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Disaster Risk Research, Science and Innovation for Sustainability - Asian Case Studies

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Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies
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Disaster Risk Research, Science ...
Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies
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Acknowledgment
Sincere thanks an...
Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies
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Foreword
There is mounting evide...
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Disaster Risk Research, Science and Innovation for Sustainability - Asian Case Studies

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Editors: Indrajit Pal, Sangam Shrestha, Rajib Shaw, Dyah R. Hizbaron, Tomonori Ichinose, Yon Yonariza, Takashi Oda. Associate Editor: Ganesh Dhungana

This book – a compilation of the findings of twenty carefully selected case studies across nine countries in the Asian region – constitutes an admirable effort to advance our understanding about how to improve the efficacy of the measures to reduce disaster-risks. Notwithstanding the diversity of the country settings, the variety of climate-induced risks, and the ambit of risk reduction strategies and practices across the countries, the common message in these case studies points to the centrality of community engagement and recourse to local knowledge, technologies, and wisdom for achieving practicable and enduring redress of disaster risks.

Learn more: https://prospernet.ias.unu.edu/projects/past-projects/disaster-education-for-integrating-sfdrr-and-sdg-in-asia

Editors: Indrajit Pal, Sangam Shrestha, Rajib Shaw, Dyah R. Hizbaron, Tomonori Ichinose, Yon Yonariza, Takashi Oda. Associate Editor: Ganesh Dhungana

This book – a compilation of the findings of twenty carefully selected case studies across nine countries in the Asian region – constitutes an admirable effort to advance our understanding about how to improve the efficacy of the measures to reduce disaster-risks. Notwithstanding the diversity of the country settings, the variety of climate-induced risks, and the ambit of risk reduction strategies and practices across the countries, the common message in these case studies points to the centrality of community engagement and recourse to local knowledge, technologies, and wisdom for achieving practicable and enduring redress of disaster risks.

Learn more: https://prospernet.ias.unu.edu/projects/past-projects/disaster-education-for-integrating-sfdrr-and-sdg-in-asia

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Disaster Risk Research, Science and Innovation for Sustainability - Asian Case Studies

  1. 1. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 2 Disaster Risk Research, Science and Innovation for Sustainability - Asian Case Studies Editors Indrajit Pal Sangam Shrestha Rajib Shaw Dyah R. Hizbaron Tomonori Ichinose Yon Yonariza Takashi Oda Associate Editor Ganesh Dhungana The publication of this book is supported by the ProSPER.Net consortium project “Disaster Education for Integrating SFDRR and SDG in Asia” lead by Asian Institution of Technology, Thailand in coordination with Keio University, Japan; Miyagi University of Education, Japan; Andalas University, Indonesia; and Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
  2. 2. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 3 Acknowledgment Sincere thanks and recognition to all primary authors, innovators, practitioners, implementing organizations, policymakers, and everyone for their support in bringing out stories from the field. Special mention to ProSPER.Net for providing funds for publication. Disclaimer All presented studies conducted by authors are based on analysis of secondary data. The only objective of this publication is to share some good practices of DRR interventions in the Asian region. The publisher, editors, and contributing authors don’t have any claim over the approaches and achievements shared in studies. Published by Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand ISBN 978-616-341-096-2 ISBN 978-616-341-097-9 (eBook) First Edition August 2021 Printed @ AIT Printing Shop Asian Institute of Technology, 9 58 Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang District, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand Layout and Cover Jose Luis C. Arboled
  3. 3. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 4 Foreword There is mounting evidence that concludes that there is a positive correlation between climate change and the increased incidence and intensity of natural disasters – coastal hazards, desertification, droughts, earthquakes, floods, landslides, … The prevention, amelioration, and effective management of disaster- risks have therefore assumed heightened priorities in the sustainability frameworks and agendas of various nations. This book – a compilation of the findings of twenty carefully selected case studies across nine countries in the Asian region – constitutes an admirable effort to advance our understanding about how to improve the efficacy of the measures to reduce disaster-risks. Notwithstanding the diversity of the country settings, the variety of climate-induced risks, and the ambit of risk reduction strategies and practices across the countries, the common message in these case studies points to the centrality of community engagement and recourse to local knowledge, technologies, and wisdom for achieving practicable and enduring redress of disaster risks. The case studies also convincingly demonstrate how knowledge germane to modern-science and local practices could be harmoniously integrated to mitigate disaster risks. Further, although the case studies are based on the analyses of secondary data, but the underlying foci and approaches make their findings easy to follow and amenable to the drawing of some broad generalizations, without compromising their contextual specificities. Moreover, the erudition and passion of the editors of the book and authors of the case studies becomes rather evident as one reads the case studies. Dr Indrajit Pal – the lead editor and a co-author of several case studies – deserves special commendation for coordinating this initiative – never an easy task when working with multiple teams, across several nations, under tight timelines! Lastly, this publication – developed under the aegis of ProSPER.Net – is a testament to the continuing commitment of ProSPER.Net to promoting discourses on sustainability themes. Deepak Sharma Board Chair, ProSPER.Net Director, Centre for Global Challenges Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
  4. 4. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 5 Table of Contents CS 01: Water Management at Community Level by Building Sand Dam 7 Subhajit Ghosh, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana CS 02: Improved Quarantine Centers to Mitigate the Spread of COVID -19 12 Ganesh Dhungana, Indrajit Pal CS 03: Community Based landslide EWS in Indonesia: Contributing to Sustainable DRR 18 Neshma Tuladhar, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana CS 04: Community Based Ecosystem Management for Disaster Risk Reduction 27 Jose Luis C. Arboleda, Indrajit Pal CS 05: Construction of Sea Walls: A Case Study From Japan 33 Nang Ying Ei Hein Kham, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana CS 06: Monkey Cheeks Project for Resilient Livelihood 39 Nonthakarn Benjachat, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana CS 07: Tosacho on SDG Mirai City and its Implication to Disaster Resilience 46 Nanami Yamazawa, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw CS 08: Community Network Approach to Risk and Disaster Preparedness Awareness Amongst Foreign Residents in Jose City, Japan 53 Bismark Adu-Gyamfi, Rajib Shaw CS 09: Big Data Approach to Disaster Risk and Preparedness for Flood Control in Guizhou Province, China 59 Jiang Yongxi, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw CS 10: Prevention and Control of Desertification with Comprehensive Measures in Yulin City, China 66 He Zuqua, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw CS 11: Tsunami Risk Assessment in Gunungkidul Coastal Area using High-Resolution Aerial Image 72 Hendy Fatchurohman, Muh Aris Marfai, Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron
  5. 5. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 6 CS 12: The Restoration Program of Parangtritis Sand Dunes in Providing Sustainable Ecosystem to Reduce Coastal Disaster Risk 79 Putri Meissarah, Nicky Setiawan, Farid Ibrahim, Fajrun Wahidil Muharram, Yuniarsita Setyo Wulandari 79 CS 13: Strengthen Eco-DRR Network for Coastal Hazard and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Semarang and Demak, Central Java 88 Indriya Parahita Adi, Utia Suarma, Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron CS 14: Case of the Affected School and School District in the Large Scale Disaster 95 Tomonori Ichinose CS 15: Lake Regulations Area Model for Risk Reduction Flood Disaster in Jakarta 103 Lian Yuanita Andikasari dan Deliyanti Ganesha CS 16: Development of Local Institutional Networks for Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction in Cibodas Village, Lembang District, West Bandung Regency 108 Thanthawi Jauhari CS 17: Preliminary Study on the Readiness of Multi-storey Building in Jakarta Against Earthquake Disaster 112 Mulyo Harris Pradono, Odilia Rovara, Qoriatu Zahro CS 18: DRR Integration into the Padding City Development Planning Documents 118 Afriyanni CS 19: Implementation of Disaster Mitigation-Based Spatial Planning Policy as an Effort for Disaster Risk Reduction in the City of Padang 123 Roni Ekha Putera, Tengku Rika Valentina, Siti Annisa Silvia Rosa CS 20: Comperhensive School Safety for Educational Continuity during Disaster 127 Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana
  6. 6. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 7 Case Study 01 Water Management at Community Level by Building Sand Dam Subhajit Ghosh, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  7. 7. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 8 INTRODUCTION Thoomba Ka Goliya is situated within the Thar desert in Marwar, Rajasthan, India. To address the severe water crisis in the Thar Desert, stakeholders from the different regions in the Thar mandated the formation of the Jal Bhagirathi Foundation (JBF). Therefore, the JBF was formed as a public trust in 2002 in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Their mission is to alleviate water scarcity in rural communities in Marwar with adequate drinking water, leveraging traditional knowledge and cost-effective technology. A sand dam is a hydraulic retention structure built above the ground and into the riverbed of an ephemeral river. The sand accumulates upstream of the dam during the rainy season, resulting in additional groundwater storage. Saltwater intrusion is a major growing issue and water scarcity due to low hydraulic heads (Ghosh, 2019). A sand dam is one of the best solutions for storing additional water to recharge groundwater in the semi-arid area as it helps to reduce evaporation. OUTCOMES Since the construction of this community-owned dam, the returns have been tremendous financially and in terms of public health (Akhilendra et al., 2013). The sand dam built in the village was initiated as a pilot project to enhance irrigation, contribute to food security, and alleviate poverty. As a result, farmers report that saline water has turned sweet, enabling them to drink healthily and grow a range of fruit and vegetables new to the Thar Desert. Fifteen sand dams have already transformed the thousands of people, and communities are asking to build more in the Jodphur, Jalore, and Balmer Districts of Rajasthan - contributing 20% of the cost themselves. Reported Impacts from Thumba ka Goliya, Jalore District, Rajasthan: o Output from government tube wells has increased by 50%, and water availability increased from several hours to 24 hours per day.
