Politics of Sweden


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Politics of Sweden

  1. 1. Politics of SwedenBenedict (Viktor) Gombocz
  2. 2. Geography of Sweden Location: Northern Europe, bordering theBaltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, andSkagerrak, between Finland and Norway Area Total: 450,295 sq km Country comparison to the world: 56 Land: 410,335 sq km Water: 39,960 sq km Area – comparative: Slightly larger thanCalifornia Land boundaries: Total: 2,233 km Border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway1,619 km Coastline: 3,218 km
  3. 3. Physical Map of Sweden
  4. 4. Religion in Sweden Christianity in Sweden traces its roots back to Norsepaganism in the 11th century. Sweden has been mostly Lutheran since the 16th century;the Lutheran Church of Sweden (Swedish: Svenskakyrkan) was Sweden’s state church from the ProtestantReformation until 2000. As of 2012, 67.5% of Sweden’s population belongs to theChurch of Sweden, in comparison with more than 95% in1970, and 83% in 2000. In spite of this, religion in Sweden only plays a small rolein comparison to the European average. In a 2010 Eurobarometer Poll, only 18% of Swedishcitizens indicated that “they believe there is a god.” In a 2009 Gallup poll, only 17% said yes to the question“Is religion an important part of your daily life?”. Fewer than 4% of the Church of Sweden membershipattends public masses in an average week; almost only2% are regular attendees. Some researchers consider Sweden to be a countrywhere religion is viewed with “benign indifference”. The history of the Jews in Sweden dates back to the 17thcentury. Due to immigration in the late 20th century, there is asizable Muslim minority (4% of the population) andRoman Catholics (2%).
  5. 5. Religion Statistics Lutheran: 87% Other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist):13%
  6. 6. Malmö Mosque and Sankta-Maria-i-RosengårdCatholic Church
  7. 7. Sweden’s political system: IntroducingSweden’s political system The political system of Sweden functions in a structure of a parliamentary representativedemocratic constitutional monarchy. The government, led by the PM of Sweden, exercises executive power. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party structure. The Judiciary, named by the government and employed until retirement, is independent. Sweden has a distinctive Western European history of democracy, starting with the oldViking age Ting electing kings and ending with a normal royal power, that in eras becamerelatively democratic depending on the common European leanings, in the 14th century. The current democratic régime is a result of a steady growth of successively addeddemocratic institutions that date back to the 19th century up to 1921, when women’s suffragewas legalized. The Swedish government has adhered to parliamentarism – de jure since 1975, de factosince 1917. The Social Democratic Workers’ Party, which has had a plurality (and occasionally amajority) in parliament since 1917, has largely ruled Swedish national politics since theGreat Depression; from 1932-2006, the Social Democrats led the government for 65 years,almost entirely in the absence of a minor partner.
  8. 8. Sweden’s political system: Government ofSweden Capital (and largest city): Stockholm Official language(s): Swedish Demonym: Swedish Government: Unitary parliamentaryrepresentative democracy underconstitutional monarchy Monarch: King Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister: Fredrik Reinfeldt (M) Speaker of the Riksdag: PerWesterberg (M) Legislature: Riksdag
  9. 9. Sweden’s political system: Constitution Sweden’s constitution is divided into four basic laws. The most important law is the Instrument of Government of 1974, which laysout the vital standards of political life in Sweden, outlining rights and liberties. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old Riksdag of the Estatesand the House of Bernadotte legalizing their rights to accede to the Swedishthrone. The four primary laws are: Instrument of Government (1974) Act of Succession (1809) Freedom of the Press Act (1766) Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (1991)
  10. 10. Sweden’s political system: Executive branchMain office holdersRoles of the King and thePrime Minister Office: King Name: Carl XVI Gustaf Party: None Since: 15 September 1973 Office: Speaker of the Riksdag Name: Per Westerberg Party: Moderate Party Since: 2 October 2006 Office: Prime Minister Name: Fredrik Reinfeldt Party: Moderate Party Since: 5 October 2006 Head of State King Carl XVI Gustaf of the House ofBernadotte became king in 1973. His power is formal, symbolic, andrepresentative. Head of government After the 17 September 2006 generalelections, Moderate Party nomineeFredrik Reinfeldt was elected PM ofSweden by the new parliament on 5October; along with the three otherpolitical parties in the centre-right Alliancefor Sweden, Reinfeldt heads a coalitiongovernment. Jan Björklund of the Liberal People’sParty is the Deputy PM.
  11. 11. Sweden’s political system: Government The most supreme executive power of the State is vested in the Government, which ismade up of a PM and almost 22 Ministers who supervise the ministries; the Ministersare nominated at the PM’s sole discretion. The PM is nominated by the Speaker and subsequently appointed after a vote in theRiksdag itself, a procedure in which the Monarch plays no role. Only a motion of no confidence (misstroendevotum) in the Riksdag can oust agovernment; this motion needs a majority of the total amount of votes in the Riksdag(no less than175). The taking on of the budget in the Riksdag is another case in point of the power thelegislature has granted the Government. Unless a majority of the Riksdag members vote against it, the Government’ssuggestion to the budget is adopted.
