas of development such as: poverty, education, health care, environmental sustainability and international cooperation. SDG 2 in particular aims at addressing all forms of hunger, as well as food and nutritional insecurity. Despite significant progress being made towards reducing hunger and combating malnutrition and food insecurity, significant challenges persist. ►This paper, reviews the available literature with the aim of assessing and quantifying the extent to which fish contributes towards the reduction of malnutrition and rural poverty in Nigeria. The paper recommends a re-focus on the entrepreneurial importance of fish farming and a review of the fish farming methods that guarantee improved modern day technological methods and indigenous knowledge. 6
  7. 7. PROBLEM STATEMENT ♦Several interventions related to fish intake, aquaculture and capture fisheries in Asia and Africa have aimed to improve nutritional status through influencing dietary intake directly, and raising productivity and household income. While there are many positive efforts to increase production and income, direct and indirect impacts on nutritional status have not been fully analyzed. The pathway through which the increased income and fish production is linked to nutritional status is not clear (Kawarazuka, 2010). ♦ Nigeria is Africa’s wealthiest, most populous nation and its fastest-growing economy. Despite this, more than half of the country lives below the poverty line. The underlying causes of malnutrition in Nigeria are numerous. They include among others, poverty, inadequate food production, inadequate food intake, ignorance and uneven distribution of food, poor food preservation techniques, improper preparation of foods, food restrictions and taboos among others. Fish however plays an important role in fighting hunger and malnutrition. The actual contribution that fisheries can make to nutrition and food security depends on the supply, distribution, and utilization of fish. 7
  8. 8. WHY SDGS ? ♦ Nigeria was among the 189 countries worldwide that endorsed the united nations millennium declaration in New York in September 2000, which led to the adoption of the eight time-bound millennium development goals (MDGS) with several targets and indicators to be achieved by 2015. The millennium development goals (MDGS) which has translated to a broader SDGs were put up to address and include the issue of sustainability in development. ♦ The outcome document inter alia, calls on member states to “develop as soon as practicable, ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this [new] agenda … in order to support the transition to the SDGS and build on existing Planning instruments, such as national development and sustainable development strategies”. 8
  9. 9. WHY SDGS ?......Contd ♦ In September 2015, world leaders converged at the United Nations HQS in New York to consider and adopt a new comprehensive, ambitious and transformational development Agenda. The outcome document adopted during the summit outlines ♦ A set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) and 169 targets aimed at eradicating poverty in all its forms and shifting the world onto a sustainable and resilient development pathway while ensuring that ‘no one is left behind’ ♦ The SDGS seek to build on and complete the unfinished business of the MDGS; realize the human rights of all; achieve gender equality in all sectors and spheres of life; and importantly, strike a balance between economic, social and environmental dimensions of development. 9
  10. 10. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS) 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development 10
  11. 11. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation Fisheries and Aquaculture play important roles in Goals 1, 2, 5, 8, 14 and 15 11
  12. 12. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS……Contd Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts* Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development 12
  13. 13. POVERTY AND MALNUTRITION Poverty is not having enough material possessions or income for a person's needs. Poverty may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty is the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs, such as food, clothing and shelter (Wikipedia). Malnutrition That malnutrition is a function of poverty is self-evident. (a) Is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. (b) Is poor nutrition due to insufficient, poorly balanced diet, faulty digestion of poor utilization of foods 13