  8. 8. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 9 o The impacts initially affected tube wells for 23 farmers, but in 2015, it was realised that 109 private tube wells in the area were positively impacted. o Water levels reported by local farmers in the tube wells were at 75 meters but reduced to 60 meters by 2015 and 45 meters in 2016. o The salinity reduction has enabled a change of crops from castor to vegetables and even Thai apples Figure 1: (A) Location Map (B) Sand Dam (C) Tube well, Source: ( Kanwal, S., 2019) LESSONS LEARNED Decentralized community-led institutions help facilitate a bottom-up approach to water management that can enable behavioral and attitudinal change. Individual contribution and participation help inculcate a sense of
  9. 9. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 10 ownership and value, ensuring the maintenance of the facility, thereby enhancing the project’s sustainability. The JBF was encouraged to develop group micro-projects where a fixed number of households generally ten and applied for grant approval. Successful implementation of those projects builds community trust in implementing agencies. This was also done to put the onus on the community to make it a collective effort. The idea behind the process is to provide an enabling environment for people to work together for well-being. It is important to be successful at the first one, to replicate a similar project. As the Thumba ka Goliya sand dam successfully provided water security for nearby villagers, it encouraged others to replicate the same and actively support the project even for funding (Maddrell, 2017). CHALLENGES Sand dams and subsurface dams are similar technologies to store large volumes of water to compensate for the long dry periods in arid and semi-arid regions across the globe, such as sub-Saharan Africa. Although in India, it is not a traditional water harvesting technique that is widely used. However, it is an easy technical solution but needs to be precise to be effective. At first, the technical expertise was not present within the community, but the JBF foundation provided that partnering with other institutions who already have the expertise in building sand dams. As it is not a common traditional solution, members of the community were hesitant to implement it. Most people fear the sustainability of the project in the longer term. Without having local expertise, it will be difficult to solve or expand any unforeseen problem. The JBF foundation assured people that they would continue to provide solutions in the future and trained community members for continuing basic technical work. Without a Successful example, people were hesitant to participate and less enthused to provide financial support to the project. Also, sand dam type structure takes a long time to provide encouraging benefits. But after successful completion of the first
  10. 10. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 11 project, it worked as an example to encourage nearby villages to participate with greater enthusiasm and financial stake. CONCLUSION The drylands of the Marwar region in western Rajasthan, located in the Thar desert in India, is the most densely populated arid land in the world. The word “Marwar” has its roots in the Sanskrit word “Maruwar,” which means Land of Death, referring to the harsh environment characterized by drought and scanty and erratic rainfall. With the changing climate, this scarcity might become acute. Decentralized community-led institutions help facilitate a bottom-up approach to water management to enable behavioural and attitudinal change. Individual contribution and participation help inculcate a sense of ownership and value, ensuring the maintenance of the facility, thereby enhancing the project’s sustainability. This project ensures safe health and sanitation by providing water and bringing economic prosperity to the region. REFERENCES Akhilendra, B., Gupta, & Gupta, S. (2013). Issues of water quality, health, and poverty: the Indian scenario. 361. https://iahs.info/uploads/dms/15579.20-142-149-361-09- H04_Gupta_ABG_final_Final_2_Paper_ISH_July-2013_Sweden_10- pages_corrections--marked.pdf Ghosh, S. (2019, September 11). Groundwater in Rajasthan fouled by natural and human- made toxins. Mongabay-India. https://india.mongabay.com/2019/09/groundwater- in-rajasthan-fouled-by-natural-and-human-made-toxins/ Kanwal, S. (2019, September 12). Evaluation of Microbial Drinking Water Quality and Related Health Impacts in Thoomba Ka Goliya, Rajasthan, India. Reposit.haw- Hamburg.de. https://reposit.haw-hamburg.de/handle/20.500.12738/8957 Maddrell, S. (2017, December 21). Sand Dams in Rajasthan, India. Crowdfunder UK. https://www.crowdfunder.co.uk/sand-dams-in-rajasthan-india#start
  11. 11. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 12 Case Study 02 Improved Quarantine Centers to Mitigate the Spread of COVID -19 Ganesh Dhungana, Indrajit Pal Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  12. 12. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 13 INTRODUCTION Dhading is one of the remote districts of Nepal (HRRP, 2017). During the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was one of the vulnerable districts as it is adjoining with the country's capital and has a huge number of out-migrants. The district was categorized as one of the red zones for COVID-19 transmission by the government of Nepal. The returnee migrants, especially from India and other gulf countries, were transmitted in the highest number, followed by community transmission. The situation assessment of the district conducted by a local organization Action Nepal suggested an immediate need for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) facilities in isolation and quarantine centres. Based on the assessment, Action Nepal and Dan Church Aid, with financial assistance from the UK Aid, coordinated with the local governments to provide the necessary support for Isolations and Quarantines of seven rural municipalities (Gajuri, Galchhi, Benighat Rorang, Ganga Jamuna, Thakre, and Jwalamukhi ) of the district to strengthen their capacity to fight against COVID 19. The designed project engaged and collaborated with local governments to adopt and implement COVID-19 related policies, processes, and procedures endorsed by the federal government (Mott MacDonald, 2020). OUTCOMES The project had set the four different outputs to achieve its objectives. The project supported rural municipalities to draft and endorse Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) and Code of Conduct (COC) to manage the quarantine/isolation centres in a proper way and to prevent gender-based exploitations and violence. The endorsed SOP and COC played a vital role in motivating rural municipalities to set a vision to improve their efficiency for the proper management of quarantine/isolation centres targeting the most vulnerable ones. The project provided demand-based psycho-social counselling in isolations and quarantines through trained facilitators. Besides,
  13. 13. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 14 the project supported psycho-social counselling to 418 individuals through phone calls. The psycho-social counselling supported mental wellbeing and helped to create enjoyable moments during the hardest time. As per the recommendation from counsellors and requested by the local government, the project provided recreational materials such as television sets, sports materials, yoga mat, musical set, books and so on to isolation/ quarantine centres. 1075 standard hygiene kits were distributed to the municipal health units to support personal hygiene management of people, especially women, children, elderly, and pregnant women staying at quarantine/isolation centres. In addition, 17 semi-permanent toilets, 26-bathroom spaces, and 27 pedal touch handwashing stations (along with cleaning material) were installed at 12 quarantine centres, ensuring the proper sanitation of people during their quarantine stay. Virus preventive materials like masks, sanitizer, face shields, and gloves are provided to the front-line health workers, security personnel, and members of the quarantine management committee (Action Nepal, 2020). The project's interventions contributed to the hygiene and sanitation behaviours of the community people and sensitized them to take more care of their personal hygiene as a first step to mitigate the spread of the COVID -19 Pandemic. Figure 1: Hand washing training at a quarantine center
  14. 14. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 15 LESSONS LEARNED The existing presence of implementing organization Action Nepal within the targeted rural municipalities helped in coordination, communication, and implementation of activities. Initial Rapid Assessment contributed to identify key concerns of rural municipalities, their shortcomings, vulnerable segments of the society and helped in understanding their approach in fighting against the COVID -19 outbreak. A need-based approach adopted by the project through various assessments and coordination was helpful to identify the most suitable/relevant activities (Adhikari, 2020). During the project implementation, it was noticed that the political ideology of the local leaders played a deciding factor behind any decision taken by the local government. Due to which the quarantine location was not appropriate, staff selected and mobilized to manage the quarantine were selected based on their political ideology rather than their technical capabilities. The most important lesson learned during the implementation was the dependence nature of the local government. Though the local government had enough financial resources to manage quarantine and isolation, they were more interested in spending their resources in normal development rather than contributing in mitigation of the spread of the pandemic. Figure 2 : Focus Group Discussion at Khaniyabas RM
  15. 15. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 16 CHALLENGES The frequent changes in the COVID -19 context, its modes of transmission, its frequency, and the change in directives of the central government made it challenging to achieve the target as per the plan. The Ministry of Education (MOE) decision to stay back from using school buildings as quarantine centres created confusion to rural municipalities as there were no appropriate alternative spaces for quarantine. This ultimately affected the timely implementation of planned activities as those schools were assessed to develop quarantine centres. The rural municipalities being supported by the project also suffered from the landslide and had an adverse effect on COVID 19 management. Limited available funds allocated for COVID 19 management was diverted to the landslide management as well. The rural municipalities were facing challenges to manage both COVID 19 and landslides with a limited available budget. Another key challenge was that a few rural municipalities were unable to provide the exact location for the quarantine centres. They didn’t have suitable spaces for quarantine centres. Besides, the political interests of the local government and lack of qualified human resources in rural municipalities to facilitate and support was another challenge faced by the project. CONCLUSION The project successfully enhanced the capacity of the local government to improve quarantine management services at rural municipalities with standards and systems. With the technical support from the project, the local government developed quarantine management SOPs with clear roles, responsibilities, and requirements at municipal level. Through the project, communities and the people living in quarantine/isolation centers have an adequate water supply for drinking purposes and proper sanitation. They also got psycho-social support /motivational orientation through trained facilitators. The basic sanitation facilities and wastewater management in the
