The Vietnam    War1954 - 1975
Background to the War
Background            to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since  the late 19th century
Background            to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since  the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during Wo...
Background            to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since  the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during Wo...
Background to the War
Background          to the Warz The French lost control to  Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh  forces in 1954 at Dien Bien  Phu
Background          to the Warz The French lost control to  Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh  forces in 1954 at Dien Bien  Phuz Pre...
Background to   the War
Background to             the Warz International Conference at  Geneva
Background to             the Warz International Conference at  Geneva   P Vietnam was divided at 17th     parallel
Background to             the Warz International Conference at  Geneva   P Vietnam was divided at 17th     parallel      O...
Background to             the Warz International Conference at  Geneva   P Vietnam was divided at 17th     parallel      O...
Background to   the War
Background to           the Warz A date was set for democratic  elections to reunify Vietnam
Background to            the Warz A date was set for democratic  elections to reunify Vietnamz Diem backed out of the  ele...
U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
U.S. Military        Involvement Beginsz Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem   P   Diem’s family holds all power   P   Wea...
Early Protests ofDiem’s Government
Early Protests of Diem’s GovernmentSelf-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
U.S. Military      Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960
U.S. Military       Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to  16,000
U.S. Military       Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to  16,000z 1963: JFK supports...
U.S. Military       Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to  16,000z 1963: JFK supports...
Johnson SendsGround Forces
Johnson Sends         Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss”  of China  Domino Theory  revived
Johnson Sends         Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss”  of China  Domino Theory  revived                 I’m not ...
Johnson SendsGround Forces
Johnson Sends       Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists  by Secretary of State, Robert  S. McNamara
Johnson Sends        Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists  by Secretary of State, Robert  S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gul...
Johnson Sends        Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists  by Secretary of State, Robert  S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gul...
Johnson Sends          Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists  by Secretary of State, Robert  S. McNamaraz Tonkin G...
U.S. TroopDeployments
The Ground War  1965-1968
The Ground War         1965-1968z   No territorial goals
The Ground War         1965-1968z   No territorial goalsz   Body counts on TV every night    (first “living room” war)
The Air War1965-1968
The Air War                1965-1968z   1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam
The Air War                1965-1968z   1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz   Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 19...
The Air War                1965-1968z   1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz   Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 19...
The Air War                1965-1968z   1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz   Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 19...
The Air War:A Napalm Attack
Who Is the
Who Is thez Vietcong:
Who Is thez Vietcong:  P   Farmers by day; guerillas at      night.
Who Is thez Vietcong:  P   Farmers by day; guerillas at      night.  P   Very patient people willing to      accept many c...
Who Is thez Vietcong:  P   Farmers by day; guerillas at      night.  P   Very patient people willing to      accept many c...
Who Is thez Vietcong:    P   Farmers by day; guerillas at        night.    P   Very patient people willing to        accep...
Who Is the
Who Is the
Who Is the
Who Is the
The Ground War        1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late  1967:
The Ground War        1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late  1967:             We can see the    “light at the end of the ...
The Tet Offensive,  January 1968
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The Tet Offensive,          January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong  attack South simultaneously (67,000  attack 100 ...
The TetOffensive, January  1968
Impact of theTet Offensive
Impact of the         Tet Offensivez Domestic U.S. Reaction:  Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of  Johnson Administrationz Hey, ...
Johnson’spopularitydropped in1968 from48% to 36%.
Impact of the          Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968):
Impact of the          Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968):                   …I shall not                  seek, a...
American Morale Begins to Dip
American Morale         Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of  poor people and minorities.
American Morale         Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of  poor people and minorities.z Severe racial prob...
American Morale         Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of  poor people and minorities.z Severe racial prob...
American Morale         Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of  poor people and minorities.z Severe racial prob...
Are We Becoming           the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry
Are We Becoming           the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry                z Mylai Massacre, 1968   ...
Are We Becoming                  the Enemy?     Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry                        z Myl...
Anti-WarDemonstrations      Columbia University             1967
Hell no, we won’t go!
Anti-War           Demonstrations                        Student Protestors                          at Univ. of CA       ...
“Hanoi Jane”Jane Fonda: Traitor?
Anti-War          Demonstrations                        z May 4, 1970                        z 4 students                 ...
Nixon on Vietnam
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an  end to the war: Peace with Honor   P Appealed to the great     “Silen...
“Pentagon Papers,”      1971
“Pentagon Papers,”                1971z   Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg    leaked govt. docs. regarding war effor...
“Pentagon Papers,”                1971z   Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg    leaked govt. docs. regarding war effor...
“Pentagon Papers,”                  1971z   Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg    leaked govt. docs. regarding war eff...
The Ceasefire,    1973
The Ceasefire,                1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972   P   North Vietnam attacks South   P   Most Massiv...
The Ceasefire,                1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972   P   North Vietnam attacks South   P   Most Massiv...
The Ceasefire,                1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972   P   North Vietnam attacks South   P   Most Massiv...
PeaceNegotiations
Peace                 Negotiations                                   z US &                                     Vietnamese...
