Did your group out- perform its best member? Were you able to recognize the “expertise” of your members?
“None of us are as smart as all of us.” Potentially.It depends on our ability to generate group synergy, and minimize potential disadvantages of working in groups.
Actual Group = Potential – Process + Process GainProductivity Productivity Loss1 (SYNERGY) 1Process Loss = Ability Loss + Motivation Loss + Coordination Loss
the average individual score is worse than the average team score… suggesting that groups are better at making decisions…. However, the average team score is NOT consistently better than the “best”individual score…suggestingthat groups are not always as good as or better than their best member…
Individual Factors (KSAOs, Synergistic personality, etc.) gain Team Factors (structure, Interaction Process Outcome composition, size, etc.) ProcessEnvironmental Factors (Reward system, losssupervision, training, etc.)
DECISION MAKING EXERCISE CARTER RACING! TO RACE or NOT TO RACE!
Seeking evidence to confirm initial hypothesis and excluding the search for disconfirming information This leads to: Selective attention Selective interpretation Selective recall Can also create self-fulfilling prophesies
Jim left the house to get some stationery. He walked out into the sun-filled street with two of his friends, basking in the sun as he walked. Jim entered the stationery store, which was full of people. Jim talked with an acquaintance while he waited to catch the clerk’s eye. On his way out, he stopped to chat with a school friend who was just coming out of the store. Leaving the store, he walked toward the school. On his way, he met a woman to whom he had been introduced the night before. They talked for a short while, and then, Jim left for school. After school, Jim left the classroom alone. Leaving the school, he started on his long walk home. The street was brilliantly filled with sunshine. Jim walked down the street on the shady side. Coming down the street, he saw the pretty woman whom he had met the previous evening. Jim crossed the street and entered a candy store. The store was crowded with students and he noticed a few familiar faces. Jim waited quietly until he caught the counterman’s eye and then gave his order. Taking his drink, he sat at a side table. When he had finished his drink, he went home.
Condition % rating Jim as friendlyFriendly description only 95%Friendly first, unfriendly last 78%Unfriendly first, friendly last 18%Unfriendly description only 3%
Action does not produce return, may produce loss. Decision is made to commit further resources in order to “turn the situation around.” Process may repeat and “escalate” several times as additional resources are invested.
People bring their behavior into alignment with a group’s expectations & beliefs Cause: People want acceptance & inclusion in groups. Exclusion occurs when people do not conform
Asch Experiments in Conformity Which line is closest in length to the standard? A B C Standard
Deterioration of mental efficiency Suppression of reality- testing Censorship of doubts Ignoring outside information Overconfidence Attitude of invulnerability
Teams often agree to a course of action that none of them wants, because each member assumes that the others want it Causes: Fear of conflict Conformity seeking Pluralistic ignorance: Others want it!
“I want to talk with you about the research project. Although I have previously said things to the contrary. I frankly don’t think it will work and I am very anxious about it. I suspect that others may feel the same, but I don’t know. Anyway, I am concerned that we may end up misleading one another, and if we aren’t careful, we may continue to work on a problem that none of us wants and that might even bankrupt us. That’s why I need to know where the rest of you stand. I would appreciate any of your thoughts about the project. Do you think it can succeed?” – Harvey
Definition: Group judgments often more extreme than average of the judgments of individual members Risky shift Cautious shift Causes: Need to be right: people are information dependent on others Need to be liked: people desire acceptance by a group
Good decisions require asking the right questionsDe-bias - identify and avoid pressures Create an atmosphere in yourgroups where uniqueinformation is shared and listened to