  16. 16. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 17 existing and newly established health facilities, including quarantine and isolation centers are improved. Awareness and knowledge on COVID-19 and the necessary WASH and hygiene measures to mitigate the risk of infection are improved at the project implemented municipalities. Though the project supported most of the immediate needs of Rural Municipalities, the support was not adequate as the local government didn't have enough human resources to continue the activities initiated by the project, such as psycho-social counselling. Besides, the rural municipalities were unable to maintain the regular supplies of the hygiene kits and other facilities provided by the project during the project duration. REFERENCES Action Nepal. (2020). WASHing Away Hazard (pp. 1–8). Action Nepal. HRRP. (2017, October 17). District Profile - Dhading. Relief Web; HRRP. https://reliefweb.int/report/nepal/nepal-district-profile-dhading-10-oct-2017 Keshav Adhikari. (2020, October 3). Code of conduct for quarantine, isolation facilities in Dhading. The Himalayan Times. https://thehimalayantimes.com/nepal/code-of- conduct-for-quarantine-isolation-facilities-in-dhading Mott MacDonald. (2020). Purnima newsletter COVID-19 response special edition. In Purnima. Mott MacDonald.https://purnimanepal.com/wp- content/uploads/2020/10/Purnima-Newsletter_COVID-19-Special-Edition_English.pd
  17. 17. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 18 Case Study 03 Community Based landslide EWS in Indonesia: Contributing to Sustainable DRR Neshma Tuladhar, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  18. 18. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 19 INTRODUCTION Landslides are one of the deadliest and most common hazards in the world, triggering great social and economic loss. Indonesia has reported more than 3753 landslides from 2010 to 2018 with more than1661 fatalities (UGM, 2021). About 40.9 million people in Indonesia are estimated to live in landslide-prone areas. Landslide risk can be reduced via structural and non-structural mitigation measures. Relocation of the population at risk is difficult, hence, preparing communities via implementation of Landslide Early Warning (LEWS) contributes to reducing vulnerability. Figure 1: Pillars of the LEWS- 4 key elements of UNISDR 2006 and seven- subsystems
  19. 19. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 20 Gadjah Mada Early Warning System (GAMA-EWS) was developed by Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) to predict landslide events at local level and support disaster preparedness. It was done in collaboration with national governmental bodies like Indonesian National Authority for Disaster Management (BNPB), Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Ministry of Village, Development of Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration (KEMENDESA), Regional Authority for Disaster Management (BPBD), private sector (also the user groups), non- governmental and international bodies. The simple, low cost and real –time landslide risk assessment and monitoring project was a success in its pilot phase. Adopting the community based LEWS grounded on four key elements of people centered EWS (UNISDR, 2006), a hybrid socio technical approach for disaster risk reduction comprising seven sub-systems as shown in Figure 1 has obtained a universal standard as ISO 22327. Figure 2: Prof. Teuku Faisal Fathani, Lead Researcher of GAMA-EWS, Source : (Humas FT UGM, 2019)
  20. 20. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 21 Implementation of GAMA-EWS has contributed to building community preparedness, capacity and resilience at local, national and international level. The standard contributes to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11 Sustainable cities and communities and is in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Prof. Teuku Faisal Fathani (Figure 2) is currently active as lecturer in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UGM. He holds numerous intellectual properties or patents as well as honors and awards in the continuous development of LEWS together with the research team (Humas FT UGM, 2019). OUTCOMES The landslide monitoring system has been installed in different parts of Indonesia. Initiated with a manual monitoring device and paper-recorded device, the system has been updated to real-time monitoring systems. The upgrading of socio-technical and people centered approach in the implementation of LEWS has ministered multi-stakeholder provision, community-based disaster risk reduction practice and ensured sustainability suited for developing countries. The community is the key stakeholder and owns the entire process from installation, ownership, maintenance to security. The primary motive of the project is enabling timely independent evacuation of communities before landslide strikes. GAMA-EWS detected a landslide in Banjarnegara, Central Java Province on November 7, 2007 just four hours before the occurrence allowing evacuation of a total of 35 households (Fathani et al., 2016). On 28 November 2016, the LEWS saved 100 households in Aceh Besar Regency from landslide and flash floods. UGM in collaboration with local BPBD were conducting evacuation drills when warning alerts were provided. The system alerted the community five hours before the incident and evacuation was carried out ascertaining the necessity of integrated approach in DRR (UGM, 2021). The
  21. 21. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 22 Indonesian government has incorporated the standard as reference for the National Medium-term Development Plan (2015-2019). GAMA-EWS has been installed in over 32 provinces in Indonesia and Myanmar. Recently in 2019, the system has been installed throughout Central Java. The uniqueness and contribution of the hybrid socio-technical LEWS has been recognized and commemorated as an international standard as published by the International Organization for Standardization: ISO 22327 “Community-based landslide early warning system” in 2018 (BNBP, 2018). The successful achievement of ISO 22327 is a part of the continuous efforts of the UGM LEWS research team consisting of Prof. Teuku Faisal Fathani, Prof. Dwikorita Karnawati and Dr. Wahyu Wilopo. The team has applied for LEWS to be appointed as a reference in international certification (Humas FT UGM, 2019). Figure 3: Installation area of GAMA-EWS, Source: (UGM, 2021)
  22. 22. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 23 LESSONS LEARNED The installation of GAMA-EWS simply isn’t enough and doesn’t guarantee the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction (UNECE , 2018). It definitely is the entry point into the community and will only be successful when the community understands the importance and functionality of the system and leads it. The project has achieved this milestone by integrating the interdisciplinary role of community as key stakeholder in terms of establishing the landslide preparedness protocol, developing a response team, evacuation map, a standard operating procedure, and enhancing local commitment for monitoring and security of the installed system. The standard pledges community independence in preparedness and improved response capacities by embracing different structural and non-structural measures. Community centered landslide risk reduction measure is also backed by continuous support from like Universitas Gadjah Mada in terms of public education, consultation, trainings, drills and enhancing public participation. The role of the national and local governmental bodies is equally important for the sustainability of the DRR measure like encouraging the communities to actively participate, support them in operation and maintenance. The inclusion of the standard into national/local level plans and strategies has ensured sustainability. Community centered landslide mitigation initiative in Indonesia is setting an important example in the world in disaster resiliency. The features such a low cost, local applicability and prioritization of the risk knowledge, social, cultural, and economic components of the community are the highlights of the initiative. The technical system remains constant and caters into the location specific social system which makes the standard reliable, unique and replicable. CHALLENGES The application of ISO 22327 requires consistent commitment and support from multi-stakeholders, however, hitches in institutional and strategic
  23. 23. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 24 approaches have been investigated. Since multi-stakeholders’ participation is a key factor for functional operation of GAMA-EWS, lack of coordination and cooperation affects the social aspect of the hybrid socio-technical system. Diverse challenges were encountered: multiple-early warning instruments were installed in the same area by different stakeholders due to different funding sources leading to confusion; technical aspects like data collection and research over community response and capacity building were prioritized defying the actual purpose of the system. This exhibited the essence of SOPs in the entire cycle of installation, operation, maintenance, and security of LEWS. The maintenance of continuous engagement of the local community throughout the programs of disaster risk reduction has always been a struggle. The level of community involvement, awareness and preparedness is high post-disaster; however, the consistency and continuity is not guaranteed. As per the SOPs, locals and disaster agencies are liable for frequent use, monitoring and maintenance of early warning devices which were neglected in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra Province (Fathani et. al., 2016). The project aims at implanting the concept and awareness about the EWS as the first step for saving the community not stopping the hazard; and further preparing them to cope with the hazard via structural and non- structural landslide mitigation measures. CONCLUSION The case study is a portrayal of how an EWS has been advanced from a technical system into a community centered DRR measure by constituting a social approach into the process. GAMA-EWS is recognized as a simple, low cost EWS catered for local landslides in developing countries specifically. The community-based landslide early warning system has succeeded in receiving the international standard ISO 22327 and saved countless lives in Indonesia. Accommodating the Sendai Framework based priorities, key elements of
  24. 24. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 25 people cantered early warning system and the seven sub systems have contributed to achieving SDG 11 Making Cities and Communities Resilient. This model of landslide early warning has been quite effective and strategic to improve the community resilience in landslide vulnerable villages. The amalgamation of technical and social systems in building resilience is unique. Community leads preparedness activities, conducting dissemination of information and communication, developing standard operating procedure and evacuation map, as well as strong commitment which is facilitated by the national and local disaster management agencies and other stakeholders. This feature of catering social, economic, and cultural features of the community into the implementation of the EWS makes this standard unique, sustainable, and replicable. REFERENCES BNBP. (2018, 03 16). Community Based Landslide Early Warning System from Indonesia Becomes an International Standard. From Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana: https://www.bnpb.go.id/berita/sistem-peringatan-dini-longsor-berbasis- masyarakat-dari-indonesia-menjadi-standar-internasional Fathani, T. F., Karnawati, D., & Wilopo, W. (2016). An integrated methodology to develop a standard for landslide early warning systems. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16(9), 2123–2135. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-2123-2016 Humas FT UGM. (2019, 08 21). The 2019 Pancasila Achievement Appreciation Icon from UGM: Prof. Teuku Faisal Fathani. Retrieved from Universitas Gadjah Mada: http://ft.ugm.ac.id/ikon-apresiasi-prestasi-pancasila-2019-dari-ugm-prof-teuku- faisal-fathani/ SHNet. (2016, 10 06). GAMA-EWS, Global Landslide Early Detection Tool. From SinarHarapanNet: https://sinarharapan.net/2016/10/gama-ews-alat-deteksi-dini- longsor-mendunia/ UGM. (2021). GAMA EWS . From SDGS Center Universitas Gadjah Mada: https://sustainabledevelopment.ugm.ac.id/gama-ews/ UNECE . (2018). Case Studies. From UNECE: https://standards4sdgs.unece.org/sites/default/files/2020-01/SDG11_Indonesia.pdf UNECE. (2019). In U. N. ECE, Standards for Sustainable Development Goal . United Nations ECE.
