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Presented by:-
Honey Babu,
Asst. Professor in Education,
GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of
Education ,Goa.
Education and Secularism
Teacher: “Children ,you do the following
activity forming a group”
Student ‘Y’: “Teacher I don’t want to
make a group with the student (X)”
Teacher : “Why your are not interested to
include X in your group? ”.
Student ‘Y’: “Because X belongs to
different religion that of mine”.
Teacher: “ Y , Don’t you remember the
speech given by our Headmaster on the
Republic day?”.
Student ‘Y’: “Yes, teacher. He told us our
India is a democratic and secular
country”.
India is a democratic and secular country.
The country does not discriminate against the
followers of a particular religion.
According to Vinoba Bhave, “The days of religion
and nationalism are gone ,the days of science and
spirituality have come”.
Spirituality and good conduct must be taught in the
centers of learning because of our multiracial and
multireligious society.
The class room instruction should not be based on one’s own
religion.
When we teach Bhagavad Gita ,we should also teach The
Bible and The Quran.
This will lead to the development of feeling among the
students that they are living in the temple of humanity and
bow down their heads before all the great teachers and
preachers of the world without considering their differences.
• Secularism
“The
realization
of
Fatherhood
of God and
The
Brotherhood
of Mankind”
Secularism
 The term secularism has been derived from the Latin word
,Seculum meaning “this present age” or “this present
generation”.
 George Jacob Holyoake (13 April 1817 – 22 January 1906), was
a British secularist, co-operator, and newspaper editor. He was
the first man to use the term ‘secularism’ to restructure a
pluralistic society based on democracy and tolerance where
equal opportunities were to be given to all, irrespective of caste
,creed, colour ,race or culture.
 The real concept of secularism is that the sate shall not impose
any religion on people and it should pay equal respect to all
religions.
Secularism
 According to Holyoake, “Secularism is a
system which seeks the development of
physical ,moral and intellectual nature of man
to the highest possible point as the immediate
duty of life, which inculcates the practical
sufficiency of natural moralty apart from
atheism, theism or the Bible, which selects as
its methods of promotion of human
improvement by material means”.
Definitions of Secularism
 According to Chamber’s Dictionary, “Secularism is the belief
that the state morals, education etc, should be independent of
religions”.
 According to Oxford Dictionary , “Secularism means the
doctrine that morality should be based solely on regard to well-
being of mankind in the present life, to the exclusion of all the
considerations drawn from belief in God”.
 According to Encyclopedia Britannica, “Anything non-
spiritual, having no connection with religion or spiritual matter,
any thing that is distinctly opposed do not connect with
religious or ecclesiastical thing temporal as oppose to spiritual
or ecclesiastical”.
 According to Brubacher , “Secularism has no
religious point of view while it has a theory of
moral education .If the secularist has any
religion at all it is likely that scientific doctrine
constitutes the pre-supposition of that religion
and that scientists are its high priests.
 According to the pluralistic view ,
“Secularism is an attitude of accepting all
religions rather than rejecting any or all
religions”.
The characteristics of secular states are
The state as such as no religion of its own
It does not award preferential treatment to the followers
of any faith
It does not discriminate against any person on account of
his faith
All citizens are eligible to enter government service
irrespective of the faith
History of Secularism in India
Emperor Ashoka was the first great emperor to announce, as early as third
century B.C. that, the state would not prosecute any religious sect. In his 12th
Rock Edit, Ashoka made an appeal not only for the toleration of all religion
sects but also to develop a spirit of great respect toward them. He pleaded for
restrain of criticism of other religious sects. He asked people to become
perfect in the scriptures of other religions. The religious tolerance expressed
by Ashoka more than 2,300 years ago has been one of the cherished Indian
Social Value. Ashoka’s secular outlook is one of the landmarks not only of
Indian civilisation but also of the human civilisation itself (Yerankar, 2006).
Even after the advent of Jainism, Buddhism and later Islam and Christianity
into the Indian soil, the quest for religious toleration and coexistence of
different faiths continued.
 The Mughal emperor the great Akbar also to a great
extent promoted the policy of toleration of different
religions. His propagation of Din-e-Illahi (Divine faith)
and Sulh-e-kul (Peace with all) were highly inspired by
the spirit of secularism.