  14. 14. AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES – A RESCUE MISSION ►Fisheries is a major economic sector, estimated to employ over 8.6 million people directly and a further 19.6 million indirectly, 70 percent of whom are women. ► Currently, Nigeria produces just over 1 million metric tons of fish, leaving a deficit of over 800,000 metric tons, which is imported annually. Recognizing the importance of fish within the agriculture sector for its potential contribution to alleviating poverty, improving food and nutrition security, there is the need to refocus our attention towards making fisheries production and aquaculture practices less cumbersome and profit-oriented. ► The nutrition and food security contributions of fish, in particular from capture fisheries, are of crucial importance to Nigeria’s growing population. Fish provide 17 percent of the global supply of animal protein. ► To maintain these important nutrition and food security contributions, policy needs to address a number of drivers of and threats to capture fisheries. ► According to recent estimates, 10 percent of the world will experience deficiencies in essential micronutrients and fatty acids as a result of declining capture fisheries. 14
  15. 15. FISH, FISH IN EVERY WATER…… 15
  16. 16. FISH, FISH IN EVERY WATER….. 16
  17. 17. NIGERIA’S ENORMOUS FISHERIES RESOURCES • FISH REPRESENTS AN IMPORTANT DIETARY ELEMENT AND ONE OF THE FEW SOURCES OF ANIMAL PROTEIN AVAILABLE TO MANY NIGERIANS. • NIGERIA IS THE LARGEST AQUACULTURE PRODUCER IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND THIS IMPORTANCE IS STEADILY INCREASING. • THE AQUACULTURE SECTOR IS DRIVEN BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR, WITH FEED AND SEED PROVIDED BY PRIVATE BUSINESS. • FROM 21 700 TONNES IN 1999, AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION HAS GROWN STEADILY TO 316 700 TONNES IN 2015 ACCORDING TO THE GOVERNMENT REPORT. 17
  18. 18. NIGERIA’S ENORMOUS FISHERIES RESOURCES…..Contd • CATFISH, TYPICALLY GROWN IN PONDS AND TANKS, IS THE MOST FARMED SPECIES IN NIGERIA, CONSTITUTING OVER HALF OF THE TOTAL AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION BY VOLUME. • IN 2012, 13 627 PEOPLE WERE REPORTED AS EMPLOYED IN AQUACULTURE (2% WERE WOMEN). • IN 2015, THE TOTAL FISHERIES PRODUCTION WAS ESTIMATED AT 1 027 000 TONNES, TO WHICH MARINE CATCHES CONTRIBUTED 36 PERCENT, INLAND WATERS CATCHES CONTRIBUTED 33 PERCENT AND AQUACULTURE 31 PERCENT. • MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF NIGERIA’S TOTAL DOMESTIC PRODUCTION IS GENERATED BY ARTISANAL SMALL-SCALE FISHERS FROM COASTAL, INSHORE, CREEKS OF THE NIGER DELTA, LAGOONS, INLAND RIVERS AND LAKES. 18
  19. 19. FOOD SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS OF FISH Fish makes crucial contributions to food security at global, national, and local levels. (A) Globally, more than 3.1 billion people rely on fish for nearly one-fifth of their average per capita protein from animal sources. (B) Some countries (Maldives, Cambodia, Sierra Leone, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Ghana) obtain more than half of their animal-source protein from fish. (C) Certain individual communities are nearly entirely dependent on fish for protein. For example, in Madagascar, fish constitute 99 percent of meals with concentrated protein, and some communities in the Brazilian Amazon consume 169 kilograms of fish per capita per year, much higher than the global average of 20 kilograms per capita per year (Bennett et al, 2018). 19
  20. 20. MULTI-FACETED HEALTH BENEFITS FROM FISH (A) Fish provide essential micronutrients—vitamins and minerals—and omega-3 fatty acids, which are necessary to end malnutrition and reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease around the world. (B) In addition to healthy lean protein, fish provide crucial fatty acids, including omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, and essential micronutrients, including vitamins A, D, a B & Calcium, Zinc, Iron and Iodine. (C) The density of different nutrients in fish varies by species, habitat, and environmental factors as well as by how the fish are processed, prepared, and consumed. 20
  21. 21. MULTI-FACETED HEALTH BENEFITS FROM FISH…..Contd (D) The multiple nutrients found in fish have a variety of health benefits, including lowered risk of cardiovascular disease; improved maternal health, pregnancy outcomes, and infant and early childhood physical development; improved immune system function; and alleviation of health issues associated with micronutrient deficiencies such as anemia, rickets, childhood blindness, and stunting. (E) Consumption of fish also carries some risk of exposure to toxic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, methylmercury, and micro-plastics (Bennett et al, 2018) 21