The Ceasefire,
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Ceasefire,z Conditions:      1. U.S. to remove all troops      2. North Vietnam could leave troops         already in ...
The Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon     South VietnameseAttempt to Flee the Country
The Fall of       Saigon                      April 30, 1975America Abandons Its Embassy
The Fall of Saigon
The Fall of       Saigon    North Vietnameseat the Presidential Palace
A United Vietnam
A United VietnamFormerly Saigon
The Costs
The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed
The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed;   300,000 wounded
The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed;   300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society   pr...
The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed;   300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society   pr...
The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed;   300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society   pr...
The Impact
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds vote
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer army
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬   ...
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬   ...
The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft  all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬   ...
Some American POWs Returned from the    “Hanoi Hilton”
Some American POWs          Returned from the             “Hanoi Hilton”Senator John McCain      (R-AZ)
2,583 American        POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
2,583 American        POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
Andin the End….Ho Chi Minh:
And        in the End….        Ho Chi Minh:          If we have to fight, we          will fight. You will kill          t...
Lessons    for FutureAmerican Presidents
Lessons         for Future     American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.
Lessons         for Future     American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American   casu...
Lessons          for Future      American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American   ca...
Lessons          for Future      American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American   ca...
Lessons          for Future      American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American   ca...
The Vietnam  Memorial,Washington, D.C.
Memorial to USServicemen in  Vietnam
Memorial to USNurses in Vietnam
58,000
President Clintonformally recognized    Vietnam on  July 11, 1995
Where Were Youin the War, Daddy?
Where Were Youin the War, Daddy?     This war      haunts      us still!
AND TODAY…..The “Light” at the
AND TODAY…..       The “Light” at the2003 to ?: “Operation Iraqi Freedom”3000+ American dead and counting…?
Another     Vietnam?        ORA transformation of the Middle East?Only time & history      can tell!
Bibliographyz Nash, Gary, et al. The American  People, Harper & Row, 1986z Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000  Deluxe, Broderbund...
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The vietnamwar

1,058 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The vietnamwar

  1. 1. The Vietnam War1954 - 1975
  2. 2. Background to the War
  3. 3. Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th century
  4. 4. Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during World War II
  5. 5. Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during World War IIz With U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwar period
  6. 6. Background to the War
  7. 7. Background to the Warz The French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
  8. 8. Background to the Warz The French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phuz President Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France.
  9. 9. Background to the War
  10. 10. Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva
  11. 11. Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel
  12. 12. Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North
  13. 13. Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North O Ngo Dinh Diem, a French- educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the
  14. 14. Background to the War
  15. 15. Background to the Warz A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnam
  16. 16. Background to the Warz A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnamz Diem backed out of the elections, leading to military conflict between North and South
  17. 17. U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
  18. 18. U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem P Diem’s family holds all power P Wealth is hoarded by the elite P Buddhist majority persecuted P Torture, lack of political freedom prevailz The U.S. aided Diem’s government P Ike sent financial and military aid
  19. 19. Early Protests ofDiem’s Government
  20. 20. Early Protests of Diem’s GovernmentSelf-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
  21. 21. U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
  22. 22. U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960
  23. 23. U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000
  24. 24. U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000z 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2)
  25. 25. U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000z 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2)z Kennedy was assassinated just
  26. 26. Johnson SendsGround Forces
  27. 27. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China  Domino Theory revived
  28. 28. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China  Domino Theory revived I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.
  29. 29. Johnson SendsGround Forces
  30. 30. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamara
  31. 31. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)
  32. 32. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)z Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  33. 33. Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)z Tonkin Gulf Resolution P “The Blank Check” *
  34. 34. U.S. TroopDeployments
  35. 35. The Ground War 1965-1968
  36. 36. The Ground War 1965-1968z No territorial goals
  37. 37. The Ground War 1965-1968z No territorial goalsz Body counts on TV every night (first “living room” war)
  38. 38. The Air War1965-1968
  39. 39. The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam
  40. 40. The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)
  41. 41. The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)z 1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  42. 42. The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)z 1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail.z Downed Pilots: P.O.W.s
  43. 43. The Air War:A Napalm Attack
  44. 44. Who Is the
  45. 45. Who Is thez Vietcong:
  46. 46. Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night.
  47. 47. Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties.
  48. 48. Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. P The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their
  49. 49. Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. P The US grossly underestimated their resolve and theirThe guerilla wins if he does not lose,the conventional army loses if it doesnot win. -- Mao Zedong
  50. 50. Who Is the
  51. 51. Who Is the
  52. 52. Who Is the
  53. 53. Who Is the
  54. 54. The Ground War 1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late 1967:
  55. 55. The Ground War 1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late 1967: We can see the “light at the end of the tunnel.”