  25. 25. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 26 UNISDR. (2006). Developing Early Warning Systems : A Checklist. In Third International Conference on Early Warning (Issue March). https://www.unisdr.org/files/608_10340.pdf
  26. 26. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 27 Case Study 04 Community Based Ecosystem Management for Disaster Risk Reduction Jose Luis C. Arboleda, Indrajit Pal Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  27. 27. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 28 INTRODUCTION Sustainable development requires a balanced progress in three main components, namely: social, environment, and economic. These components are threatened with disaster risks that have the potential to ultimately disrupt any progress that have been made in terms of development. Therefore, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is considered a key element in securing continued development in the long run (United Nations, n.d.). Various approaches, in different scales, have been championed in order to reduce disaster risks. One of the main considerations of DRR is that it should address the risks in all its forms and levels (PreventionWeb.net, n.d.). Thus, a more inclusive and integrated approach is necessary to effectively reduce disaster risks (Benson, 2016). Two among different approaches have been considered towards effective DRR, namely: community-based approach and ecosystem-based approach. Community based approach in DRR is a strategy wherein empowerment of the local community with more localized tools and processes is key to ensure sustainability. While ecosystem-based approach is a strategy wherein strengthening the capacity of the ecosystem increases the resiliency of the environment to buffer the impacts of natural hazards. In this light, the combination of the two is believed to be effective in ensuring sustainable development by reducing the risks of having disasters. Figure 1: Location Map of Panay Island, Western Visayas, Central Philippines.
  28. 28. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 29 Study Area: The Philippines is a developing nation located in Southeast Asia. Due to its geographical characteristics and climate, it is considered to be one of the most prone countries to natural hazards, especially to typhoons. Coupled with underlying factors, the Philippines faces high disaster risks. It is also the country where Typhoon Haiyan of 2013 (locally known as Typhoon Yolanda), one of the strongest typhoons in recent history, made land fall. One of the islands of the Philippines where the onslaught of Typhoon Haiyan was severely felt is Panay Island in Region VI, Western Visayas, Central Philippines (Figure 1). Panay Island is divided into four provinces: Aklan, Antique, Iloilo, and Capiz. OUTCOMES The project by ZSL-PHI was funded by the Forest Foundation Philippines (formerly Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation, Inc.) and is implemented in a duration of 1 year. It was implemented in 2 provinces in Panay Island, Philippines. With a total of 12 people’s organizations as beneficiaries. The following are the outcomes and impacts of the project based on the analysis of the report: Direct Outcome: Throughout the implementation of the project, it has achieved multiple benefits that directly affected the resilience of both the ecosystem and the community in the sites. For the ecosystem, a total of 307.1 hectares of coastal area was rehabilitated through mangrove reforestation and afforestation. The main actors of the process of both reforestation and afforestation were the POs with respect to the area. This, in turn, also directly gave a temporary source of income for the POs through incentive-based planting of mangrove propagules. Moreover, mangrove nurseries were established in each area of the beneficiaries that can be sustained for further cultivating propagules. In terms of social enhancement outcomes, the project was able to greatly increase the capacities of the partner People’s Organizations for the long run. These PO’s directly received training programs on Organizational Management Training, Mangrove Ecosystem
  29. 29. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 30 Management, Project proposal making and process for future funding, and other relevant trainings tailored to each PO based on their needs. This ensures the sustainability of the initiatives that took place during the project. Lastly, potential Alternative Livelihoods were introduced, and networks were established to help the community maintain strong and sustainable projects with different stakeholders. Long-term Impacts: The direct outcomes that were produced by the project is believed to support an increase in long-term self-sufficiency and resiliency for the community and the environment within the project sites, especially against complex and compound disasters, induced by typhoon hazards. Such impacts include a stronger and expanded mangrove ecosystem to serve as a buffer against coastal hazards. Another long-term impact is the sustainability and independence of the communities to continue the expansion and/or maintenance of mangrove ecosystems. Furthermore, there is an overall increase in capacities of the members of the POs partners through capacity building. Lastly, the diversification of the sources of income of the communities would render a stronger socioeconomic resiliency to safeguard communities. LESSONS LEARNED Aside from the issues that were mentioned, the project proponent was also able to highlight key learnings that should be considered in implementing future similar projects. One of these lessons is the option to involve trusted local non-government organizations to boost efficiency in conducting trainings and capacity building. The POs trusted NGOs can eliminate some steps in establishing rapport and social dynamics since it is already present between the two groups. Another key learning is the necessity to involve local government in these kinds of projects. Their involvement will greatly help in project sustainability by ensuring all operations are transparent to and permitted by local authorities and will avoid future legal hiccups along the way. Meanwhile, prioritization between recovery and capacity building
  30. 30. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 31 needs to be done equally to ensure long-term resiliency. The disaster cycle dictates stakeholders should proactively manage risks in order to avoid disasters. This entails systematically implementing both risk mitigation and disaster recovery and rehabilitation. Lastly, integrating activities geared towards the improvement of the social, environmental, and economic dimensions is a must in inclusive and integrated project implementation. CHALLENGES The implementation of this project was successful and achieved its main goals. However, it did encounter some challenges along the way. One challenge is the unpredictability of human nature. The perception of community members in terms of short-term and long-term benefits needs to be established before-hand. Failure to do so resulted to “short-cuts” in reforestation and afforestation process in order to fast-track the incentives in the planted mangroves. Another challenge that was encountered was in dealing with multiple POs with the variations in baseline capacities and needs. Due to these discrepancies, the project required additional resources to carry out activities to attain the objectives of the project. Since other beneficiaries needed more compared to others, additional time and trainings were conducted. CONCLUSION Programs and projects geared towards sustainable development should consider integrating activities that reduce disaster risks as risks continuously threaten any progress made for long-term and mindful development. Community-based approach for ecosystem management is proved to be an effective way in strengthening the capacity and resiliency of local communities in the long run. Select POs in Panay Island can be considered success beneficiaries of the ZSL-PTFCF Project which can be validated through the thriving mangrove ecosystem in the region and the sustained operations of the select organizations.
  31. 31. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 32 REFERENCES Benson, C. (2016). Promoting Sustainable Development through Disaster Risk Management. Asian Development Bank, 41, 29. EM-DAT (n.d.). The Emergency Events Database. Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)—CRED, D. Guha- Sapir—www.emdat.be, Brussels, Belgium. ZSL PHI. (2015). Strengthening PO Capacities for Post-Yolanda Ecosystem Services Restoration and Resilience Building Project in Panay (p. 1-16) [Terminal Report]. Zoological Society of London - Philippines. OECD. (2020). Chapter 6: Approaches in the Philippines to increased coherence in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. OECD Publishing. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/4ec0f8bc- en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/4ec0f8bc-en PreventionWeb.net. (n.d.). Disaster risk reduction & disaster risk management. PreventionWeb.Net. Retrieved April 22, 2021, from https://www.preventionweb.net/disaster-risk/concepts/drr-drm/ United Nations. (n.d.). Disaster risk reduction. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Retrieved April 22, 2021, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/disasterriskreduction
  32. 32. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 33 Case Study 05 Construction of Sea Walls: A Case Study From Japan Nang Ying Ei Hein Kham, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  33. 33. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 34 INTRODUCTION Japan is a disaster-prone country and is also known for its capacity to prevent and manage unpredicted events. Natural disasters like tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, typhoons and many others are frequently occurring, yet Japan has been recovering and dealing with all sorts of calamities. So, studying Japan's approaches to mitigating and managing disasters is becoming great learning for many countries with similar topography. For instance, since early 1930, Japan is constructing structural measures like coastal barriers and sea walls to prevent and mitigate impacts of the tsunami at the coastline of Japan, protecting many villages located in Iwate Prefecture (Matanle et al., 2019). Before 2011, Almost 40 percent of the 29,751-km coastline was bordered by concrete seawalls (Onishi, 2011). Like in many other places, a sea wall of 2 to 10 meters high was constructed in Taro town located at Shimohei District, Iwate Prefecture (Limited, 2021), to protect the town from the Tsunami. Afterward, Taro faced three tsunamis, and those tsunamis destroyed the wall. In the 1970s, the town rebuilt two-lined 10 m high seawalls, 2.4 km long (Suppasri et al., 2012), which is also famously known as "The Great Wall of Japan '' and it has been protecting the community from small and massive Tsunami strokes. Figure 1: Tsunami 2011 wave in Miyako, Source: (Mainichi Shimbun, 2011)
  34. 34. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 35 On March 11, 2011, an earthquake with a magnitude of 9 struck Honshu Island, the northeast coast of Japan, and triggered a massive tsunami with a high wave. The earthquake and Tsunami massively impacted social, economic, and environmental aspects of the reason. Therefore, after 2011 struck, the country's authority began building a massive new seawall along 400 km of coastline with up to 14.5 meters high to help the community from the future waves. Figure 2: Houses behind seawall at Iwate Prefecture Source: (The Guardian, 2018) OUTCOMES The seawalls in Taro are working as tsunami barriers and somehow protected the town from the 1960 Chile Tsunami. The 4.5 m high seawalls also protected the town from the 1993 tsunami (Shuto & Fujima, 2009). The inhabitants felt safe behind a great seawall, though some have migrated to higher ground. The presence of seawalls increased the evacuation time by 30% during the 2011 tsunami (Troncoso Parady et al., 2018). Therefore, the scale of the damage and loss was reduced to some extent due to seawalls. The Great Wall of Japan (the 10-meter-high old seawalls) has 44 evacuation routes with good lights on, and it helped the residents to get to the safe place within ten minutes (Limited, 2021).
