Biology of Mariana Trench O It is very cold and highly pressurized O Hydrothermal (hot water) vents formed by spreading tectonic plates release hydrogen sulfide and other minerals O consumed by the bacteria which are then consumed by other microorganisms forming a food chain O Creatures from the deep show an incredible resistance to temperature extremes by having different proteins which are adapted for life under these conditions( e.g. Crabs, Angler Fish)
Biology of Mariana TrenchO Another interesting characteristic of these deep sea creatures is their longevity O many able to live for over a centuryO Creatures seldom migrate and are slow to develop
1951: Challenger IIO Mariana Trench was first pinpointedO Surveyed by British Survey Ship: Challenger II
1960: TriesteO Exploration of deepest point (Challenger Deep)O In U.S. Naval submarineO Swiss Scientist Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lt. Donald WalshO 20 min diveO Confirmed trench to be the deepest point on Earth
1995: KaikoO Japanese Unmanned submersible launched to explore Mariana TrenchO Went exploring a few times before lost at sea in a typhoon (2003)
2009: NereusO Submersible built by engineers at Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionO Collect rocks, animals, and water samples and transmit high-quality video to the surface through a hair-thin fiber-optic cable.
2012: DEEPSEA CHALLENGERO A manned submersible – The second ever to go to the Challenger DeepO Undergoing sea trials beginning in March 2012O By Director James Cameron (director of TITANIC)