  56. 56. The Tet Offensive, January 1968
  57. 57. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)
  58. 58. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern city
  59. 59. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive
  60. 60. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyed
  61. 61. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyedz N. Vietnamese army debilitated
  62. 62. The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyedz N. Vietnamese army debilitatedz BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat
  63. 63. The TetOffensive, January 1968
  64. 64. Impact of theTet Offensive
  65. 65. Impact of the Tet Offensivez Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administrationz Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?
  66. 66. Johnson’spopularitydropped in1968 from48% to 36%.
  67. 67. Impact of the Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968):
  68. 68. Impact of the Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968): …I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President.
  69. 69. American Morale Begins to Dip
  70. 70. American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.
  71. 71. American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.
  72. 72. American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.z Major drug problems.
  73. 73. American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.z Major drug problems.z Officers in combat 6 mo.; in rear 6 mo. Enlisted
  74. 74. Are We Becoming the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry
  75. 75. Are We Becoming the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry z Mylai Massacre, 1968 z 200-500 unarmed villagers
  76. 76. Are We Becoming the Enemy? Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry z Mylai Massacre, 1968 z 200-500 unarmed villagersz Lt. William Calley, Platoon Leader
  77. 77. Anti-WarDemonstrations Columbia University 1967
  78. 78. Hell no, we won’t go!
  79. 79. Anti-War Demonstrations Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968
  80. 80. “Hanoi Jane”Jane Fonda: Traitor?
  81. 81. Anti-War Demonstrations z May 4, 1970 z 4 students shot dead. z 11 students wounded z Jackson State University z May 10, 1970Kent State University z 2 dead; 12 wounded
  82. 82. Nixon on Vietnam
  83. 83. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor
  84. 84. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”
  85. 85. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamization
  86. 86. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War”
  87. 87. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia
  88. 88. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia P Laos
  89. 89. Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia P Laosz Agent Orange
  90. 90. “Pentagon Papers,” 1971
  91. 91. “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.
  92. 92. “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.z Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s.
  93. 93. “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.z Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s. P Primary reason for fighting not to eliminate communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat.
  94. 94. The Ceasefire, 1973
  95. 95. The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commences
  96. 96. The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commencesz 1973: Ceasefire signed between P U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam
  97. 97. The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commencesz 1973: Ceasefire signed between P U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnamz Peace with honor (President Nixon)
  98. 98. PeaceNegotiations
  99. 99. Peace Negotiations z US & Vietnamese argue for 5 months over the size of the conference table!Dr. Henry Kissinger & Le Duc Tho
  100. 100. The Ceasefire,
  101. 101. The Ceasefire,z Conditions:
  102. 102. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops
  103. 103. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V.
  104. 104. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war
  105. 105. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAs
  106. 106. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973
  107. 107. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973z 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
  108. 108. The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973z 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnamz Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City
  109. 109. The Fall of Saigon
  110. 110. The Fall of Saigon South VietnameseAttempt to Flee the Country
  111. 111. The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975America Abandons Its Embassy
  112. 112. The Fall of Saigon
  113. 113. The Fall of Saigon North Vietnameseat the Presidential Palace
  114. 114. A United Vietnam
  115. 115. A United VietnamFormerly Saigon
  116. 116. The Costs
  117. 117. The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed
  118. 118. The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded
  119. 119. The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs
  120. 120. The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs4. $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending
  121. 121. The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs4. $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending5. U.S. morale, self-confidence,
  122. 122. The Impact
  123. 123. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds vote
  124. 124. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer army
  125. 125. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬
  126. 126. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force
  127. 127. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force P President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 days
  128. 128. The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force P President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 daysz Disregard for Veterans  seen as “baby killers”
  129. 129. Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton”
  130. 130. Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton”Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
  131. 131. 2,583 American POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
  132. 132. 2,583 American POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
  133. 133. Andin the End….Ho Chi Minh:
  134. 134. And in the End…. Ho Chi Minh: If we have to fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our men and we willkill one of yours, and in the end itwill be you who tires of it.
  135. 135. Lessons for FutureAmerican Presidents
  136. 136. Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.
  137. 137. Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.
  138. 138. Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.
  139. 139. Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.4. Develop and maintain Congressional and public support.
  140. 140. Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.4. Develop and maintain Congressional and public support.5. Set clear, winnable goals.
  141. 141. The Vietnam Memorial,Washington, D.C.
  142. 142. Memorial to USServicemen in Vietnam
  143. 143. Memorial to USNurses in Vietnam
  144. 144. 58,000
  145. 145. President Clintonformally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995
  146. 146. Where Were Youin the War, Daddy?
  147. 147. Where Were Youin the War, Daddy? This war haunts us still!
  148. 148. AND TODAY…..The “Light” at the
  149. 149. AND TODAY….. The “Light” at the2003 to ?: “Operation Iraqi Freedom”3000+ American dead and counting…?
  150. 150. Another Vietnam? ORA transformation of the Middle East?Only time & history can tell!
  151. 151. Bibliographyz Nash, Gary, et al. The American People, Harper & Row, 1986z Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000 Deluxe, Broderbund, 1999.z The Americans, McDougal Littell, 1998z A myriad of web sites on the internet

×