  35. 35. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 36 LESSONS LEARNED The seawalls built before 2011 could not withstand the 2011 tsunami, and the eastern part of the seawall was destroyed (Suppasri et al., 2012). Its remains were left floating on the surface, and the debris hit back to the houses and other things (Suppasri et al., 2012). The seawalls were completely damaged with waves higher than 3 meters. The 2011 tsunami destroyed one-third of the seawalls in Miyagi, Fukushima, and Iwate prefectures (Suppasri et al., 2012). The destroyed length was about 190 km (Suppasri et al., 2012). The rebuilding of old seawalls and building new seawalls resulted in many difficulties for the villagers' livelihood. Many fishermen lost their lives when they had a duty to close the gates in seawalls and tsunami gates when the gate control system was not appropriately designed during that time. After building the seawalls, the residents underestimated the Tsunami because they thought those structures would protect them. So, they just stood still rather than initiating the evacuation process or moving to safer areas. Many tsunami countermeasures like seawalls and coastal barriers failed in 2011 as they were not designed by considering the magnitude of the 2011 earthquake. So, after 2011, learning a lesson, they constructed the seawalls 2-3 times higher than the old ones and with more precise design and structure. The experience from 2011 made a new technology that was possible to build the high resistant structure for various return periods of a tsunami and also work on risk communication to deliver the factual information about the sea wall and the measures to be taken during the Tsunami (Suppasri et al., 2012). Afterward, the resilience capacities (both structural and non-structural) of the communities were increased. Coastal residents have now realized the practical function and limitation of the seawalls and the other structural measures. As the Tsunami can come larger than expected, the government has been continuously encouraging villagers and coastal residents not just to rely on seawalls and to be aware of how to evacuate and respond during the calamities. Besides, the endorsed protocols after 2011 are further strict (Koshimura & Shuto, 2015).
  36. 36. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 37 CHALLENGES Building huge seawalls is costly and needs a lot of effort; there were also many challenging tasks that the government needed to overcome when building seawalls, and some of those challenges are still existing. Besides, convincing the communities to build the wall was another key challenge. The government had to convince them, as some were taking seawalls as a greater danger than protecting them from the Tsunami. It was also directly impacting the livelihood of the residents, especially those who were completely dependent on the oceans. Besides, as the structure was very costly, the financial challenge was also there even though they had better technology to build well-structured seawalls and other barriers (Suppasri et al., 2012). The government has also been criticized for disconnecting settlements off from the sea, leading beaches to worthless and frightening wildlife, which has also impacted marine ecology, tourism, budget, livelihood and fishery industry, environment, and many more. CONCLUSION In this case study, we could see many pros and cons. Some other countries, too, have seawalls like Japan to resist the tsunami's impacts and stop them as much as possible. So, this mechanism is a practical structural measure to mitigate the impact of tsunami. The seawalls can delay flooding, buy more evacuation time, halt the big waves, and prevent the land from inundation. As we cannot prevent a tsunami completely from its occurrence, implementing resilient structural and non-structural measures will increase the defense capacity of the exposed communities. So, building seawalls is impactful but we also need to make sure that the mechanism being used to protect people will not have its adverse effect. The engagement between communities and the authorities is most. Nevertheless, these kinds of structural measures are helping in reducing the damage and loss and developing coastal areas more sustainably, balancing in terms of all social, environmental, and economic aspects by properly emphasizing structural and non-structural measures.
  37. 37. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 38 REFERENCES Koshimura, S., & Shuto, N. (2015). Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 373(2053), 20140373. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2014.0373 Limited, B. P. P. C. (2021, March 5). Towering sea wall legacy of Japan's 2011 tsunami. Bangkok Post. https://www.bangkokpost.com/world/2078823/towering-sea-wall- legacy-of-japans-2011-tsunami Matanle, P., Slay, O., & Littler, J. (2019). Imagining Disasters in the Era of Climate Change: Is Japan's Seawall a New Maginot Line? The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus, 17(13). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334448650 Onishi, N. (2011, March 13). Japan's Seawalls Were Little Security Against Tsunami. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/14/world/asia/14seawalls.html Shuto & Fujima, K. (2009). A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B, 85(8), 267–275. https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.85.267 Suppasri, A., Shuto, N., Imamura, F., Koshimura, S., Mas, E., & Yalciner, A. C. (2012). Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami: Performance of Tsunami Countermeasures, Coastal Buildings, and Tsunami Evacuation in Japan. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(6-8), 993–1018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0511-7 The Great Wall of Japan. (2021, March 3). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. https://www.abc.net.au/foreign/the-great-wall-of-japan/13207460 Troncoso Parady, G., Tran, B., & Gilmour, S. (2018). Effect of seawalls on tsunami evacuation departure in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Injury Prevention, 25(6), 535–539. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2018-042954
  38. 38. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 39 Case Study 06 Monkey Cheeks Project for Resilient Livelihood Nonthakarn Benjachat, Indrajit Pal, Ganesh Dhungana Disaster Preparedness Mitigation and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  39. 39. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 40 INTRODUCTION Heavy rains, floods, and droughts are common in Bang Rakam, one of the flood-prone districts in Phitsanulok province. In the 2011 Thailand flood, a massive amount of water was transferred from Uttaradit province (the north of Phitsanulok), causing severe flooding and other consequences such as life loss, property loss, and livelihood loss. Even though Sirikit Dam is situated north of Phitsanulok, however, it is unable to cope with the high-water content. Furthermore, Phitsanulok continues to experience agricultural drought during the dry season for about eight months (Sep-Jun). Although the government recommends growing other plants that require less water, community people are more interested in cultivating rice, the primary income source of the local people. Therefore, His Majesty King Rama IX created the Monkey Cheek Project to tackle the issues in 1995. The concept is that a monkey stores food in its cheeks to be able to chew it later. In Phitsanulok, the Monkey Cheek was established in 2017 by the Thai government. According to the Royal Irrigation Department, 2020, The Monkey Cheek Project in Phitsanulok Province has an area of approximately 424 square kilometers with a water receiving capacity of 400 million cubic meters. It serves as a reservoir to receive water in the rain season and collect water for agriculture. Figure 1: Location of the Monkey Cheek project in Bang Rakam, Source: (Phitsanulok News, 2017) Phitsanulo k Bang Rakam District
  40. 40. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 41 OUTCOMES The Monkey Cheek project has been working perfectly to slow down the flow of water by constructing a watergate before entering the central region of Thailand. Royal Irrigation Department and related agencies; Third Army Region, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Ministry of Interior, Department of Highways, Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, representative of the water user group, and farmers agree to adjust the calendar in the year of farming for farmers in the low-lying areas of Bang Rakam in Phitsanulok Province and some areas of Sukhothai province, faster than usual, so that farmers can harvest before the flood season. It reduces the risk of rice production being damaged by flooding and provides farmers with better income and quality of life. After harvesting, it can also use such areas as a natural reservoir to support water in the flood season and help to reduce the impact from the floods that may occur in the community and government offices of Phitsanulok Province. As well as delay water waiting for drainage not to affect the lower Chao Phraya River basin (Siamrath, 2020). Figure 2 : Villagers fishing to earn extra income during flood season Source: ( Phisanulok Hotnews, 2013)
  41. 41. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 42 Furthermore, the monkey Cheek project also helps farmers earn extra income from the fishing profession, which is an alternative way of earning for farmers in low-lying areas. Allowing the water to flood the fields provides food (fallen rice grains) for fish in the flooded areas (Fig.2, right). Further, retaining water can be used as cost-effective water management, said Dr. Thongplew Kongjan, Director-General of the Royal Irrigation Department, 2020. LESSONS LEARNED The majority of the Phitsanulok population are getting benefits from the water sources for irrigation as it allows them to grow crops all year. However, some of the cultivated land in Phitsanulok is currently outside irrigated areas (in the south-west) (Fig.1 right). Rainwater and water from natural sources are only sources of water. As a result, crop production is disrupted by inconsistencies in water supply and variations in rainfall, both of which are insufficient to meet the needs of the crops (Office of the Royal Development Projects Board, n.d.). Due to which farmers are suffering from flood for four months and droughts in remaining eight months. Although agricultural crops have changed but appears as an unsustainable development practice. Figure 3: Rice product from early harvesting, Source: (Technology Chaoban, 2018)
  42. 42. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 43 The Royal Irrigation Department has a policy for building the Monkey Cheek Project to boost people's livelihoods. The participation of the villagers in the project is very important to share their opinions, problems, and alternative suggestions (Fig.3 left). In the past, a water barrier or diverted water was used to avoid flooding without the participation of residents, causing the misunderstanding of state functions. Therefore, learning from past problems can help achieve sustainable development. CHALLENGES The adaptive capacity of locals in changing crop calendars is one of the challenges. For example, farmers doubt planting the rice crop in April because rainfall is significantly lower than in May, requiring them to pump more irrigation water. Farmers also mention that they lack the appropriate fishing equipment as well as fishing skills during the flood, they are unable to support themselves by fishing (Trakuldit & Faysse, 2019). Furthermore, it remains to be argued that farmers who allow flooding of farmland to be compensated or paid some compensation because local people sacrificed their living space to support water and are willing to change the behavior of agriculture for the public. The state's responsibility is to provide compensation and remedies to people of the water retention area who are experiencing unreasonable hardship. This challenge still cannot be concluded (Thepsitthar & Boonwanno, 2018). In addition, another challenge is the quality of stored water. In the first phase of the project, polluted water was a big problem, becoming a breeding ground for Aedes mosquitoes and dengue fever in some areas. Although it is possible to catch fish, the poor water quality creates breeding problems in some fishes. In addition, the low-quality water cannot be used for other purposes such as for personal uses of community people (Songma, 2011).