 The spirit of secularism was strengthened and enriched
through the Indian freedom movement too. In the initial
part of the Indian freedom movement, the liberals like
Sir Feroz Shah Mehta, Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna
Gokhale by and large pursued a secular approach
to politics.
“WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved
to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST
SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to
all
its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote
among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the
individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
These are the opening words of the preamble to
the Indian Constitution
The preamble has been amended only once so far. On 18 December
1976, during the Emergency in India, the Indira Gandhi government
pushed through several changes in the Forty-second Amendment of
the constitution. A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar
Swaran Singh recommended that this amendment be enacted after
being constituted to study the question of amending the constitution
in the light of past experience. Through this amendment the words
"socialist" and "secular" were added between the words "sovereign"
and "democratic" and the words "unity of the Nation“ were changed
to "unity and integrity of the Nation"
Forty-second Amendment
Indian Concept of Secularism
 Mahatma Gandhi: “ The soul of religion is one but it is
engaged in a multitude of forms. Wise men will ignore the
outward crust and see the same soul living under a variety
of crusts”.
 S.Radhakrishnan: “Secularism does not mean anything
irreligious or atheism or even stress on materials comforts,
rather it lays stress on the universality of spiritual values
which may be obtained by a variety of ways”.
 B.R.Ambedkar: “All that secular state means is that this
parliament shall not be competent to impose any particular
religion upon the rest of the people”.
 The idea Secularism is one of the fundamental aspect of
the Indian has no national religion and it provides all
religions with equal opportunities.
 Article 25,28 and 30 of the Indian Constitution emphasise
the concept of secularism.
 Article 28 states that, “ No person attending any
educational institution recognized by the state or receiving
state funds shall be required to take part in any religious
instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to
attend any religious worship that may be conducted in
such situation or any premises attached thereto unless
such person is a minor or his guardian has given his
consent thereto”.
 Two of the great Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit
Jawaharlal Nehru, were principal advocates of secularism. Their
ideology of secularism was based on commitment to the
principles of brotherhood and truth, and respect for all
individuals. They practised these values and set examples before
the people. Pandit Nehru was a leading supporter of the
concept of the secular state. His proposal and efforts for making
India a secular state is acknowledged as one of his greatest
achievements. He disliked any kind of relation between religion
and politics. He wanted to transform India into a Nation State that
would embrace people of all castes and religions without any
discrimination.
Characteristics of Secularism
 It treats all religions equally, though their paths of realizing their
goals may be different.
 It encourages moral and spiritual values.
 It develops freedom from dogmatic ideas.
 It does not mean negation of religions but accepts that all
religions have equal value.
 It implies that no religion is superior or inferior to other
religions.
 Mutual co-existence of all religions without any hatred or bias
against anyone .
 It implies freedom of worship.
 It encourages rational thinking and understanding.
Secularism in Education
Secularism in Education
Secularism in education means making public education
free from any religious dominance, especially in its
learning environment .Those institutions which
dominance, especially in its learning environment
.Those institutions which impart pure religious
education should be brought to the national
mainstream by adding new scientific and
technological knowledge to the curriculum of these
institutions. What ever religious tenets are taught to
students ,they are judged on a scientific basis.
What is the
need of Secular
Education in
India?
Need of Secular Education In India
 India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.
 Fanaticism, communalism and regionalism are on the
increase.
 Equality, liberty, fraternity, national outlook and
international understanding need to be propagated
 We need secular education due to the erosion of values,
narrow mindedness, selfishness etc.
 To train the youth to be good citizens.
 To inculcate in the youth social, moral and cultural values.
 To strengthen secularism and human relationship in India.
 To fulfill the requirements of democratic India.
Characteristics of Secular Education
 Secular aims
 Multiple Curricula
 Science Teaching
 Enlightened teachers
 Moral outlook
 Development of wider vision
 Democratic values
 Cultural development
 Humanitarianism
1. Secular education develops a moral out look
2. Secular education helps in the development liberal attitudes and values
3. It develops wider vision
4. It develops an attitude of appreciation and understanding of others point of
view
5. It develops democratic values and humanistic outlook
6. Secular education synthesis materialism and spiritualism
7. Secular education serves as an antidote to religious fanaticism and hatred
 In a multi religious country like India, the spirit of secularism is to
be developed in order to maintain the unity and integrity of the
nation. Education should play a positive role in preparing people
for a secular society and a purposeful life. We hope secularism will
develop in to a stronger force leading to the social unity of India
when institutionalized religions gradually lose their coercive hold
on the young generations.
