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Sadaf presentation

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Sadaf presentation

  1. 1. STEGODON BOMBIFRONS FROM THEPINJOR STAGE, SOAN FORMATION OF JARIKAS, AZAD KASHMIR, PAKISTANSADAF ASLAM, ABDUL MAJID KHAN, MUHAMMADAKBAR KHAN*, ABDUL GHAFFAR**, MUHAMMADAKHTAR AND KHIZAR SAMIULLAHDEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB,LAHORE*DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, GC UNIVERSITY, FAISALABAD** DEPARTMENT OF METEROLOGY, COMSATS ISLAMABAD
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Proboscideans were the evolutionary taxa ofelephants that are the largest land animalsnow living. Two genera of the family Elephantidae:Elephas and Loxodonta are living today. All other species and genera ofProboscideans are extinct now. The Asian and African elephants divergedfrom a common ancestor some 7.6 millionyears ago.
  3. 3. EXTANT GENERA OF ELEPHANTS AFRICAN ELEPHANTSingle species with two subspecies. AFRICAN SAVANNA / BUSH ELEPHANT(Loxodontaafricana africana). AFRICAN FOREST ELEPHANT (Loxodonta africanacyclotis).
  4. 4. AFRICAN FOREST ELEPHANT
  5. 5. AFRICAN BUSH ELEPHANT
  6. 6. ASIAN ELEPHANTThree subspecies. Sri Lankan elephant (Elephas maximus maximus),only found on the island of Sri Lanka. Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus),foundin India. Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximussumatranus), found only on Sumatra.
  7. 7. ASIAN ELEPHANT
  8. 8. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AFRICAN AND ASIANELEPHANT The African elephant is typically larger thanthe Asian elephant and has a concave back. African elephants have larger ears. In Asian elephants, only males have tusks,but both males and females of Africanelephants have tusks.
  9. 9. OBJECTIVESTo study stegodon fossils from 2.6-0.6 millionyears old.
  10. 10. STUDIED SECTIONTHE SIWALIK SEDIMENTS ALONG THE FOOTHILLS OF HIMALAYAS.
  11. 11. JARI KAS An approx. 1km thickness of upperSiwalik subgroup rocks in the southernPotwar Plateau and south western Kashmir.
  12. 12. MATERIALS AND METHODS The specimen was collected from Upper Siwaliksduring geological survey. The specimen was thoroughly washed in thelaboratory. The specimen was catalogued such as PUPC(Punjab University Palaeontological Collection)2010/16. The upper figure denotes the collectionyear, while the lower one is the serial number of therespective year. The measurements of the specimen were made byMetric Vernier Callipers. The specimen is housed in paleontological laboratory,Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab,
  13. 13. RESULTSSYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGYPHYLUM CHORDATASUB PHYLUM VERTEBRATACLASS MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758ORDER PROBOSCIDEA Illeger, 1811SUB-ORDER ELEPHANTIFORMES Tassy, 1988SUPER FAMILY ELEPHANTOIDEA Osborn, 1921FAMILY STEGODONTIDAE Osborn, 1918SUBFAMILY STEGODONTINAE Osborn, 1918GENUS STEGODON Falconer, 1857SPECIES STEGODON BOMBIFRONS Falconerand Cautley, 1857.
  14. 14. STEGODON
  15. 15. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES Cranium compressed anteroposteriorly with convexskull vertex. Tusks small. Cement gradually increases in the successive teeth. Enamel very thick. Teeth broad and large. Usually a trace of median longitudinal cleft present inanterior ridges. Inner columns of ridge-plates occasionally showaccessory tubercles near the longitudinal cleft.(Sarwar, 1977).
  16. 16. STUDIED SPECIMENS WITH RELEVANT LOCALITYTaxon Specimen Position Formation/LocalityCo- ordinatesStegodonbombifronsPUPC No.2010/16Skull withupperdentition.Pinjor (JariKas, Mirpur)33 06 236 N73 50 012 E
  17. 17. DESCRIPTION Most part of the cranium is damaged, onlypalate is preserved and visible. The teeth are characterized by large size, broadcrowned, low ridge. Enamel is thick and rugose. Teeth are in middle wearing stage. Cement gradually increases in the successiveteeth. Ridge plates are widely spaced at their summit.
  18. 18. CRANIUM SHOWING OCCLUSAL VIEW, SCALE BAR50MM.CementPalateConeletsDentineEnamelRidge plateAnterior sidePosterior side
  19. 19. RIDGE PLATES FORMULA OF STEGODON TEETH DP3 4-4½ DP4 5 - 6 M1 6 M2 6 - 7 M3 7½-9½8- 9½6 ½-87-7½5½-74-4 ½
  20. 20. DISCUSSION In the past, stegodonts were believed to bethe ancestors of the true elephants andmammoths, but it is currently believed thatthey have no modern descendants. Stegodon is derived from the genusStegolophodon, an extinct genus known fromthe Miocene of Asia. Stegodon is considered to be a sister groupof the mammoth, as well as the elephants
  21. 21. FOSSILS OF STEGODON FROM THE WORLDUptil now fossils of Stegodon have beenrecovered from Indonesia, China, Thailand, Japan Africa Pakistan
  22. 22. DATA SHOWING NUMBER OF RIDGES AND DENTALMEASUREMENTS IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF STEGODON (DATAUPDATED FROM VAN DEN BERGH 1999).SPECIES No. of ridge plates L (mm) W (mm) W/L indexS. bombifrons 71/2-91/2 253-282 93-108 37-38S. pinjorens 141/2-1 360 130 36Stegodondhokawanensis61/218393 51S. insignis 81/2-111/2 233-287 86-106 37
  23. 23. CONCLUSION Stegodons were present in Jari Kas areas ofAzad Jammu and Kashmir during the latePliocene (about 2.6 mya) along with crownelephant group.

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