  22. 22. IMPORTANCE AND RELEVANCE OF FISH AND FISHERIES VIS-À-VIS SDG GOALS AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES CAN………………………………. Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 22
  23. 23. WHAT WE CAN DO BASED ON OUR RESEARCH, HERE ARE FIVE WAYS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION. ♣ INVESTING IN NEW TECHNOLOGIES. ... ♣ REDUCE DEPENDENCY ON OCEAN CAUGHT FISH AS FEED. ... ♣ FOCUS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS BEYOND INDIVIDUAL FARMS. ... ♣ REWARD SUSTAINABLE FARMING. ... ♣ EAT SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD 23
  24. 24. ARE WE DOING ENOUGH Nigeria has clearly defined her path to the SDGS, but a lot of support will be needed in her pursuit of the SDGS, especially in the areas of resource mobilization, technology transfer and continuous capacity development for reliable data collection, processing as well putting in place institutional mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of the SDGS indicators on a timely basis (Orelope-Adefulure, 2017). I believe that we can do more than the theoretical approaches that has been the bane of our developmental strides. NIGERIA HAS A HUGE POPULATION OF YOUTHS WASTING AWAY NIGERIA IS A STORE OF GRADUATES THAT ARE UNUSEABLE/UNDERUTILIZED NIGERIA HAS NATURAL RESOURCES THAT ARE YET TO BE TAPPED FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NIGERIA IS GROANING UNDER A CLOUD OF SECTIONALAND TRIBAL LEADERS THAT HAS NOTHING TO OFFER NIGERIA HAS EXPERTS AND INTELECTUALS THAT ARE ONLY RELEVANT OUTSIDE THE SHORES OF THE COUNTRY.24
  25. 25. SUGGESTIONS ON WHAT TO DO 1. The major players in fisheries and aquaculture should promote common sustainable solutions driven by international trade and innovations. 2. INNOVATIVE approaches and investment necessary to restore the productive capacity of the inland waters and oceans within the framework of the SDGS and its targets. 3. Improve sustainability performance drastically by minimizing negative impacts of aquaculture practices on the ecosystems. 4. Up-scaling proven solutions based on strengthened partnership. 5. Post-harvest processing, distribution and marketing of fish and seafood should catalyze further economies of scale to promote competitive value chains and sustainable trade. 25
  26. 26. SUGGESTIONS ON WHAT TO DO….Contd 1. Improvements in breeding technology, disease control, feeds and nutrition, and low- impact production systems. 2. Policies that can give farmers incentives to practice more sustainable aquaculture. 3. Funding of homestead aquaculture for rural poor households to earn an income 4. Adoption of better management practices to boost farmers’ profits 5. Farming of fast-growing genetically improved tilapia boosts farmers yields and household consumption of fish 26
  27. 27. SUGGESTIONS ON WHAT TO DO…Contd Federal, State and NGOs must be involved…….. 6. Higher level of cooperation and partnership to share knowledge and experiences to improve policies, innovations ------ 7. Best fisheries practices. 8. Feed and seed production. 9. Vaccine production and animal health protection 10. Value addition, logistics and services to promote marketing and distribution. 27
  28. 28. Generally Financial and technical assistance, as well as technology transfer, will be a driving force to create and implement national and regional strategies for sustainability, preservation and protection of their fisheries industries. Achieving Goal 14 will also contribute to other SDGS, such as Goal 1 (end poverty in all its forms). Goal 2 (end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture), Goal 8 (promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth), and Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns). Empowerment of value addition is essentially converting raw fish to semi-finished or finished product that has more value in the market place. 28
  29. 29. CONCLUSION • FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC ANIMALS MAKE AN ‘IRREPLACEABLE’ CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY IN MANY ASIAN AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES WHERE LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE ARE POOR AND UNDERNOURISHED • BY 2030 AQUACULTURE WILL PROVIDE 16 MILLION AND 47 MILLION ADDITIONAL TONNES OF FISH (Hall et al, 2011) • AQUACULTURE IS A YOUNG INDUSTRY—DECADES BEHIND THAT OF LIVESTOCK FARMING. • A COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL FOCUS ON AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA WILL ALLEVIATE POVERTY AND MALNUTRITION 29
  30. 30. FELICITATION THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION 30

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