Reason for imparting secular education:
 Education, therefore, shall endeavour for the promotion and
inculcation of secularism as one of its aims. John Dewey sees school
as a miniature society. Thus, foundation of a secular society can be
laid down in the school. It, thus, becomes a crucial concern for
schools to view education as a process of ‘becoming’. Education shall
take into account all round development of children including
engaged citizenship. It shall not be viewed as an end in itself, rather
as a means to an end.
The Secondary Education Commission was set up in 1952 under
the Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar,
(popularly known as the Mudaliar Commission whose
recommendations were published in the Report of the Secondary
Education Commission, 1952-53). States, as political, social and
economic conditions change and new problems arise, it becomes
necessary to re-examine carefully and re-state clearly the
objectives which education at each definite stage, should keep in
view. It focuses upon the educational needs of Democratic India.
 In the first Chapter of the Education Commission ( 1964-66),
which is known as the Kothari Commission, Education and
National Objectives are declared as follows: "The destiny of
India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, we believe, is
no more rhetoric. In a world based on science and technology, it
is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and
security of the people. On the quality and number of persons
coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success
in the great enterprise of national reconstruction whose principal
objective is to raise the standard of living of our people."
 The 31st CABE Annual Meeting, in its Resolution,
delineated measures for emotional integration through a
Pledge to be taken by all the students. The Board
recommended that the Pledge suggested by the Emotional
Committee, slightly amended as under, should be taken by
all students and teachers at the, beginning of each working
day. This practice, it was suggested, should be adopted in all
institutions latest by 26th January, 1965. The committee
also recommended that this pledge should be translated
into regional languages and printed in every textbook
and the school calendar.
 In such a society, however, one has to make a distinction,
between 'religious education' and 'education about religions'.
The former is largely concerned with the teaching of the tenets
and practices of a particular religion, generally in the form in
which the religious group envisages them, whereas the latter is a
study of religions and religious thought from a broad point of
view - the eternal quest of the spirit. It would not be practicable
for a secular State with many religions to provide education in
any one religion. It is, however, necessary for a multi-religious
democratic State to promote a tolerant study of all religions
so that its citizens can, understand each other better and live
amicably together.
The University Education Commission (1948-1949),
headed by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, devoted a whole
chapter to 'Religious Education'. It emphasised that
'religion is a permeative influence, a quality of life,
elevation of purpose," and 'to be secular is not to be
religiously illiterate. It is to be deeply spiritual and
not narrowly religious.'
It recommended a short period of silent meditation every
morning before the class work starts, and the study of:
 (a) lives of the great religious leaders,
 (b) selections from religious scriptures and
 (c) the problems of the philosophy of religion.
The committee on religious and moral instruction was appointed
by the Government of India to make a detailed study of the entire
question of religious and moral instruction in educational
institutions under the Chairmanship of Shri Sri Prakasa,
Governor of Bombay.
The Committee emphasised upon the following recommendations:
Elementary Stage:
(I) The School Assembly should allot a few minutes in the morning for group
singing.
(II) Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets,
saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language
teaching.
(III) In the school programme, two periods a week should be set aside for moral
instruction.
(IV) Through school programme, the attitude of 'service' and the realisation that
'work is worship' should be developed in the child.
Secondary Stage:
 (1) The Morning assembly should observe two minutes'
silence followed by readings from the scriptures or great
literature of the world or an appropriate address.
 (2) The essential teachings of the great world religions
should be studied.
 (3) One hour a week should be assigned to moral
instruction. Apart from this regular class instruction,
suitable speakers may be invited to address the students on
moral and spiritual values. Joint celebrations may be
organised on the occasion of important festivals of all
religions.
 (4) Organised social service during holidays and outside
class hours should be an essential part of extra-curricular
activities.
National Policy on Education(1986)
 Change in Curriculum:The erosion of values from the
society should tackled with the re-adjustment in the
curriculum.
