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Project funded by the European
Union’s Horizon 2020 research
programme under grant agreement
No. 773375
Outline
Denise Gider
Market barriers to the use of sustainable packaging from
experts’ viewpoint
Cornelia Stramm
The future of sustainable packaging from a technological
viewpoint
Stefaan Deraeve
Visions, motivations, barriers and actions from an organic
food company’s viewpoint
2
German-French team of organic
market and supply chain specialists
3
Freising
Montpellier
Our clients
 Research on top level
 Organic agriculture development agencies
 (Public) policy decision-making on different levels
 Private companies
Background
Plastic packaging leads to plastic waste and is
problematic because:
• Too much plastic ends up in the environment
• Collected plastic waste is usually mainly "downcycled" and
thus only released into the environment a little later
• Not all packaging can be recycled ➔ composite packaging
• Health safety of certain polymers is questioned
4
Source:
https://www.nationalgeograp
hic.de/planetorplastic
Source:
https://www.ecobagstore.de/
mini-sac-brun-lisse-recycle-
fenetre-xxl-kyg-23064-
1015.html
Plastic packaging ➔ Plastic waste
Possible solutions
• Avoid
• Replacing, e.g. using paper, wood, bio-based and
biodegradable plastic
• Optimised use and reduction
• Optimised recycling: circular economy (costly)
Basic idea: Contribution of bioplastics application
• Polymers/monomers in principle not harmful to the
environment - if bio-based and fully biodegradable
5
Challenges of bioplastic from
experts’ point of view
Results of a multi-stage survey with European
packaging experts on bio-based and biodegradable
plastics
• Higher prices for more sustainable materials as major
market barrier
• Biodegradable ≠ biodegradable: industrial vs. natural/home
composting conditions
• Sufficient quantities and qualities: we are at the beginning of
new industrial processes
• Perception bio-based and biodegradable packaging has
poorer functionalities ➔ application-related!
6
Challenges of bioplastic from
experts’ point of view
• Partially not compatible with existing packaging lines, e.g.
new machines or adjustments necessary
• End-of-life of bio-based and biodegradable plastics not
organized
• Perception, (some) bio-based and biodegradable plastics disrupt
existing waste management and recycling cycles
• Biodegradable plastics may only be disposed in the bio-waste bin
(for kitchen and garden wastes) in individual countries, e.g. NL
• Ecological footprint of bioplastics not per se better than
fossil-based plastics
• Term might be misleading or misinterpreted, e.g. the specific
conditions of the biodegradability
7
Additional challenges for the
organic food sector
• GMO free packaging material by using non-GMO corn
• Sourcing from edible raw materials should be avoided: "no
hunger caused by bioplastics”
• It is unclear whether bioplastic for food packaging will ever
be available in sufficient quantities and therefore make more
sense in agriculture (e.g. films) or in environmental
applications
8
Conclusions
• Lots of challenges: Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can
only be a partial solution, depending on the individual
application and product
• Integrate packaging in company strategy and invest
• Find application-specific solutions at product level:
• Avoid and reduce?
• Replace?
• Improve recycling?
• Retail demands it from suppliers? (many attractive packaging options
already on the organic market)
• Define a sector solution, coordinate it internationally or include it in
the legislation?
9
Conclusions
• Further development of market available necessary
• End-of-life must be considered and new recycling and waste
management processes must be established
• Material development: e.g. packaging solutions based on agricultural
and food waste
10
Developing food packaging:
biodegradable under natural
conditions and made from agro-
food wastes
11
Ecozept Andreas Jändl und Dr. Burkhard Schaer GbR
Oberer Graben 22
D- 85354 Freising
Tel.: 081 61/14 82 15
gider@ecozept.de
Ecozept France SARL
Le Barcelone, Bât. 12
145 Rue Guillaume Janvier
F-34070 Montpellier
Tel.: +33(0)467062152
schaer@ecozept.com
www.ecozept.com
FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUTE FOR
PROCESS ENGINEERING AND PACKAGING IVV
www.ivv.fraunhofer.de
Dr. Cornelia Stramm, Head of Department Material Development
12
Protection and safety of the product come first!1
◼ Food binds more resources than the packaging
◼ Insufficient protection causes product losses (spoilage)
➢ Product losses cause greater CO2-emmisions as the reduction/
substitution of packaging material could safe
Packaging must ensure protection of the product
◼ Material reduction → by optimised properties
◼ Material substitution → only if protection is guaranteed
◼ Material recycling → Design for Recycling
1EUROPEN (European Organization for Packaging and the Environment) in: EUWID Verpackung 6.2011
Sustainability of packaging materials
◼ Synthesize by fermentation process of
bacteria, fed by residues
◼ Biocompatible, biodegradable