  43. 43. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 44 CONCLUSION Flood and drought have been a problem almost every year, and some areas are far from irrigation and unable to access the water source from Sirikit dam in Uttaradit Province. The people are repeatedly suffering from these events. Having the Monkey Cheek project supports their livelihood. However, the project's initial phase contains many problems and difficulties of adaptation of the farmers, particularly the change of crop calendar, which is faster than usual. Moreover, challenges facing the government and villagers to tackle are still waiting to be addressed. Therefore, stakeholders' participation, including local farmers, solves the mentioned problems. The Monkey Cheek Project has done an outstanding task of converting natural disasters into better livelihood opportunities for the locals. Learning from past mistakes and disasters has made the Monkey Cheek Project more sustainable, and it can be a model for other provinces that suffer the same condition from floods and droughts as well. In addition, the monkey Cheek in Phitsanulok has become a tourist attraction, which could provide local people secondary income by selling local products or being a cultural learning center for the next generation. Therefore, the Monkey Cheek project is an excellent example of disaster Risk Reduction interventions for sustainable development. REFERENCES Office of the Royal Development Projects Board. (n.d.). Development of Water Sources. RDPB. http://www.rdpb.go.th/en/Projects/project-categories-c54/development-of- water-sources-v60 Royal Irrigation Department. (2011, December 21). Expansion of the Monkey Cheek area 61. https://www.rid.go.th/main/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4985:- 382000----61&catid=23:2009–12-21-08-25-31&Itemid=54=54 (in Thai) Siamrath. (2020, March 13). Bang Rakam Model preserves water for dry season. https://siamrath.co.th/n/138902 (in Thai) Songma, S. (2011, September 27). Answer of Bang Rakam Model. Isra News Agency. https://www.isranews.org/community/comm-scoop-documentary/3508
  44. 44. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 45 Thepsitthar, Y., & Boonwanno, T. (2018). Reconstruction Bang Rakam Model: The Inequality in Public Duty. CMU Journal of Law and Social Sciences, 11, 142–167. https://so01.tci- thaijo.org/index.php/CMUJLSS/article/view/140748 Trakuldit, T., & Faysse, N. (2019). Difficult encounters around “monkey cheeks”: Farmers’ interests and the design of flood retention areas in Thailand. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 12(S2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12543s
  45. 45. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 46 Case Study 07 Tosacho on SDG Mirai City and its Implication to Disaster Resilience Nanami Yamazawa, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Japan Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  46. 46. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 47 INTRODUCTION Tosa Town is located in the center of Shikoku which has a population of about 3750 people and the area is 212.13km². The city is 87% forested and rich in natural materials and water. The abundant water in the area supports agriculture, livestock, and forestry. These activities create the city's core industry. In agriculture, the city is one of the prefecture's leading high-quality rice-producing areas that make use of topography such as terraced rice fields. In terms of livestock, the city is the largest producer of Japanese beef "Tosa Akaushi" which is typical of Kochi prefecture. The town has villages formed along the Yoshino River and its tributaries flowing from east to west and there is the Hayamiura Dam which was built in 1973. The river divides Shikoku's four prefectures and supports industry and life there. Figure 1: Map of Tosa Town Source : ( 土佐町地図 ) The terrain is 300-500m above sea level, and Mt. Inamura, the highest mountain in Tosa Town, is 1,506m. The climate of Tosa City belongs to the warm temperate zone. Tosa City has a lot of rainfall annually. Even in the driest months, it rains a lot. The average annual rainfall is 2,500 mm. The main rivers are the Yoshino River, Jizoji River, Seto River, Seto River Gorge. Nankai–
  47. 47. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 48 Tonankai megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis pose significant risks to coastal communities in western and central Japan. Historically, this seismic region hosted many major earthquakes, and the current national tsunami hazard assessments in Japan consider megathrust events as those having moment magnitudes between 9.0 and 9.1(Goda et al., 2020). Kochi Prefecture has been strengthening protections against earthquakes and tsunami in preparation for a Nankai Trough earthquake anticipated to break out shortly. Nankai Trough has had repeated big earthquakes at intervals of some 100 to 150 years (Shibata et al, 2018) . So, the disasters that occurred in this Tosa town are tsunamis and earthquakes too. A massive earthquake can cause a huge tsunami that crashes into Shikoku, destroying critical infrastructure and killing thousands of people. Not only direct damage from the earthquake and tsunami, but supply disruptions will also occur due to damage to accessibility. Figure 2 : Hazard Maps, Source : ( http://www.town.tosa.kochi.jp/publics/index/51/ ) OUTCOMES In implementing the SDGs, the Japanese government is promoting initiatives to create a sustainable world where no one is left behind. In December 2016, Japan formulated the Guidelines for the Implementation of the SDGs with the
  48. 48. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 49 vision of a “Leading” country towards a future where environmental, economic, and social improvements are achieved in an integrated, sustainable, and formidable way while leaving no one behind ”. Goal 13 in SDGs is to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. This goal includes enhancing education, awareness-raising, and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning. Scientists know earthquakes can be triggered or retarded by changes in the amount of stress on the fault. The biggest climatic variable that can change the load on the fault stress is surface water in the form of rain and snow (Masih, 2018). To support goal 13, the Tosa Municipality is taking disaster prevention measures by actively working on seismic measures for homes as a priority issue in preparation for the Nankai earthquake. Figure 3 :Communication Questionnaire and Motivational Booklets Source : Individualized Risk Communication for Soil Avalanche Hazard
  49. 49. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 50 In addition, in Tosa Town, evacuation sites have been socialized to residents to reduce disaster victims. However, there was an idea that "I want to promote the voluntary evacuation of the residents". Making communication questionnaires, making hazard maps, making motivational booklets, and distributed magnets have been carried out by the municipality too. Hazard maps were produced by the Kochi Prefectural Office, and four types of easy- to-understand sediment-related disaster risk area maps corresponding to each residential area were also created. These efforts support and are in line with the SDGs. Other disaster prevention tools are motivational booklets and magnets. The motivational booklet is a booklet that conveys the danger of sediment-related disasters in an easy-to-understand manner. The content was narrowed down as much as possible so that anyone could understand it. Photographs and graphs were used to show that sediment-related disasters occur frequently in the Shikoku Mountains. The government emphasizes that "evacuating to a safe place" is important to prevent human accidents. In addition, one magnet is distributed to each household as an emergency card for sediment-related disasters. In addition, in Tosa town, there is an installation of evacuation guide lights in 14 evacuation centers in the city to illuminate the surrounding area by generating electricity with solar and wind power. This light does not only light up during a disaster but also during normal times. LESSONS LEARNED Living in an area prone to earthquakes can be terrible because there is always a fear that a damaging earthquake might happen. Tosa town has experienced natural hazards such as tsunami and earthquakes. To reduce the impacts and support SDGs goals, this town creates seismic measures including mapping hazards, communication questionnaires, and motivational booklets. The hazards map in Tosa provides important information that is used to implement mitigation measures against the devastating effects of an earthquake or other disasters. These maps can also be applied by engineers to design bridges and highway buildings, among other infrastructure projects in
  50. 50. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 51 areas with high levels of seismic activity. Other best practices of Tosa town are creating communication questionnaires and motivational booklets. This method is used by Tosa Town as the only effective way to prevent disasters or reduce their impacts. In addition, it is important to educate the community to respond to disasters. Vulnerable groups should be identified and thus special training or education should be adopted for these people. Effective training can prevent or reduce the effects of disasters. Trained people can better protect themselves and others. Therefore, there must be integration between the Tosa city government and its people so that the impact of the disaster can be reduced. CHALLENGES Since we cannot predict how future megathrust events will reveal, assessing tsunami or other hazards based on a broad set of possible earthquake rupture scenarios is a viable strategy for better disaster resilience and preparedness. Assessing disaster trough hazard maps can make community and Tosa town became resilience. However, lack of hazard analysis in hazard maps can have serious negative effects for the community and other parties. Without a reliable hazard analysis, the Tosa town will not fulfil effective mitigation measures against the consequences of a destructive disaster like a tsunami and earthquake. If the analysis is not accurate, it can lead to loss of life and injury to people. In addition, property damage and disruption to business activities can cause financial losses, penalties, fines, lawsuits, and environmental pollution. Therefore, it is very important that Tosa town, which experiences earthquakes and tsunami disasters, carry out accurate seismic hazard assessments and produce accurate hazard maps. Only when hazards have been reliably assessed can risks be assessed as well and included in the design of buildings and other infrastructure projects for the safety and security of those who use them.