 Universal and Eternal values:Education should foster
universal and eternal values in the culturally pluralistic
society towards unity and integration.
 Positive content:Value education should have a profound
positive content based on our heritage,national goals and
universal perceptions.
Role of Teacher
 Teachers can play a ground breaking role in promoting values of
secularism by creating relevant opportunities and encouraging
children of different castes, communities and religions to celebrate,
appreciate, and respect each others’ festivals, cultural practices and
ways of life. Such activities, if done genuinely, can establish and
nurture cordial feelings among people belonging to different
cultural backgrounds. It is also critical for the smooth functioning
of the school because differences, if not understood adequately,
may lay seeds of ethnocentrism and prejudice. All this may
ultimately render differences into deficits and lead to social
conflicts.
 A well planned syllabus containing essential moral
values.
 Teaching effectively to promote values through
subjects.
 Religious instructions from different religions with
stories and models from epics.
 Celebration of festivals of different religions.
 A particular religious faith should not be emphasised.
 Trips to different centers of religious study.
 Should create an atmosphere for integration and
mutual co-operation.
Impact of Secular Education
 Secular education develops in the child the spirit of love
,tolerance ,discipline ,cooperation ,equality ,sympathy and
fraternity.
 Education is free form specific religion.
 Education becomes a an active independent process in which the
teacher is free for developing the broad mindedness among the
children.
 It develops moral and spiritual qualities among the students in an
unbiased form on the basis of secularism.
 It is helpful to develop the national and international integration.
 It helps to reduce the risks of communalism ,sectarianism,
provincialism, traditionalism and language controversies.
Principle of Secular Education
Unity in
Diversity
Diversity
in Unity
Secular
Education
Limitations of Secular Education in
Indian context
Customs
Multi Caste
System
Multi religions
Traditions
Cultures
Hindrances for secular education
Educational institutions are related to religions
Use of religion as a political tool
Lack of toleration
Narrow outlook
Lack of Secular attitude among teachers
Feeling of religious superiority
Negligence of secular celebrations
Negligence of group activities
Conclusion
 What ever limitations are there, no doubt exist
about the secular nature of our country India.
Political parties are using the religions for their
self needs and as a vote catching device.
Avoiding the religion is not a solution for
secularism. Remove the hindrances through the
education , raise above all the problems,
dreaming to make our country secular in both
our words and deeds.
THANK
YOU
Presented by
Honey Babu,
Asst. Professor in Education,
GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of
Education ,Goa.

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Education and secularism

  • 1. Presented by:- Honey Babu, Asst. Professor in Education, GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of Education ,Goa. Education and Secularism
  • 2. Teacher: “Children ,you do the following activity forming a group” Student ‘Y’: “Teacher I don’t want to make a group with the student (X)” Teacher : “Why your are not interested to include X in your group? ”. Student ‘Y’: “Because X belongs to different religion that of mine”. Teacher: “ Y , Don’t you remember the speech given by our Headmaster on the Republic day?”. Student ‘Y’: “Yes, teacher. He told us our India is a democratic and secular country”.
  • 3. India is a democratic and secular country. The country does not discriminate against the followers of a particular religion. According to Vinoba Bhave, “The days of religion and nationalism are gone ,the days of science and spirituality have come”. Spirituality and good conduct must be taught in the centers of learning because of our multiracial and multireligious society.
  • 4. The class room instruction should not be based on one’s own religion. When we teach Bhagavad Gita ,we should also teach The Bible and The Quran. This will lead to the development of feeling among the students that they are living in the temple of humanity and bow down their heads before all the great teachers and preachers of the world without considering their differences.
  • 5. • Secularism “The realization of Fatherhood of God and The Brotherhood of Mankind”
  • 6. Secularism  The term secularism has been derived from the Latin word ,Seculum meaning “this present age” or “this present generation”.  George Jacob Holyoake (13 April 1817 – 22 January 1906), was a British secularist, co-operator, and newspaper editor. He was the first man to use the term ‘secularism’ to restructure a pluralistic society based on democracy and tolerance where equal opportunities were to be given to all, irrespective of caste ,creed, colour ,race or culture.  The real concept of secularism is that the sate shall not impose any religion on people and it should pay equal respect to all religions.
