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Earth’s Structure by Brainpop Geological Changes—3:25
Looking at the world map, what doLooking at the world map, what do
you notice about the shape of theyou notice about the s...
The thing is…the world didn’tThe thing is…the world didn’t
always look like this! It used to lookalways look like this! It...
How is this possible?!?!?How is this possible?!?!?
 The lithosphere is divided
into a number of large and
small plates and the
plates are floating on the
mantle
Plate Tecto...
Lithosphere = the Earth’s crustcrust plus
the upper portion of the mantlemantle layer
Plate motion based on The Global Positioning System (GPS)
Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries
Divergent boundary:Divergent boundary:
o Plates are moving away
from each other
o Midocea...
Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries
Divergent boundary:Divergent boundary:
Leif the Lucky Bridge Bridge between continents in Reykjanes
peninsula, southwest Iceland across the Alfagja rift valley, ...
 Convergent BoundaryConvergent Boundary:
plates are moving toward
each other and are
colliding (3 types)
• Create subduction zones,
trenches
• Create near coast volcanoes
• Benioff shear zones (a
pattern of earthquakes as an
oc...
Benioff Shear ZonesBenioff Shear Zones
When ocean plates collide withWhen ocean plates collide with
other ocean platesother ocean plates
Island arcs are created
...
• MountainMountain rangesranges are
created
• (example: Himalayan
Mountains)
When a continental plate collides withWhen a ...
Himalayan MountainsHimalayan Mountains
Mountains 2:46
Transform Fault BoundaryTransform Fault Boundary
 Plates are neither moving
toward nor away from each
other, they are mov...
Transform Fault BoundaryTransform Fault Boundary
 The plates may move in opposite
directions or in the same
directions bu...
San Andreas FaultSan Andreas Fault
o No
o Plates are destroyed as fast as they
are created (2 ways)
o Plates may be subducted and melted
or may push be pushe...
Boundaries Between Tectonic Plates—1:23
How can Oreos model the plate boundaries?How can Oreos model the plate boundaries?
Very carefully, take just the top cook...
Seafloor Spreading Theory:
• Ocean floors are moving
like broad conveyor belts
• New ocean floor crust is
being created at the
midocean ridges
Convection currents within the mantle
 The up-welling leg of the current creates
a divergent boundary which produces
mido...
Convection Current Demo
 The down-welling leg of the current
creates one type of convergent boundary
that results in trenches and a subduction
zo...
o Midocean ridges are warmer than
surrounding ocean floors
o Active volcanoes on ridges, earthquakes
on ridges
o Midocean ...
o Ocean floor sediments are thin on the
ridges and get thicker as the distance
from the ridges increase
o Polar reversal m...
Polar Reversal MagnetismPolar Reversal Magnetism
Magnetic Poles Magnetic Field Reversals—2:54
 Atlantic Ocean –
2-32-3 cm/year
 South Pacific
Ocean – 15-1815-18
cm/year
Speed of SpreadingSpeed of Spreading
The Seafloor is Spreading Clip—4:01
How Earth’s Structure Affects Plate Tectonics—5:43
Seafloor SpreadingSeafloor Spreading
 The continents have shifted
their position over geologic
time
Continental Drift TheoryContinental Drift Theory
 At one time all land masses
were connected into one piece
called Pangaea
Continental Drift Theory 3—2:21
o Pangaea began to split apart 200
million years ago
o Diagram
North America
Laurasia Greenland
Eurasia
Pangaea
Africa
Wes...
The First Continents 4:57
USGS Plate Motions Clip
o The continents are like packages on
the seafloor conveyor belt
ContinentsContinents
o High percentage fit of continents at
the 500 fathom level
EvidenceEvidence
o Minerals,
fossils, and
mountains
on now
different
continents
match if
the
continents
were
together
EvidenceEvidence
The ...
o Glaciation patterns indicate a common
ice cap at the South Pole
EvidenceEvidence
o PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism (magnetism of old
rocks) indicate a common pole if the
continents were all connected
Eviden...
Plate Tectonics 2 –4:22
Plate Tectonics by Brainpop
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
Plate Tectonics Notes
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Plate Tectonics Notes