◼ Not soluble in water
◼ Low permeability against oxygen
Change in properties by copolymerisation:
◼ E.g. 3- Hydroxy-Valerate (PHBV)
◼ Decrease in crystallinity
◼ Increase in elongation at break
◼ Lower glass transition and melting temperature
Polyhydroxyalkanoate – PHA (Polymer platform)
PHA based packaging solution
PHB Biomer
PHBV Natureplast
PHBV Tianan
Compounding
• Received a powder after fermentation process
• Long crystallisation times
• Incorporation of nucleating agents
• Incorporation of fibres
→ cost reduction, influence of permeability properties
Processing via injection moulding or extrusion
• Low melt viscosity
• High stickiness
PHA based packaging solution -
Processing
Organic durum wheat,
Mauguio, France, 2018
PHA based packaging solution -
Processing
16
◼ Extrusion of composites:
◼ Monolayer
◼ Multilayer structures
◼ Integration of fibres
◼ Adjustment of processing parameters
◼ Characterisation of packaging
relevant properties
Fraunhofer task in the project
◼ Processing via injection moulding and flat film extrusion
◼ Thermoforming of trays demonstrated
◼ Tests with commercial available thin films as lid film will follow
◼ Slow crystallinity and brittleness of the base material is an issue for
processing (elongation below 5%), additional optimisation steps will
be necessary
◼ Permeability is adjustable for different
applications (pure PHBV 3%: WVTR ~6 [g/(m²d)] 23/85;
OTR ~ 34 [cm³/(m²d bar)] 23/50)
Source: Fraunhofer IVV
PHA based packaging solution
Development of PHBV coating on paper
▪ Use of commercial available PHBV grades
▪ Integration of plasticizer to improve processability
▪ Compounding of PHBV‘s with additives, variation of concentration
▪ Extrusion coating on paper via flat film extrusion unit
Quelle: Dr. Collin GmbHQuelle: Fraunhofer IVV
PHA based packaging solution
PHA based packaging solution
▪ Extrusion coating without plasticizer: brittle, parameter has to
be adjust very defined, minimal coating thickness ~ 30 µm
▪ Extrusion coating with plasticizer (e.g. Triethylcitrat TEC,
Polyethylenglykol PEG): better processability, lower melting
point, therefore bigger process window, minimal coating
thickness ~ 25 µm
Stefaan Deraeve, CEO
20
Thank you!
Questions? Comments?
Interested…
•to get free and early access to GLOPACK results?
•in networking in the field of innovative and
sustainable food packaging?
Join our Stakeholder’s Platform!
More information:
https://glopack2020.eu/what-is-the-stakeholders-
platform/
21

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GLOPACK at Biofach Congress-13 February 2020

  • 1. Project funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research programme under grant agreement No. 773375
  • 2. Outline Denise Gider Market barriers to the use of sustainable packaging from experts’ viewpoint Cornelia Stramm The future of sustainable packaging from a technological viewpoint Stefaan Deraeve Visions, motivations, barriers and actions from an organic food company’s viewpoint 2
  • 3. German-French team of organic market and supply chain specialists 3 Freising Montpellier Our clients  Research on top level  Organic agriculture development agencies  (Public) policy decision-making on different levels  Private companies
  • 4. Background Plastic packaging leads to plastic waste and is problematic because: • Too much plastic ends up in the environment • Collected plastic waste is usually mainly "downcycled" and thus only released into the environment a little later • Not all packaging can be recycled ➔ composite packaging • Health safety of certain polymers is questioned 4 Source: https://www.nationalgeograp hic.de/planetorplastic Source: https://www.ecobagstore.de/ mini-sac-brun-lisse-recycle- fenetre-xxl-kyg-23064- 1015.html
  • 5. Plastic packaging ➔ Plastic waste Possible solutions • Avoid • Replacing, e.g. using paper, wood, bio-based and biodegradable plastic • Optimised use and reduction • Optimised recycling: circular economy (costly) Basic idea: Contribution of bioplastics application • Polymers/monomers in principle not harmful to the environment - if bio-based and fully biodegradable 5
  • 6. Challenges of bioplastic from experts’ point of view Results of a multi-stage survey with European packaging experts on bio-based and biodegradable plastics • Higher prices for more sustainable materials as major market barrier • Biodegradable ≠ biodegradable: industrial vs. natural/home composting conditions • Sufficient quantities and qualities: we are at the beginning of new industrial processes • Perception bio-based and biodegradable packaging has poorer functionalities ➔ application-related! 6
  • 7. Challenges of bioplastic from experts’ point of view • Partially not compatible with existing packaging lines, e.g. new machines or adjustments necessary • End-of-life of bio-based and biodegradable plastics not organized • Perception, (some) bio-based and biodegradable plastics disrupt existing waste management and recycling cycles • Biodegradable plastics may only be disposed in the bio-waste bin (for kitchen and garden wastes) in individual countries, e.g. NL • Ecological footprint of bioplastics not per se better than fossil-based plastics • Term might be misleading or misinterpreted, e.g. the specific conditions of the biodegradability 7