  • 7. Secularism  According to Holyoake, “Secularism is a system which seeks the development of physical ,moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest possible point as the immediate duty of life, which inculcates the practical sufficiency of natural moralty apart from atheism, theism or the Bible, which selects as its methods of promotion of human improvement by material means”.
  • 8. Definitions of Secularism  According to Chamber’s Dictionary, “Secularism is the belief that the state morals, education etc, should be independent of religions”.  According to Oxford Dictionary , “Secularism means the doctrine that morality should be based solely on regard to well- being of mankind in the present life, to the exclusion of all the considerations drawn from belief in God”.  According to Encyclopedia Britannica, “Anything non- spiritual, having no connection with religion or spiritual matter, any thing that is distinctly opposed do not connect with religious or ecclesiastical thing temporal as oppose to spiritual or ecclesiastical”.
  • 9.
  • 10.  According to Brubacher , “Secularism has no religious point of view while it has a theory of moral education .If the secularist has any religion at all it is likely that scientific doctrine constitutes the pre-supposition of that religion and that scientists are its high priests.  According to the pluralistic view , “Secularism is an attitude of accepting all religions rather than rejecting any or all religions”.
  • 11. The characteristics of secular states are The state as such as no religion of its own It does not award preferential treatment to the followers of any faith It does not discriminate against any person on account of his faith All citizens are eligible to enter government service irrespective of the faith
  • 12. History of Secularism in India Emperor Ashoka was the first great emperor to announce, as early as third century B.C. that, the state would not prosecute any religious sect. In his 12th Rock Edit, Ashoka made an appeal not only for the toleration of all religion sects but also to develop a spirit of great respect toward them. He pleaded for restrain of criticism of other religious sects. He asked people to become perfect in the scriptures of other religions. The religious tolerance expressed by Ashoka more than 2,300 years ago has been one of the cherished Indian Social Value. Ashoka’s secular outlook is one of the landmarks not only of Indian civilisation but also of the human civilisation itself (Yerankar, 2006). Even after the advent of Jainism, Buddhism and later Islam and Christianity into the Indian soil, the quest for religious toleration and coexistence of different faiths continued.
  • 13.  The Mughal emperor the great Akbar also to a great extent promoted the policy of toleration of different religions. His propagation of Din-e-Illahi (Divine faith) and Sulh-e-kul (Peace with all) were highly inspired by the spirit of secularism.  The spirit of secularism was strengthened and enriched through the Indian freedom movement too. In the initial part of the Indian freedom movement, the liberals like Sir Feroz Shah Mehta, Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale by and large pursued a secular approach to politics.
  • 14. “WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; These are the opening words of the preamble to the Indian Constitution
  • 15. The preamble has been amended only once so far. On 18 December 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Indira Gandhi government pushed through several changes in the Forty-second Amendment of the constitution. A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh recommended that this amendment be enacted after being constituted to study the question of amending the constitution in the light of past experience. Through this amendment the words "socialist" and "secular" were added between the words "sovereign" and "democratic" and the words "unity of the Nation“ were changed to "unity and integrity of the Nation" Forty-second Amendment
  • 16. Indian Concept of Secularism  Mahatma Gandhi: “ The soul of religion is one but it is engaged in a multitude of forms. Wise men will ignore the outward crust and see the same soul living under a variety of crusts”.  S.Radhakrishnan: “Secularism does not mean anything irreligious or atheism or even stress on materials comforts, rather it lays stress on the universality of spiritual values which may be obtained by a variety of ways”.  B.R.Ambedkar: “All that secular state means is that this parliament shall not be competent to impose any particular religion upon the rest of the people”.
  • 17.  The idea Secularism is one of the fundamental aspect of the Indian has no national religion and it provides all religions with equal opportunities.  Article 25,28 and 30 of the Indian Constitution emphasise the concept of secularism.  Article 28 states that, “ No person attending any educational institution recognized by the state or receiving state funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such situation or any premises attached thereto unless such person is a minor or his guardian has given his consent thereto”.
