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Presented by
Honey Babu,
Asst. Professor in Education,
GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of Education ,Goa.
 According to Alur (2002), “inclusion is
about minimizing exclusion and
fostering participation for all students
in the culture within a wider
framework of support for all children
in ordinary schools”
Whom are Excluded in certain circumstances from
mainstream society ?
 Disabled
 HIV/AIDS Victims and other family members
 Women
 Girl Children
 Transgenders
 SC/ST communities
 ethnic and linguistic minorities
 children from remote areas
 People with pathogenic diseases
 Gifted Children
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
Inclusive education is educating ALL students in
age-appropriate general education classes in their
neighborhood schools, with high quality instruction,
interventions and supports so all students can be
successful in the core curriculum.
Inclusive schools have a collaborative and respectful
school culture where students with disabilities are
presumed to be competent, develop positive social
relationships with peers, and are fully participating
members of the school community.
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
Inclusion is an educational approach and philosophy
that provides all students with community
membership and greater opportunities for academic
and social achievement.
 Schools and districts have a ‘zero-rejection’ policy
when it comes to registering and teaching children in
their region.
 All children are welcomed and valued.
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
Principles of Inclusive Education
 All children belong
 All children learn in different ways
 It is every child’s right to be included
 Inclusion encompasses curriculum flexibility, pedagogy,
infrastructural changes, sensitization of parents and peers
are the integral components of the accommodations that
schools must make.
 Initiative and commitment on part of a school must be
viewed as imperative to the successful implementation of
an inclusive education programme.
 Unless a school wholeheartedly embraces the ideology of
inclusion in principle and in practice, there are no
guarantees for its success.
 Apart from admitting children with mild
disabilities who can be educated in regular
classrooms, inclusion also addresses the needs
of hundreds of children already present in
regular classrooms who are affected by mild
to moderate learning difficulties which go
largely undetected and untreated.
 These children carry the risk of becoming dropouts
due to poor school performance and may suffer
from irreparable psychological and emotional trauma
throughout their growing up years besides never
being able to achieve academic success.
 Poor sensitivity of stakeholders (administrators,
teachers, parents and peers) and lack of readiness
of the system become additional factors contributing
to their deprivation.
 The nature of the programme should be flexible and
in the form of a continuum such that it can be
adapted to suit each individual child’s academic and
social needs.
 Schools must be cognizant of their strengths and
weaknesses in order to adapt the guidelines based on
their institutional nature and characteristics.
What are requirements/modifications for Inclusive
Schools?
 Sensitization
 Modified curriculum
 Access and a Barrier-Free Environment
 Resource teacher and Resource room
 Service of therapist and counselors
Sensitization
A number of challenges still need to be
addressed to implement the aims and
objectives of an inclusive society.
The attitudinal barriers engrained as part of
India's historical response to disability must be
worked upon through educational programs for
sensitizing both teachers and the general
population
Create Social advocacy campaigns using social
media platforms to sensitize students and
stakeholders in the field of higher education.
 Modified Curriculum
Four factors influence the effectiveness of
curriculum modification:
(a) individual needs,
(b) subject-specific needs,
(c) teachers’ roles and school support, and
(d) use of technology.
 Modified Text Books
 Differentiated Instruction
 Alternative Evaluation system
 Alternative Subject choice
 Access and a Barrier-Free Environment
As a mandatory requirement of barrier free school
environment after implementation of Right to
Education Act, 2009 and to ensure such barrier free
environment for children with locomotor disability,
especially for children who use a wheelchair,
tricycle, a walker, crutches or walking sticks.
The school can make a team of teachers, therapists,
resource teachers, civil work personnel and the
members of school management committee to
ensure to make the school accessible and barrier free.
The team will ensure
 building of ramps in the school with suitable
gradients, providing suitable graded steps with
convenient handrails in the corridors,
 clearly marked passageways to assist in continuous
movement, wide doors .
 enough space inside the bathroom for easy access for
wheelchair users,
 enough space in the classrooms for their mobility,
 suitable heights of the installed electric switches and
other equipment,
 suitable heights of the furniture in library, laboratory,
dining place and so on.
 There are clearly laid down guidelines for these by
the office of the Chief Commissioner of Disabilities
and it should be strictly followed while constructing
theses support systems. It should be ensured that
unobstructed flooring including slip resistant
corridors and an accessible playground and other
recreational areas for all children who are using
assistive devices and providing appropriate furniture
for individual child are made available.
Who is a Resource Teacher?
A resource teacher is a specialized educator
that focuses on helping children with
physical or educational learning difficulties
to develop their reading and writing skills.
They must be organized, patient, good at
motivating students, extremely
understanding of people's individual needs
and able to accept people's differences.
Resource Room
Resource Room is a special education
program for a student with a disability who
is registered in either a special class or
regular education while in need of
specialized supplementary instruction in an
individual or small group setting for part of
the day.
1) Academic Resource Room (ARR)
2) Life Skill Resource Room
 Occupational Therapy is concerned with analyzing
the child's ability to perform in everyday contexts.
Goals of occupational therapy intervention with
children are to improve performance components,
enhance performance of functional activities, modify
performance context, prevent disability and social
role dysfunction, increase self-esteem and self-
actualization and to promote positive interactions and
relationships.
 Physiotherapy assists the child in improving
position, movement, strength, balance and control of
body.
 Children with MD require several types of aids and
appliances, assistive devices and assistive
technology for their independent functioning like for
mobility, communication, education, vocation or for
performing day to day activities.
 Adapted Furniture includes adapted chair, CP chair,
corner stools, lap boards and standing frame in
positioning a child with CP.