  12. 12. Sweden’s political system: Political partieswith official representation Swedish Social Democratic Party(Sveriges Socialdemokratiskaarbetarparti, S) Moderate Party (Moderatasamlingspartiet, M) Green Party (Miljöpartiet de Gröna,MP) Liberal People’s Party (FolkpartietLiberalerna, FP) Centre Party (Centerpartiet, C) Sweden Democrats(Sverigedemokraterna, SD) Pirate Party (Piratpartiet, PP) Christian Democrats(Kristdemokraterna, KD) Left Party (Vänsterpartiet, V)
  13. 13. Sweden’s political system: Legislativebranch The unicameral Riksdag is grouped of 349members, commonly elected every four years; it isusually in session between September and mid-June. The Cabinet or members of the Riksdag may initiatelegislation. Members are elected on the basis of proportionalrepresentation for a term of four years. The Riksdag can modify the Constitution ofSweden, but only with approval by a supermajorityand verification following the subsequent generalelections. Since 1917, after Reformists verified their strengthand the revolutionaries left, the Swedish SocialDemocratic Party has taken a leading political role. The cabinets have been ruled by the SocialDemocrats since after 1932. The centre-right bloc has been given enough seats inthe Riksdag to create a government in only fourgeneral elections (1976, 1979, 1991, 2006). This is seen as one factor for Sweden’s status as apost-war welfare state, with a government spendingof slightly over 50% of the GDP.
  14. 14. Sweden’s political system: Judiciary Swedish law, based on Germanic, Roman, and Anglo-American law, isneither codified as it is in France and other countries influenced by theNapoleonic Code, nor as reliant on judicial practice and examples as itis in the United States. Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction. Supreme Court or Högsta domstolen Courts of appeal or Hovrätt District courts or Tingsrätter Administrative Courts: Proceedings between the Public and the Government. The Supreme Administrative Court or Regeringsrätten Administrative courts of appeal or Kammarrätter County administrative courts or Länsrätter Ombudsman: The Parliamentary Ombudsman or Justitieombudsmannen The Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern
  15. 15. Carl XVI Gustaf Born 30 April 1946 at the Haga Palace. Reigning King of Sweden since 15September 1973, when he succeeded hisgrandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf. Is the only son of Prince GustafAdolf, Duke of Västerbotten, and PrincessSibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. In contrast to many other Europeanmonarchs who bear extensivemethods, King Carl Gustaf’s official andfull style is simply His Majesty Carl XVIGustaf, King of Sweden. His perceptible successor, upon thepassing of a new law establishingabsolute primogeniture (the first law of itskind passed in European history), isCrown Princess Victoria, the oldest childof the King and his wife, Queen Silva.
  16. 16. Fredrik Reinfeldt Born 4 August 1965 in Österhaninge. 32nd and current PM of Sweden; assumed office on 6 October2006, following the general election. Has served as chairman of the liberal conservative Moderate Partysince 2003; was President of the European Council in 2009. A native of Stockholm County; joined the Moderate Youth League in1983, and advanced to the rank of chairman by 1992, holding that postuntil 1995. Has served as an MP since 1991, representing his home constituency. Was elected party leader on 25 October 2003; succeeded Bo Lundgren. Under his leadership, the Moderate Party has reformed its politics andshifted itself towards the centre, calling itself “the New Moderates”(Swedish: Nya moderaterna). Governs over a coalition government with the support of a slightmajority in the parliament, along with the three other political parties inthe centre-right Alliance for Sweden. Was the third youngest individual, at the age of 41, to become PM ofSweden. His first term in office was marked by the late 2000s financial crisis andrecession; his popularity diminished in the midst of the financialcrisis, but when the Swedish economy emerged as one of the best inEurope, his support recovered, which resulted in his re-election in 2010. Following the 2010 general election, his government was lessened to aminority government, although it also became the first right of centregovernment since before WWII to win re-election;consequently, Reinfeldt became the first Moderate politician to win asecond term as PM. Is also the lengthiest-serving Moderate PM in Sweden’s history; hisgovernment is the lengthiest-serving consecutive non-social democraticgovernment since Erik Gustaf Boström in 1900.
  17. 17. Per Westerberg Born 2 August 1951 in Nyköping. Current Speaker of the Riksdag, of which he becamea member in 1979 (making him its oldestmember), since 2 October 2006. Graduated from Stockholm School of Economics in1974. Was employed at Saab-Scania in Södertälje from1974-1977; was also employed at Saab-Scania (thecar division) in Nyköping from 1979-1991. Was a member of the board of AB Karl W. Olsson in1974 and chairman of the Cewe Instrument AB 1984-1990 and of Elwia AB from 1985. Served as director of the Enterprise Agency FFVfrom 1983, and as a member of the PowerManagement Committee from 1978-1982, and of thecooperative inquiry 1980-1983, of the inquiry for therecovery of beverage containers from 1982-1983, and of the ownership investigation from 1995. His family has owned a business for generations.
  18. 18. Swedish Social Democratic Party Centre-left, social democratic political party. Contests elections as the Workers’ Party – The Social Democrats(Arbetarepartiet-Socialdemokraterna), even though it is more commonlyreferred to simply as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna). Oldest and biggest political party in Sweden; was founded on 23 April1889. A break occurred in 1917 when the socialists left the Social Democratsto found the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party (now the Left Party). The SAP’s symbol is by tradition a red rose, thought to have beenFredrik Ström’s idea. Its political position has a hypothetical base within Marxist revisionism;its party program interchangeably refers to their ideology as democraticsocialism, or social democracy, but hardly any high-level delegates haveinvoked socialism since Olof Palme. Advocates social welfare provision paid for from progressive taxationand a social corporatist economy that involves the institutionalization ofa social partnership structure between capital and labor economicinterest groups, with government supervision to solve disagreementsbetween the two factions. Have also become strong advocators of feminism and fairness of allsorts in recent times, and are strongly opposed to what they see asdiscrimination and racism. Commenced the Red-Greens along with the Greens and the Left Partyon 7 December 2008; the parties contested the 2010 generalelection, but lost to the centre-right Alliance, and the Red-Green alliancefell on 26 November 2010. Member of Socialist International (International affiliation), Party ofEuropean Socialists (European affiliation), Progressive Alliance ofSocialists and Democrats (EP group), and SAMAK (Nordic affiliation).
  19. 19. The End (Slutet)