  • 8. Additional challenges for the organic food sector • GMO free packaging material by using non-GMO corn • Sourcing from edible raw materials should be avoided: "no hunger caused by bioplastics” • It is unclear whether bioplastic for food packaging will ever be available in sufficient quantities and therefore make more sense in agriculture (e.g. films) or in environmental applications 8
  • 9. Conclusions • Lots of challenges: Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can only be a partial solution, depending on the individual application and product • Integrate packaging in company strategy and invest • Find application-specific solutions at product level: • Avoid and reduce? • Replace? • Improve recycling? • Retail demands it from suppliers? (many attractive packaging options already on the organic market) • Define a sector solution, coordinate it internationally or include it in the legislation? 9
  • 10. Conclusions • Further development of market available necessary • End-of-life must be considered and new recycling and waste management processes must be established • Material development: e.g. packaging solutions based on agricultural and food waste 10 Developing food packaging: biodegradable under natural conditions and made from agro- food wastes
  • 11. 11 Ecozept Andreas Jändl und Dr. Burkhard Schaer GbR Oberer Graben 22 D- 85354 Freising Tel.: 081 61/14 82 15 gider@ecozept.de Ecozept France SARL Le Barcelone, Bât. 12 145 Rue Guillaume Janvier F-34070 Montpellier Tel.: +33(0)467062152 schaer@ecozept.com www.ecozept.com
  • 12. FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUTE FOR PROCESS ENGINEERING AND PACKAGING IVV www.ivv.fraunhofer.de Dr. Cornelia Stramm, Head of Department Material Development 12
  • 13. Protection and safety of the product come first!1 ◼ Food binds more resources than the packaging ◼ Insufficient protection causes product losses (spoilage) ➢ Product losses cause greater CO2-emmisions as the reduction/ substitution of packaging material could safe Packaging must ensure protection of the product ◼ Material reduction → by optimised properties ◼ Material substitution → only if protection is guaranteed ◼ Material recycling → Design for Recycling 1EUROPEN (European Organization for Packaging and the Environment) in: EUWID Verpackung 6.2011 Sustainability of packaging materials
  • 14. ◼ Synthesize by fermentation process of bacteria, fed by residues ◼ Biocompatible, biodegradable ◼ Not soluble in water ◼ Low permeability against oxygen Change in properties by copolymerisation: ◼ E.g. 3- Hydroxy-Valerate (PHBV) ◼ Decrease in crystallinity ◼ Increase in elongation at break ◼ Lower glass transition and melting temperature Polyhydroxyalkanoate – PHA (Polymer platform) PHA based packaging solution PHB Biomer PHBV Natureplast PHBV Tianan
  • 15. Compounding • Received a powder after fermentation process • Long crystallisation times • Incorporation of nucleating agents • Incorporation of fibres → cost reduction, influence of permeability properties Processing via injection moulding or extrusion • Low melt viscosity • High stickiness PHA based packaging solution - Processing Organic durum wheat, Mauguio, France, 2018
  • 16. PHA based packaging solution - Processing 16 ◼ Extrusion of composites: ◼ Monolayer ◼ Multilayer structures ◼ Integration of fibres ◼ Adjustment of processing parameters ◼ Characterisation of packaging relevant properties Fraunhofer task in the project
  • 17. ◼ Processing via injection moulding and flat film extrusion ◼ Thermoforming of trays demonstrated ◼ Tests with commercial available thin films as lid film will follow ◼ Slow crystallinity and brittleness of the base material is an issue for processing (elongation below 5%), additional optimisation steps will be necessary ◼ Permeability is adjustable for different applications (pure PHBV 3%: WVTR ~6 [g/(m²d)] 23/85; OTR ~ 34 [cm³/(m²d bar)] 23/50) Source: Fraunhofer IVV PHA based packaging solution
  • 18. Development of PHBV coating on paper ▪ Use of commercial available PHBV grades ▪ Integration of plasticizer to improve processability ▪ Compounding of PHBV‘s with additives, variation of concentration ▪ Extrusion coating on paper via flat film extrusion unit Quelle: Dr. Collin GmbHQuelle: Fraunhofer IVV PHA based packaging solution
  • 19. PHA based packaging solution ▪ Extrusion coating without plasticizer: brittle, parameter has to be adjust very defined, minimal coating thickness ~ 30 µm ▪ Extrusion coating with plasticizer (e.g. Triethylcitrat TEC, Polyethylenglykol PEG): better processability, lower melting point, therefore bigger process window, minimal coating thickness ~ 25 µm
  • 21. Thank you! Questions? Comments? Interested… •to get free and early access to GLOPACK results? •in networking in the field of innovative and sustainable food packaging? Join our Stakeholder’s Platform! More information: https://glopack2020.eu/what-is-the-stakeholders- platform/ 21