  51. 51. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 52 CONCLUSION Located in Shikoku, Tosa town has experienced natural disasters such as tsunami and earthquakes. Furthermore, the Japanese Government is creating a sustainable world where no one is left behind as well as implementing Sustainable Development Goals. Related to reducing the impacts of a disaster occurring in Tosa town, the local government has made preventive measures such as hazards maps, motivational booklets, and distributed magnets. These actions are in line with SGDs 13 which take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. The hazards map in Tosa provides important information that is used to implement mitigation measures against the devastating effects of an earthquake or other disasters. However, lack of hazard analysis in hazard maps can have serious negative effects for the community and other parties such as increasing disaster victims and damaged infrastructures. So, it is important to carry out accurate seismic hazard assessments and produce accurate hazard maps to enhance town resilience. REFERENCES A.Taniguchi, S.Fujii, Y.Yanagita, N.Osanai, S.Kojima, H.Ito, T.Shimizu「Individualized Risk Communication for Soil Avalanche Hazard」p.1=p.4 Adven Masih 2018. An Enhanced Seismic Activity Observed Due To Climate Change: Preliminary Results from Alaska. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 167 012018. Goda, K. et al. (2020) ‘Uncertainty quantification of tsunami inundation in Kuroshio, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, using the Nankai--Tonankai megathrust rupture scenarios’, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 20(11), pp. 3039–3056. doi: 10.5194/nhess- 20-3039-2020. Tadanori Ishizuka, Yoichi Miki, Kazuaki Hiramoto.「The maintenance and improvement of disaster prevention capabilities of mountainous areas based on the Community Continuity Plan(CCP)-From the viewpoint of initial response in disaster situations -」砂防学会誌,Vol.63,No.2,p.20-25 (2010) Sasaki Toru, Araki Hitoshi, Kagohara Kyoko, Kumagai Mika, Tanaka Koichi, Nakamura Tsutomu, Matuta Nobuhisa「南海トラフ地震を想定した救援物資輸送ルートの検討」E- journal GEO Vol. 15(1) p.101-p.114 (2020) 豊成 春子・田畑 智博『環境未来都市」構想に関する取組の効果と課題に関する考察』環境科学会誌 33(6):p.172‒p.183(2020 高知県土佐町公式ホームページ http://www.town.tosa.kochi.jp/publics/index/51/ (Browsing date1.7.2021)
  52. 52. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 53 Case Study 08 Community Network Approach to Risk and Disaster Preparedness Awareness Amongst Foreign Residents in Jose City, Japan Bismark Adu-Gyamfi, Rajib Shaw Graduate School of Media and governance, Keio University, Japan Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  53. 53. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 54 INTRODUCTION Joso city is located in the south-western enclave of Ibaraki Prefecture in Japan, and has an estimated population of about 59,314 as of October 2020. It also has a significant number of foreign nationals, especially Brazilians and Filipinos. The city has a total land area of over 123 sqkm and is drained by the Kinugawa and Okai Rivers. Joso city often experiences occasional inundations but a major flood disaster occurred in 2015 where two people were killed, 40 people injured, and more than 5,000 houses completely destroyed. Due to the plight of foreign nationals to cope in disaster events, a local Non-for-Profit Organization (NPO), through its local networks have been enhancing risk and disaster preparedness awareness amongst foreign residents in the city. These include a neighbourhood short mail system called “Morihashi Mail”, support system called “Peer Support Joso” and the “Kairanban” information delivery system. The Morihashi mail is a system where through local association meetings, appeal is made to residents to provide their contact numbers to the secretariate of the local NPO so that, risk information received from the Joso City office will be translated to other languages and sent via short message service (SMS). The Peer Support Joso on the other hand is a system where different nationals serve as voluntary contact points to receive information and re-distribute to others. The Kairanban is a circulation board or memo that contains information within the neighborhoods. A person delivers the board to the next neighbor after reading the notice. OUTCOMES The approach to using the adopted information sharing system have become useful during recent disasters in the city. The first benefit was felt during Typhoon 19 that occur on October 2019 and again, the Kinugawa River exceeded its banks, causing flooding. During this time, residents on the Morihashi mail revived frequent updates of the situation in multiple languages such as Portuguese, English Japanese and others. Figure one shows a sample of the messages. This information was relevant to preventing casualties during
  54. 54. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 55 the typhoon and coordinating evacuations and management of temporary shelters. Figure 1: Sample of Morihashi Mail, Source: nposcommoms, Joso-Ibaraki Prefecture Furthermore, the systems have become useful in the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the peer support systems, information on covid-19 is distributed via these networks after the information have been transferred into many languages. Example include a brochure by the NPO that outlines government support for foreign residents who have lost their jobs, income and other sources of income due to COVID-19 pandemic. Videos in multiple languages are also produced and distributed to foreign residents on how to apply, fill and distribute the government COVID-19 support application as shown in the figure below. Unlike major municipalities in Japan, Joso City does not have international associations and other multi-cultural agencies to specifically deal with issues of foreign residents, therefore, community networks approach has been useful to disaster risk awareness and preparation.
  55. 55. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 56 LESSONS LEARNED Information on local risk and countermeasures are important to reducing impacts of disasters especially in the case of foreign residents in Japan. Previous studies on the plight of foreign residents in disaster situations in Japan have alluded to the fact that there are enormous existence of risk and disaster preparedness information but the limitation to this is that, these information contains limited local setting context (Sakurai & Adu-Gyamfi, 2020), language proficiency challenges and communication disparities (Adu- Gyamfi & Shaw, 2021), and often; geographical disparity in foreign resident communities (Adu-Gyamfi & Shaw, 2021). These make it important to have a system that is able to at least reduce these obstacles. Therefore, the above approach as adopted by the NPO for the city first of all gives information relevant to the people in the area. More often than not, the ability to absorb, contain or prepare for a disaster depends on the understanding of the existing risk, and it is more important when the information needed is provided in the language which is understood. This awareness makes one to comprehend the situation around and to be able trust the approach as suggested or proposed by authorities in charge. Figure 2: Screenshot of Video Explanations of Government COVID-19 Support, Source : http://peer-joso.com/pg105.html
  56. 56. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 57 As shown in this case study, the information is shared amongst neighborhoods and people with certain level of trust, so it makes it easy for information to be applied into action. Coupled with the fact that the composition of the population in known, information is always directed to the target population. Thus, either to Japanese nationals, Portuguese community or Filipino community. CHALLENGES Challenges associated with the systems can be looked from different perspectives. First, the Morihasi mail system seems to be a very good idea to distributes information to foreign residents in their most familiar language. However, it requires obtaining personal contact numbers which others may find uncomfortable, giving the fact that the system is operated by an NPO and not the government of government agency. This has effects on recruiting more members to the platform. Furthermore, the operation of the system has so far been implanted on smaller scale especially within Morishita and Hashimoto communities instead of the entire Joso city which is made up of several communities. This is hindering the expansion of the system and also denying other foreign residents the ability to access other translated risk information. Logistic and human resource limitations can all be said to be the reasons for the inability to expand the system to others areas. Last but not least is the impact of COVID-19 pandemic. Since gathering in specific places has be restricted by the city’s authorities to prevent infection, some meetings for Peer Support groups have been moved online. However, this new shift is having impact on participations because many residents are new to such online platforms. Therefore, it has been a challenge to first of all recruit members, and also to maintain some of the members.
  57. 57. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 58 CONCLUSION A city with a significant foreign resident and a lack on international associations, local network connection is been exploited to enhance risk awareness and disaster preparedness amongst foreigners. This provides local content information required for specify countermeasures and are highly trusted because members are within neighbourhoods and understand the environment around them. Despite its challenges, it has been useful to information dissemination in critical situation such as Typhoon 19 and the current COVID-19 pandemic. The approach to using these systems offer practical solutions to meeting the needs of foreign residents in disaster risk awareness and preparedness. It further provides solution that fill some gaps initially publicised by some authors.It will be important that, further studies be conducted to find solutions to the challenges while upgrading the system to encompasses other areas of the city. REFERENCES Sakurai M, Adu-Gyamfi B. Disaster-resilient communication ecosystem in an inclusive society - A case of foreigners in Japan. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2020 Dec;51:101804. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101804. Epub 2020 Aug 15. PMID: 32834978; PMCID: PMC7428713. Adu-Gyamfi B, Shaw R. Characterizing Risk Communication and Awareness for Sustainable Society: The Case of Foreign Residents in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area of Japan. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):5786. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115786 Adu-Gyamfi B, Shaw R. Utilizing Population Distribution Patterns for Disaster Vulnerability Assessment: Case of Foreign Residents in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area of Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 12;18(8):4061. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18084061. PMID: 33921470; PMCID: PMC8068788.
