Marianas Trench Done by: Chee Keng Jin Javier Loo Jeryl Seow Tan Jing Rong Leon Lim
Overview• Introduction• Challenger Deep• Expeditions and what was found• Impacts of the subduction that formed Marianas Trench• Reflections• References
Introduction to Marianas Trench Mariana Plate• The Marianas Trench is caused by plate Pacific Plate tectonics. Where the Pacific Plate and the smaller Mariana Plate converge, the denser Pacific Plate is forced under the Mariana Plate. The trench is formed due to the subduction of the Pacific Plate as it is forced under the smaller Mariana Plate at the bottom of the ocean between Japan and New Guinea.• The deepest point of the trench is around 11,033 meters (36,201 feet) deep and if Challenger Deep Mount Everest(8,850 meters)was set in the Marianas Trench, there would still be 2,183 meters (7,166 feet) of water left above it.
Challenger Deep• Challenger Deep is the deepest part of the Marianas Trench where the water pressure is about 50 jumbo jets piled on top of you• The depth of Challenger Deep can be measured by sending sound waves to the submersibles below and by using the velocity of sound in water we can find the depth of challenger deep• Many expeditions were carried out to explore and to determine the depth of Challenger Deep like using the US Navy submersible manned vessel “Trieste” managed to dive to a depth of 10,900 meters and 2 other unmanned expeditions were made to reach very similar depths achieved by the US Navy’s submersible
Expeditions and what was found• There was a particular expedition that was a total success, where gasoline was used to flood the submersibles air tanks, allowed them to explore the Mariana Trench’s Challenger Deep and enabled them to gather important data on the features and species of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Nearly 5000 new species of sea creatures were discovered during the 4 year expedition.• There has also been life found in the soil of Challenger Deep where Scientists have pulled a plug of dirt from Challenger Deep and found that the soil was packed with a unique community of mostly soft-walled, singled-celled organisms that are thought to resemble some of the worlds earliest life forms. foraminifera
Impacts of the subduction that formed Marianas Trench• As highlighted in the previous slides, this trench allowed us to discover many new species of sea creatures that were able to live under tremendous water pressure and some include the foraminifera• The distance in which the Pacific Plate moved towards the Mariana Plate has also caused a Divergent movement from the plates at the opposite side such as the Nazca Plate and result in frequent volcanic activity around that part forming the East Pacific Rise for example
Impacts of the subduction that formed Marianas Trench• Another impact of the subduction is the creation of the island arc, a curved line of stratovolcanoes that rise up from the ocean floor.
Reflections• Through this project, we have gained more knowledge about the Marianas Trench and see how it links to what we are learning now and hope there are more of these kinds of projects so as to probe us to learn more and acquire more knowledge so as to help us in the future• We have also been able to work with some people that we do not really know(3A1 and 3A3) and thus felt that it was a great experience for us