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Plate Tectonics Notes

  1. 1. Earth’s Structure by Brainpop Geological Changes—3:25
  2. 2. Looking at the world map, what doLooking at the world map, what do you notice about the shape of theyou notice about the shape of the continents?continents? Jot down your ideas on your paper…
  3. 3. The thing is…the world didn’tThe thing is…the world didn’t always look like this! It used to lookalways look like this! It used to look like this:like this:
  4. 4. How is this possible?!?!?How is this possible?!?!?
  5. 5.  The lithosphere is divided into a number of large and small plates and the plates are floating on the mantle Plate Tectonics TheoryPlate Tectonics Theory
  6. 6. Lithosphere = the Earth’s crustcrust plus the upper portion of the mantlemantle layer
  7. 7. Plate motion based on The Global Positioning System (GPS)
  8. 8. Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries Divergent boundary:Divergent boundary: o Plates are moving away from each other o Midocean ridges are created and new ocean floor plates are created
  9. 9. Plate BoundariesPlate Boundaries Divergent boundary:Divergent boundary:
  10. 10. Leif the Lucky Bridge Bridge between continents in Reykjanes peninsula, southwest Iceland across the Alfagja rift valley, the boundary of the Eurasian and North American continental tectonic plates.
  11. 11.  Convergent BoundaryConvergent Boundary: plates are moving toward each other and are colliding (3 types)
  12. 12. • Create subduction zones, trenches • Create near coast volcanoes • Benioff shear zones (a pattern of earthquakes as an ocean plate grinds down the underneath side of a continent) When Ocean Plates collide withWhen Ocean Plates collide with Contintental PlatesContintental Plates
  13. 13. Benioff Shear ZonesBenioff Shear Zones
  14. 14. When ocean plates collide withWhen ocean plates collide with other ocean platesother ocean plates Island arcs are created (a pattern of volcanic islands created from a subduction zone that is located off the coast)
  15. 15. • MountainMountain rangesranges are created • (example: Himalayan Mountains) When a continental plate collides withWhen a continental plate collides with another continental plateanother continental plate
  16. 16. Himalayan MountainsHimalayan Mountains Mountains 2:46
  17. 17. Transform Fault BoundaryTransform Fault Boundary  Plates are neither moving toward nor away from each other, they are moving past one another.
  18. 18. Transform Fault BoundaryTransform Fault Boundary  The plates may move in opposite directions or in the same directions but at different rates and frequent earthquakes are created (example: San Andreas Fault)
  19. 19. San Andreas FaultSan Andreas Fault
  20. 20. o No o Plates are destroyed as fast as they are created (2 ways) o Plates may be subducted and melted or may push be pushed upward to form mountains So is the Earth getting bigger?So is the Earth getting bigger?
  21. 21. Boundaries Between Tectonic Plates—1:23
  22. 22. How can Oreos model the plate boundaries?How can Oreos model the plate boundaries? Very carefully, take just the top cookie off the Oreo. Break the top cookie into 2 equal halves. Replace the cookie halves back on the Oreo Using the cookie, Demonstrate a transform fault boundary Demonstrate a divergent plate boundary Demonstrate a convergent plate boundary
  23. 23. Seafloor Spreading Theory: • Ocean floors are moving like broad conveyor belts
  24. 24. • New ocean floor crust is being created at the midocean ridges
  25. 25. Convection currents within the mantle  The up-welling leg of the current creates a divergent boundary which produces midocean ridges What causes this?What causes this?
  26. 26. Convection Current Demo
  27. 27.  The down-welling leg of the current creates one type of convergent boundary that results in trenches and a subduction zone
  28. 28. o Midocean ridges are warmer than surrounding ocean floors o Active volcanoes on ridges, earthquakes on ridges o Midocean ridge rocks are younger than surrounding ocean floor rocks o Midocean ridge volcanoes are younger than volcanoes further away What evidence do we have toWhat evidence do we have to support this idea?support this idea?
  29. 29. o Ocean floor sediments are thin on the ridges and get thicker as the distance from the ridges increase o Polar reversal magnetism proves that the ocean floor is moving away from the ridges What evidence do we have toWhat evidence do we have to support this idea?support this idea?
  30. 30. Polar Reversal MagnetismPolar Reversal Magnetism Magnetic Poles Magnetic Field Reversals—2:54
  31. 31.  Atlantic Ocean – 2-32-3 cm/year  South Pacific Ocean – 15-1815-18 cm/year Speed of SpreadingSpeed of Spreading
  32. 32. The Seafloor is Spreading Clip—4:01 How Earth’s Structure Affects Plate Tectonics—5:43 Seafloor SpreadingSeafloor Spreading
  33. 33.  The continents have shifted their position over geologic time Continental Drift TheoryContinental Drift Theory
  34. 34.  At one time all land masses were connected into one piece called Pangaea Continental Drift Theory 3—2:21
  35. 35. o Pangaea began to split apart 200 million years ago o Diagram North America Laurasia Greenland Eurasia Pangaea Africa West G. S.America Gondwanaland Antarctica East G. Australia IndiaPangaea—A History of the Continents: 2:23
  36. 36. The First Continents 4:57
  37. 37. USGS Plate Motions Clip
  38. 38. o The continents are like packages on the seafloor conveyor belt ContinentsContinents
  39. 39. o High percentage fit of continents at the 500 fathom level EvidenceEvidence
  40. 40. o Minerals, fossils, and mountains on now different continents match if the continents were together EvidenceEvidence The Mystery of Brachiosaurus (~3 min)
  41. 41. o Glaciation patterns indicate a common ice cap at the South Pole EvidenceEvidence
  42. 42. o PaleomagnetismPaleomagnetism (magnetism of old rocks) indicate a common pole if the continents were all connected EvidenceEvidence
  43. 43. Plate Tectonics 2 –4:22
  44. 44. Plate Tectonics by Brainpop

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