  58. 58. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 59 Case Study 09 Big Data Approach to Disaster Risk and Preparedness for Flood Control in Guizhou Province, China Jiang Yongxi, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw Graduate School of Media and governance, Keio University, Japan Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  59. 59. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 60 INTRODUCTION Guizhou is a mountainous province in southwest China and has an estimated population of about 38,562,148 as of 2020. This province has a total land area of over 176000²km s, located on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and mountains and hills take up over 97% area of its land. The major rivers flowing through the province are the Wujiang River, the Chishuihe River, the Qingshui River, the Nanpan River, and the Beipan River. These rivers have the common characteristics of being wide and open upstream but narrow downstream with rapid flows of water, shoals, and falls. The complex topography of Guizhou forms a large number of small watersheds. Once there is a strong rainfall, mountain torrents are likely to be formed in just a few minutes. Figure 1: Location of the Guizhou Province, Source: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/8/9/849/htm From June 17 to 28, 2020, a total of 1570 times heavy rains have happened, 580,500 people in 58 counties (cities, districts) in the province suffered from flooding to varying degrees, and 82,500 people were temporarily sheltered
  60. 60. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 61 and relocated in an emergency, which caused direct economic loss 1.733 billion yuan (about 26.8 million dollars) (Guizhou Government 2019). To decrease the threat of flood disaster in this area, a big data and cloud computing company “East Century”, has developed a flood forecasting warning system “East Auspicious Clouds” to tackle mounting flood hazards. The East Auspicious Cloud Warning System first aggregates meteorological and geographic information, as well as data on water bodies and rainfall, from different government departments and research institutions. It carried out the next two hours of accurate flood forecasting and 72-hour trend flood forecasting for small mountain flood basins and reservoirs across the country, provide early warning services for small mountain flood basins, and provide early warning and flood control dispatch services for reservoirs in advance (Liangliang 2018). OUTCOMES The approach to collect and analyse both real-time and historical data for acute flood forecasting has become useful during recent disasters in the city. The first benefit was felt in 2015, the flood warning system was used to protect the Dayudang Reservoir in Xingren County, Guizhou Province from floods. During the construction period of the Dayudang Reservoir, at 2:30 in the morning, the early warning system indicated that a major flood might occur in the reservoir (Figure 2). At 3:30 am, the monitoring system showed that the flood was very close so that the government immediately transfer the residents before 4:30 am. When the flood roared, the entire construction site was vast, but due to the accurate and timely forecast, there were no casualties or major property losses (Zhilu 2017). Increasingly, the novel warning system achieves a high precision rate to forecast flood disasters. Through this novel warning system, mountain floods in small watersheds can be warned before disasters occur. On July 4, 2018, The East Auspicious Cloud successfully predicted the next 24 hours (2018-07-04 14:00 ~ 2018-07-05 14:00) Renhuai, Daozhen, Zhengan, Xishui, and other areas
  61. 61. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 62 in Guizhou may have small floods, and some may have moderate floods (Figure 3). With the immediate report and transfer, it ensures the safety of life and property of people in mountainous areas. In 2019, a sudden heavy rain hit Liangzhai, Sandu Autonomous County, Qiannan Prefecture, Guizhou Province. There was no hydrological data in those areas. However, the flood control and drought relief monitoring and early warning system had already given the early warning-real-time display of rainfall reached 90 mm, reminded the local area that there will be the biggest flood in 23 years (Wang Xiaoyu 2021). Figure 2: Sample of The East Auspicious Cloud System Forecast the Flood Map Source: The East Cloud Company Website. http://www.dfsjsoft.com/east_cloud.aspx
  62. 62. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 63 Figure 3: Sample of The East Auspicious Cloud System Forecast the Flood Degree in 24 hours Source: The East Cloud Company, Website http://www.dfsjsoft.com/east_cloud.aspx LESSONS LEARNED Accurate forecasting and prompt warning are important to reducing the threat of flood disaster in the case of Guiyang Province, China. The fast the flood was indicated, the less human and economic loss will cause. In the past, the traditional flood disaster forecasting is through setting up rainfall monitoring stations in various reservoirs and hydropower stations in the jurisdiction and then making analyses and forecasting based on the data fed back by the rainfall stations. After collecting data, normal speed for alert takes one hour to 90 minutes, and for most advanced global competitors are about 30 minutes (Tang Zheng 2019). However, the East Auspicious Cloud Warning System can calculate and forecast the amount of rainfall when raindrops start to form from water vapor in the air while the traditional system measures the amount of water Small Floods
  63. 63. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 64 on the ground. Early preparedness is estimated to reduce economic losses by up to 90 percent. In addition, it can issue the warnings for small and medium-sized bodies of water about one to four hours in advance and renews its alerts every 15 minutes which is much less than the conventional system. As shown in this case study, this novel warning system harnesses a range of information to track risk factors and send alerts rapidly and cost- effectively. CHALLENGES Challenges associated with the systems can be looked at from different perspectives. First, the warning system seems to be a very good idea to control floods by using big data toward the local area. However, it requires flood-prevention workers and authorities to learn and adopt a different system that overturns the conventional method and uses novel technologies such as big data and cloud computing , which may take a long time to train and become master. Some often threatened by flood but poor areas might not have enough talents and money to install and utilize this system. Furthermore, this system is helpful, but so far it only acts as an additional source of information for decision-making because predicting natural disasters is extremely complicated. Before taking adequate actions, the local government still has to consider specific circumstances and gather insights from various parties. CONCLUSION As climate change increases the threat of flood, making the prevention and control of flood becomes a worldwide problem. How to improve the accuracy of flood forecast even in small watersheds and how to shorten the interval between flood warnings and transfer actions become more and more important. In the era of big data, the traditional flood warning model began to be replaced by new technologies and new solutions. The East Auspicious
  64. 64. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 65 Cloud warning system combines meteorological, water conservancy, cloud computing, and other professional technical data to successfully tackle this issue. Despite its challenges, it has been useful to flood forecasting and warning, successfully increases the flood warning rate from 80% to over 85% (Wang Xiaoyu 2021) . So far, the approach has been applied from Guizhou province to other parts of China such as Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province. What’s more, in the future, it can be expanded to multiple industries to provide services for agriculture, land, and insurance to meet the needs in disaster risk warning and preparedness. It will be important that further technology innovations and studies will be conducted to find solutions to the challenges while upgrading the system to imply to other areas of the country. REFERENCES Guizhou Provincial Emergency Management Government. 2019. Recently Heavy Rainfall Has Caused 16 Counties (Cities, Districts) in the Province to Suffer from Floods to Varying Degrees. http://yjgl.guizhou.gov.cn/xwdt/yjyw/201911/t20191126_17230826.html. Liangliang, Luo. 2018. “Big Data Serves the People’s Livelihood.” Contemporary Pioneer Network. http://www.ddcpc.cn/news/201804/t20180407_92435.shtml. Tang Zheng, Fang Chayun. 2019. “Looking at the Development of Big Data Integration in Guizhou.” China Big Data Industrial Observation. http://www.cbdio.com/BigData/2019-04/20/content_6086088.htm. Wang Xiaoyu, Yang Jun. 2021. “East Century Uses Big Data for Flood Control.” Chinadaily.Com.Cn. https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202102/02/WS6018b4dca31024ad0baa6aa5.html Zhilu, Xiao. 2017. “Eastern Cloud: Flood Forecasting and Dispatching.” Modern Pioneer Network. http://www.ddcpc.cn/2017/jr_0519/101697.html.
  65. 65. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 66 Case Study 10 Prevention and Control of Desertification with Comprehensive Measures in Yulin City, China He Zuquan, Ariyaningsih Ariyaningsih, Rajib Shaw Graduate School of Media and governance, Keio University, Japan Copyright © Free Vector Maps.com
  66. 66. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 67 INTRODUCTION Yulin is in Shaanxi, China. The development of this ancient city is in line with the development of the Mu Us desert in the north. The development of desertification in this area has not only effect on Yulin city, but also has been considered as one of the causes of the sediment in Yellow River and the sandstorm in Beijing and Tianjin area. The desertification area in 1950s was around 12900 km2 , however due to the increasement of population in this area, the desertification area increased to 41110 km2 (Wu Wei, 2001). Therefore, the efforts to control the desertification at provincial level began from 1959 with the establishment of the science lab in Yulin to find efficient measures to prevent the expansion of the Mu Us desert. Figure 1: Location of the Mu Us desert and Yulin city, Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134771 To support the prevention and control of desertification of Mu Us desert a city-state-province-level joint system was established. The head of this joint system is the State Forestry and Grassland Administration in China as the supervisor of the policy and coordinator between the government and the academy of science. The government of Shaanxi province is responsible the
  67. 67. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 68 policy/plan making, and the local city government /private corporations/contractors are the implementer r of the prevention plan. Since 1980s, the principal of the approach remained as combination planting protection with local environment. Based on the analysis of data such as the underground water, sand, temperature, rainfall, and other elements from local ecosystem which provided by the science lab, the execution team will plant different kinds of trees, shrubs and grasses which suitable for the local ecosystem according to the advice of specialist. The approach of plantation was a combination of air seeding for areas away from city, artificial cultivation in areas near the city, and the closing hillside to facilitate the afforestation. The aim of this plantation approach is to stabilize the sand in early phase, then accelerate the formation of the oasis by increasing the water circulation. Finally, the sand will transform to soil. Besides, the local government and scientists have been looking for a sustainable way to achieve the desertification control such as creating economic value during the afforestation by planting economic trees (apricot tree, apple tree, etc.) in improved areas to attract more private capital to invest in these areas. Meanwhile, the local lab has been working with the execution team on the improvement of plantation technology to cut the water consumption. OUTCOMES The measure based on this principal approach have been shown as successful control of desertification program in Yulin area. According to the remote sensing data, the desertification area in Mu Us desert in 2000 was decreased from in 1980 (Fang Shibo et al. 2009). Based on the data, it is confirmed that the desertification in Mu Us desert decreased by 9460km2 from 1970s to 1993 (Wu Wei, 2001). Based on the survey in 2020, the forest coverage of Mu Us desert was 33% (the data in 1999 was 0.9%). The local government has confirmed the accomplishment of 4 windbreaks (length in total 1500 km) in the north of Yulin city and 93.24% of the desertification land got controlled
  68. 68. Disaster Risk Research, Science, and Innovation for Sustainability – Asian Case Studies 69 (Shaanxi provincial government, 2020). As an indirect effect, the frequency of sandstorms in Yulin city has significantly decreased (from 30 times/year to less than 1 time/year), the floating sand/dust weather has decreased by 90%. In addition, as one of the origins of the sedimentation in the Yellow River, the stabilization of the sand and soil in Yulin is considered to influence reducing sediment in the Yellow River (see Figure 2). The economic development of desertification areas is also considered successful. In 2020, the economic forest area has reached around 3000 km2 (red date, apricot, apple, Amygdalus pedunculata, walnut, etc.) More and more economic trees are testing in the science lab in Yulin city. Figure 2: Comparison of the estuary of the Yellow River (left 1989/right 2018) Source: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/world-of- change/YellowRiver/show-all http://andrewjmoodie.com/research/ LESSONS LEARNED The adaptation of the plantation according to local ecosystem is particularly important. In the early phase, the execution team in Yulin just planted poplar in different area and the underground water could not support the poplars growth in desert area, the survival rate was quite low. Therewith, the execution team tried to choose different trees, then turned to local shrubs

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