Modified Text Books
Learning Aids for disabled
Infrastructure Modifications
Thank You

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Inclusive education

  • 1. Presented by Honey Babu, Asst. Professor in Education, GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of Education ,Goa.
  • 2.
  • 3.  According to Alur (2002), “inclusion is about minimizing exclusion and fostering participation for all students in the culture within a wider framework of support for all children in ordinary schools”
  • 4. Whom are Excluded in certain circumstances from mainstream society ?  Disabled  HIV/AIDS Victims and other family members  Women  Girl Children  Transgenders  SC/ST communities  ethnic and linguistic minorities  children from remote areas  People with pathogenic diseases  Gifted Children
  • 5. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Inclusive education is educating ALL students in age-appropriate general education classes in their neighborhood schools, with high quality instruction, interventions and supports so all students can be successful in the core curriculum. Inclusive schools have a collaborative and respectful school culture where students with disabilities are presumed to be competent, develop positive social relationships with peers, and are fully participating members of the school community.
  • 6. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Inclusion is an educational approach and philosophy that provides all students with community membership and greater opportunities for academic and social achievement.  Schools and districts have a ‘zero-rejection’ policy when it comes to registering and teaching children in their region.  All children are welcomed and valued.
  • 7. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Principles of Inclusive Education  All children belong  All children learn in different ways  It is every child’s right to be included
  • 8.  Inclusion encompasses curriculum flexibility, pedagogy, infrastructural changes, sensitization of parents and peers are the integral components of the accommodations that schools must make.  Initiative and commitment on part of a school must be viewed as imperative to the successful implementation of an inclusive education programme.  Unless a school wholeheartedly embraces the ideology of inclusion in principle and in practice, there are no guarantees for its success.
  • 9.  Apart from admitting children with mild disabilities who can be educated in regular classrooms, inclusion also addresses the needs of hundreds of children already present in regular classrooms who are affected by mild to moderate learning difficulties which go largely undetected and untreated.
  • 10.  These children carry the risk of becoming dropouts due to poor school performance and may suffer from irreparable psychological and emotional trauma throughout their growing up years besides never being able to achieve academic success.  Poor sensitivity of stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents and peers) and lack of readiness of the system become additional factors contributing to their deprivation.
  • 11.  The nature of the programme should be flexible and in the form of a continuum such that it can be adapted to suit each individual child’s academic and social needs.  Schools must be cognizant of their strengths and weaknesses in order to adapt the guidelines based on their institutional nature and characteristics.
  • 12. What are requirements/modifications for Inclusive Schools?  Sensitization  Modified curriculum  Access and a Barrier-Free Environment  Resource teacher and Resource room  Service of therapist and counselors
  • 13. Sensitization A number of challenges still need to be addressed to implement the aims and objectives of an inclusive society. The attitudinal barriers engrained as part of India's historical response to disability must be worked upon through educational programs for sensitizing both teachers and the general population Create Social advocacy campaigns using social media platforms to sensitize students and stakeholders in the field of higher education.
  • 14.  Modified Curriculum Four factors influence the effectiveness of curriculum modification: (a) individual needs, (b) subject-specific needs, (c) teachers’ roles and school support, and (d) use of technology.  Modified Text Books  Differentiated Instruction  Alternative Evaluation system  Alternative Subject choice
  • 15.  Access and a Barrier-Free Environment As a mandatory requirement of barrier free school environment after implementation of Right to Education Act, 2009 and to ensure such barrier free environment for children with locomotor disability, especially for children who use a wheelchair, tricycle, a walker, crutches or walking sticks.
  • 16. The school can make a team of teachers, therapists, resource teachers, civil work personnel and the members of school management committee to ensure to make the school accessible and barrier free. The team will ensure  building of ramps in the school with suitable gradients, providing suitable graded steps with convenient handrails in the corridors,  clearly marked passageways to assist in continuous movement, wide doors .
  • 17.  enough space inside the bathroom for easy access for wheelchair users,  enough space in the classrooms for their mobility,  suitable heights of the installed electric switches and other equipment,  suitable heights of the furniture in library, laboratory, dining place and so on.
  • 18.  There are clearly laid down guidelines for these by the office of the Chief Commissioner of Disabilities and it should be strictly followed while constructing theses support systems. It should be ensured that unobstructed flooring including slip resistant corridors and an accessible playground and other recreational areas for all children who are using assistive devices and providing appropriate furniture for individual child are made available.
  • 19. Who is a Resource Teacher? A resource teacher is a specialized educator that focuses on helping children with physical or educational learning difficulties to develop their reading and writing skills. They must be organized, patient, good at motivating students, extremely understanding of people's individual needs and able to accept people's differences.
  • 20. Resource Room Resource Room is a special education program for a student with a disability who is registered in either a special class or regular education while in need of specialized supplementary instruction in an individual or small group setting for part of the day. 1) Academic Resource Room (ARR) 2) Life Skill Resource Room
  • 21.  Occupational Therapy is concerned with analyzing the child's ability to perform in everyday contexts. Goals of occupational therapy intervention with children are to improve performance components, enhance performance of functional activities, modify performance context, prevent disability and social role dysfunction, increase self-esteem and self- actualization and to promote positive interactions and relationships.
  • 22.  Physiotherapy assists the child in improving position, movement, strength, balance and control of body.  Children with MD require several types of aids and appliances, assistive devices and assistive technology for their independent functioning like for mobility, communication, education, vocation or for performing day to day activities.  Adapted Furniture includes adapted chair, CP chair, corner stools, lap boards and standing frame in positioning a child with CP.
  • 24. Learning Aids for disabled