Early Evidences of family Cervidaefrom the Siwaliks of PakisatnPRESENTED BY,Dr. ABDUL GHAFFAR, Meteorology DepartmentCIIT, Islamabad
AbstractThe early history of family Cervidae is obscure and verylittle known. Although they have been described fromAsia, mainly from the Upper Siwaliks but their record isfragmentary and scanty especially during theEarly/Middle Pliocene of Siwalik continental deposits ofIndo-Pakistan. The present paper is an effort to describethis rare fauna from the Early/Middle Pliocene and toevaluate the Cervinae material collected from the Siwalikcontinental deposits hitherto.Key Words: Early history, Cervinae, Pliocene, UpperSiwaliks, Asia
Family CervidaeFamily Cervidae is poorly known and even contradicted in the fossilforms or extinct forms with bovid and giraffid faunaIn extant forms it is represented by seventeen genera and 44 speciesThese are characterized by the presence of antlers and prominentlachrymal depressions anterior to the eyesFrom the Siwaliks only 6-8 species have been described so farThese are mainly described from the Upper SiwaliksFrom the different parts of the World, fossil record of cervoid isknown from Oligocene - Recent
Historical ReviewEarlier studies of the Siwalik cervids based on dentition and antlershave recognized 6-8 species. There are 6-8 species in South Asia (Indo-Pak subcontinent). These cervids also show the similar diversity in thefossil record.These fossils are known from the Siwaliks of Kohat-Potwar basin andthe adjoining basins of Jammu-Kashmir and the Indian Punjab.Cervids appeared in Oligocene with small size and without antlersEumeryx and Iberomeryx appeared in the Middle Oligocene sedimentsof Central Asia from where they dispersed to Europe and NorthAmerica, most probably, in the early Miocene (Savage and Russel,1983).Siwalik cervids have been studied by Lydekker (1876, 1880, 1884);Pilgrim, 1910; Brown (1926); Matthew, 1929; Colbert 1935; Azzaroli(1954); Arif, Shah and Vos 1991; Arif et al., (1991); Akhtar, (1998);Akhtar et al., (1999); Ghaffar, 2005 and Ghaffar et al., 2004, 2010, 2011.
Family CervidaeFamily Cervidae is poorly known and even disputed in the fossil formsor extinct forms because of lack of fossilized skulls with antlers as theearlier studies were based on isolated teeth only and the taxic workbased on isolated dentitions is not 100% reliable.They appeared in the Siwalik sequence of Indo - Pakistan during Plio -Pleistocene timesThe number of species, taxonomy as well as the stratigraphic range ofthese species from the Siwaliks have been considered as exaggeratedThe main focus of this paper is to describe the new fossil remainsfrom Early Pliocene (Middle Siwaliks) as the earlier studies arerestricted to Upper Pliocene - Pleistocene (Upper Siwaliks)The fossils described here present the older stratigraphic range (5.3-1.8Ma) contrary to previous workers (3.5-1.8Ma)
Diagnostic FeaturesCervid taxa are differentiated from bovids and giraffids asFolded enamel in the upper molarsLess developed stylesLess developed median ribsLess rugosityAll the above observation are applied if there are the isolatedteeth or only the teeth are available but if there are the skullswith antlers than the taxonomic details are much more easierThe available fossil record from the Siwaliks consists of onlyfragments of maxillae, mandibles, isolated teeth and fragments ofantlers not the skulls so far
Diagnostic FeaturesDifferent cervid species are differentiated from each otherIn R. simplicidens molar crowns are square, entostyle isweak and the teeth are brachydont while in C. triplidensand C. sivalensis teeth are hypsodont. Moreover the basalcingulum is absent , the median valley is deep and theenamel is slightly rugose in R. simplicidens. C. triplidensis characterized by hypsodont teeth with slight traces ofcingulum, strong internal column while in C. sivalensisbasal cingulum is well developed. C. rewati ischaracterized by brachydont teeth and small size ascompare to C. sivalensis. While the presence of strongectostylid and pronounced anterior folds differentiate C.reawti from A. punjabiensis. Similarly in C. sivalensisbasal cingulum is well developed and the median valley isdeep with strong ectostylid. The major diagnostic featuresof A. punjabiensis is that it has no entostyle and themedian valley is not much deep as is the case with otherdifferent Cervus species.