  • 18.  Two of the great Indian leaders, Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, were principal advocates of secularism. Their ideology of secularism was based on commitment to the principles of brotherhood and truth, and respect for all individuals. They practised these values and set examples before the people. Pandit Nehru was a leading supporter of the concept of the secular state. His proposal and efforts for making India a secular state is acknowledged as one of his greatest achievements. He disliked any kind of relation between religion and politics. He wanted to transform India into a Nation State that would embrace people of all castes and religions without any discrimination.
  • 19. Characteristics of Secularism  It treats all religions equally, though their paths of realizing their goals may be different.  It encourages moral and spiritual values.  It develops freedom from dogmatic ideas.  It does not mean negation of religions but accepts that all religions have equal value.  It implies that no religion is superior or inferior to other religions.  Mutual co-existence of all religions without any hatred or bias against anyone .  It implies freedom of worship.  It encourages rational thinking and understanding.
  • 21. Secularism in Education Secularism in education means making public education free from any religious dominance, especially in its learning environment .Those institutions which dominance, especially in its learning environment .Those institutions which impart pure religious education should be brought to the national mainstream by adding new scientific and technological knowledge to the curriculum of these institutions. What ever religious tenets are taught to students ,they are judged on a scientific basis.
  • 22. What is the need of Secular Education in India?
  • 23. Need of Secular Education In India  India is a multi religious and culturally varied society.  Fanaticism, communalism and regionalism are on the increase.  Equality, liberty, fraternity, national outlook and international understanding need to be propagated  We need secular education due to the erosion of values, narrow mindedness, selfishness etc.  To train the youth to be good citizens.  To inculcate in the youth social, moral and cultural values.  To strengthen secularism and human relationship in India.  To fulfill the requirements of democratic India.
  • 24. Characteristics of Secular Education  Secular aims  Multiple Curricula  Science Teaching  Enlightened teachers  Moral outlook  Development of wider vision  Democratic values  Cultural development  Humanitarianism
  • 25.
  • 26. 1. Secular education develops a moral out look 2. Secular education helps in the development liberal attitudes and values 3. It develops wider vision 4. It develops an attitude of appreciation and understanding of others point of view 5. It develops democratic values and humanistic outlook 6. Secular education synthesis materialism and spiritualism 7. Secular education serves as an antidote to religious fanaticism and hatred  In a multi religious country like India, the spirit of secularism is to be developed in order to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation. Education should play a positive role in preparing people for a secular society and a purposeful life. We hope secularism will develop in to a stronger force leading to the social unity of India when institutionalized religions gradually lose their coercive hold on the young generations. Reason for imparting secular education:
  • 27.  Education, therefore, shall endeavour for the promotion and inculcation of secularism as one of its aims. John Dewey sees school as a miniature society. Thus, foundation of a secular society can be laid down in the school. It, thus, becomes a crucial concern for schools to view education as a process of ‘becoming’. Education shall take into account all round development of children including engaged citizenship. It shall not be viewed as an end in itself, rather as a means to an end.
  • 28. The Secondary Education Commission was set up in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, (popularly known as the Mudaliar Commission whose recommendations were published in the Report of the Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53). States, as political, social and economic conditions change and new problems arise, it becomes necessary to re-examine carefully and re-state clearly the objectives which education at each definite stage, should keep in view. It focuses upon the educational needs of Democratic India.
  • 29.  In the first Chapter of the Education Commission ( 1964-66), which is known as the Kothari Commission, Education and National Objectives are declared as follows: "The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, we believe, is no more rhetoric. In a world based on science and technology, it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the people. On the quality and number of persons coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success in the great enterprise of national reconstruction whose principal objective is to raise the standard of living of our people."
  • 30.  The 31st CABE Annual Meeting, in its Resolution, delineated measures for emotional integration through a Pledge to be taken by all the students. The Board recommended that the Pledge suggested by the Emotional Committee, slightly amended as under, should be taken by all students and teachers at the, beginning of each working day. This practice, it was suggested, should be adopted in all institutions latest by 26th January, 1965. The committee also recommended that this pledge should be translated into regional languages and printed in every textbook and the school calendar.
  • 31.  In such a society, however, one has to make a distinction, between 'religious education' and 'education about religions'. The former is largely concerned with the teaching of the tenets and practices of a particular religion, generally in the form in which the religious group envisages them, whereas the latter is a study of religions and religious thought from a broad point of view - the eternal quest of the spirit. It would not be practicable for a secular State with many religions to provide education in any one religion. It is, however, necessary for a multi-religious democratic State to promote a tolerant study of all religions so that its citizens can, understand each other better and live amicably together.