Materials studiedPUPC no. andDental positionPlace of collection Assigned to83/104, rm1-2 Hasnot R. sipmlicidens84/115, lM2-3 Dhok Pathan R . sipmlicidens85/97, lm2-3 Hasnot R . sipmlicidens69/146, lm1-3 Dhok Gaal C. triplidens2003/34,(l&r M1-3) Dhok Pathan C. triplidens83/286, lm2-3 Dhok Pathan C. sivalensis84/119, lm2-3 Dhok Pathan C. sivalensis2002/6, lp2-4 Dhok Pathan A. punjabiensis83/105,rm2-3 Hasnot C. rewati85/96,rp4-m1 Hasnot C. rewati
ReferencesAkhtar, M., 1998. Cervus triplidens Lydekker from typelocality Dhok Pathan, Chakwal district, Punjab, Pakistan.Punjab Univ. J. Zool., 13: 27-31.Akhtar, M., Ghaffar, A. and Qureshi, M.A., 1999. OnCervus punjabiensis Brown from the Siwalik Hills ofPakistan and Azad Kashmir. Punjab Univ. J. Zool., 14:93-96.Arif, M., Shah, S. M. I., and Vos, J. D. 1991b. Cervustriplidens (Mammalia, Cervidae) from the Upper Siwaliksof Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan Memoirs, 17,pt.11.Arif, M., Shah, S.M.I. and De, Vos, J., 1991.Cervus rewati sp. Nov. (Mammalia, Cervidae) fromthe Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. Geological Survey ofPakistan memoirs, 17: pt. 11.Azzaroli, A., 1954. Critical observations upon Siwalikdeer. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of London,165, 75-87.Brown, B. 1926. A new deer from the Siwalik. AmericanMus. Novitates, 242: 6p.
Cont.Colbert, E.H., 1935. Siwalik Mammals in the AmericanMuseum of Natural History. Transactions of theAmerican Philosophical Society, New Series, 26, 1-401.Ghaffar, A., 2005. Studies on equids, cervids andCarnivora from the Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. PhDthesis (unpublished), University of the Punjab, Lahore,Pakistan, pp.1-379.Ghaffar, A., Akhtar, M., Khan, M.A., and Nazir, M.,2004. Report on Cervus sivalensis from the UpperSiwaliks of Pakistan. Punjab Univ. J. Zool., 19: 83-88.Ghaffar, A., Akhtar, M. and Khan, M. A. 2010. EarlyPliocene cervids (Artiodactyla- Mammalia) from theSiwaliks of Pakistan. Journal of Earth sciences, Turkey,Yerbilimleri, 31(3): 217-231.Ghaffar, A., Akhtar, M., Khan, M.A., Samiullah, K. andKhan, A. M.; Cervus rewati (Cervidae) from Dhok PathanFormation (Middle Siwaliks), Pakistan. Austrian Journalof Earth Sciences, 104/1(In press).
Cont.Lydekker, R., 1876. Molar teeth and other remains ofMammalia from the Indian Tertiaries. PaleontologicaIndica, 16 (1), 2-19.Lydekker, R., 1880. “Preface” to volume 1 ofPaleontologica Indica. Paleontologica Indica (X), 1, pp.vii-xix.Lydekker, R., 1884. Rodents and New Ruminants fromthe Siwalik and synopsis of Mammalia. PaleontologicaIndica, 10 (3), 1-5.Matthew, W.D., 1929. Critical observations upon SiwalikMammals. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History,56, 437-560.Pilgrim, G. E., 1910. Notices of new Mammalian generaand species from the Tertieries of India-Calcutta.Records of Geological Survey of India, 40, 63-71Savage, D. E. and Russell, D.E., 1983. Mammalianpaleofaunas of the World, London: Addison-Wesley.432pp.