  • 32. The University Education Commission (1948-1949), headed by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, devoted a whole chapter to 'Religious Education'. It emphasised that 'religion is a permeative influence, a quality of life, elevation of purpose," and 'to be secular is not to be religiously illiterate. It is to be deeply spiritual and not narrowly religious.' It recommended a short period of silent meditation every morning before the class work starts, and the study of:  (a) lives of the great religious leaders,  (b) selections from religious scriptures and  (c) the problems of the philosophy of religion.
  • 33. The committee on religious and moral instruction was appointed by the Government of India to make a detailed study of the entire question of religious and moral instruction in educational institutions under the Chairmanship of Shri Sri Prakasa, Governor of Bombay. The Committee emphasised upon the following recommendations: Elementary Stage: (I) The School Assembly should allot a few minutes in the morning for group singing. (II) Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets, saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching. (III) In the school programme, two periods a week should be set aside for moral instruction. (IV) Through school programme, the attitude of 'service' and the realisation that 'work is worship' should be developed in the child.
  • 34. Secondary Stage:  (1) The Morning assembly should observe two minutes' silence followed by readings from the scriptures or great literature of the world or an appropriate address.  (2) The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied.  (3) One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction. Apart from this regular class instruction, suitable speakers may be invited to address the students on moral and spiritual values. Joint celebrations may be organised on the occasion of important festivals of all religions.  (4) Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an essential part of extra-curricular activities.
  • 35. National Policy on Education(1986)  Change in Curriculum:The erosion of values from the society should tackled with the re-adjustment in the curriculum.  Universal and Eternal values:Education should foster universal and eternal values in the culturally pluralistic society towards unity and integration.  Positive content:Value education should have a profound positive content based on our heritage,national goals and universal perceptions.
  • 36. Role of Teacher  Teachers can play a ground breaking role in promoting values of secularism by creating relevant opportunities and encouraging children of different castes, communities and religions to celebrate, appreciate, and respect each others’ festivals, cultural practices and ways of life. Such activities, if done genuinely, can establish and nurture cordial feelings among people belonging to different cultural backgrounds. It is also critical for the smooth functioning of the school because differences, if not understood adequately, may lay seeds of ethnocentrism and prejudice. All this may ultimately render differences into deficits and lead to social conflicts.
  • 37.  A well planned syllabus containing essential moral values.  Teaching effectively to promote values through subjects.  Religious instructions from different religions with stories and models from epics.  Celebration of festivals of different religions.  A particular religious faith should not be emphasised.  Trips to different centers of religious study.  Should create an atmosphere for integration and mutual co-operation.
  • 38. Impact of Secular Education  Secular education develops in the child the spirit of love ,tolerance ,discipline ,cooperation ,equality ,sympathy and fraternity.  Education is free form specific religion.  Education becomes a an active independent process in which the teacher is free for developing the broad mindedness among the children.  It develops moral and spiritual qualities among the students in an unbiased form on the basis of secularism.  It is helpful to develop the national and international integration.  It helps to reduce the risks of communalism ,sectarianism, provincialism, traditionalism and language controversies.
  • 39. Principle of Secular Education Unity in Diversity Diversity in Unity Secular Education
  • 40. Limitations of Secular Education in Indian context Customs Multi Caste System Multi religions Traditions Cultures
  • 41. Hindrances for secular education Educational institutions are related to religions Use of religion as a political tool Lack of toleration Narrow outlook Lack of Secular attitude among teachers Feeling of religious superiority Negligence of secular celebrations Negligence of group activities
  • 42. Conclusion  What ever limitations are there, no doubt exist about the secular nature of our country India. Political parties are using the religions for their self needs and as a vote catching device. Avoiding the religion is not a solution for secularism. Remove the hindrances through the education , raise above all the problems, dreaming to make our country secular in both our words and deeds.
  • 43. THANK YOU Presented by Honey Babu, Asst. Professor in Education, GVM’s Dr. Dada Vaidya, College of Education ,Goa.