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1
Francisco J. Gálvez Ramírez
IBM IT Specialist
IBM Quantum Computing
The IBM Quantum Experience
SCHEDULE
 Overall
 Quantum Computing Short History
 Some Quantum Concepts
 The IBM Quantum Experience
 Overall
 Quantum Computing Short History
 Some Quantum Concepts
 The IBM Quantum Experience
What is a Quantum Computer
 A Quantum Computer makes use of the natural laws of
quantum mechanics to perform a calculatio...
What’s a quantum bit or Qubit?
 A qubit is the quantum concept of a bit.
• It’s not any element or device. A qubit is a l...
Quantum Computing Use Cases
Cryptography
Quantum computers are famous for code-breaking, but their real power may lie in
...
 Introduction
 Quantum Computing Short History
 Some Quantum Concepts
 The IBM Quantum Experience
1935 The EPD Paradox
Albert Einstein, Robert Podolsky and Nathan Rosen question
the quantum wave function as a complete de...
1970 The Birth of Quantum Information Theory
Notes taken from discussions between Stephen Wiesner and Charlie Bennet, when...
1981 First Conference on the Physics of
Computation
This first conference was co-hosted by MIT and IBM. During this confer...
1984 Quantum Cryptography
Charles Bennettt and Gilles Brassard
propose a cipher based on the fundamental
laws of nature (q...
1985 Computador Cuántico Universal
David Deutsch, described the first universal quantum
computer
https://people.eecs.berke...
1993
Quantum Teleportation
IBMer Charlie Bennet and Collaborators show that quantum
information can be transmited between ...
1994 Shor’s Factoring Algorithm
Peter Shor shows that is possible to factor a
number into its primitives efficiently on a ...
1996 Grover’s Search algorithm
Using Quantum concepts, Lov Grover
created an ultra-fast algorithm to search
into non index...
80 years of quantum history
1996 DiVicenzo Criteria for Building a Quantum
Computer
David DiVicenzo outlines the 5 minimal...
2004 Circuit QED is Demonstrated
Robert Scholkopf and collaborators at Yale University invent
Circuit QED, where a superco...
2007 The Transmon Superconducting Qubit
The transmon superconducting qubit is invented by Robert
Schoelkopt and collaborat...
2012 Coherence Time Improved
Several important parameters for quantum information prodessing with transmon
qubits are impr...
2016 IBM makes Quantum Computing Available
on IBM Cloud to Accelerate Innovation
IBM scientists build a quantum processor ...
 Introduction
 Quantum Computing Short History
 Some Quantum Concepts
 The IBM Quantum Experience
Quantum Physics
Quantum physics is hard because, like Einstein’s theory of
relativity, it requires internalizing ideas th...
Basic Concepts in Quantum Mechanics
 The Uncertainty Principle
Every time a measure on the system is made, the system is ...
Quantum Computer Main Features
1. Uses Quantum Bits (Qubits)
2. Works with Quantum Parallelism
3. Entanglement
4. Keeps co...
Quantum Computer Requirements
1. Well defined extendable qubit array, that allows to scale the
system
2. The system must b...
What’s a quantum bit or Qubit?
 A qubit is the quantum concept of a bit.
• It’s not any element or device. A qubit is a l...
Quantum Operations
 A basic quantum circuit working on one or more qubits
 It’s equivalent to digital circuits logical g...
Adiabatic Quantum Computing
 Adiabatic Quantum Computation is based on the Adiabatic
Theorem and requires at least a big ...
Universal Quantum Computer
 Universal Quantum Computing requires
entanglement for every qubit included in the
system.
 U...
 Introduction
 Quantum Computing Short History
 Some Quantum Concepts
 The IBM Quantum Experience
The IBM Quantum Experience
What is the IBM Quantum Experience
 ... it is a web based application to :
 A Real Quantum Processor which is currently ...
What is the IBM Quantum Experience
 A Set of Tutorials that provide a guide to understand how
to perfrom quantum algorith...
En que consiste IBM Quantum Experience
 A quantum Composer, which is a graphical interface to
build quantum circuits by s...
En que consiste IBM Quantum Experience
 A blog which goal is to build a Quantum Community of
users
Introducing the IBM Quantum Experience
A Standard User, have full access to:
• A Real Quantum Processor with 5 operating ...
The Quantum Composer
 Graphical user interface for programming a quantum
processor to construct quantum circuits using a ...
The Quantum Composer's library
Yellow Class. Represents an idle operation on
the qubit for a time equal to the single-qubi...
Quantum Experience: How does it work?
 High sophisticated Quantum
Equipment
 A collaboration among IBM
Research and developers
 Quantum Technology + IT
Techn...
The (Complete) Quantum Composer's library
How to work with the composer
(Demo)
Questions ... ?
The End
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Ibm quantum computing

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Introduction to quantum computing and IBM Quantum Experience

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Ibm quantum computing

  1. 1. 1 Francisco J. Gálvez Ramírez IBM IT Specialist IBM Quantum Computing The IBM Quantum Experience
  2. 2. SCHEDULE  Overall  Quantum Computing Short History  Some Quantum Concepts  The IBM Quantum Experience
  3. 3.  Overall  Quantum Computing Short History  Some Quantum Concepts  The IBM Quantum Experience
  4. 4. What is a Quantum Computer  A Quantum Computer makes use of the natural laws of quantum mechanics to perform a calculation.  ¿Why do we want a Quantum Computer?  Performance Solving Problems much faster than a classical computer.  Impossible Problems  There are problems that can not be run with full fidelity in a classical system.
  5. 5. What’s a quantum bit or Qubit?  A qubit is the quantum concept of a bit. • It’s not any element or device. A qubit is a logical concept that can be implemented on a wide range of different systems with quantum behaviour • As a bit, a single qubit can represent two states 0 and 1 But additional a qubit is able to manage all possible combinations amont base states 0 and 1
  6. 6. Quantum Computing Use Cases Cryptography Quantum computers are famous for code-breaking, but their real power may lie in making cloud computing more secure. Based on laws of physics, quantum computers have the potential to keep private data safe from snoops and hackers, no matter where it is stored or processed. Medicine & Materials •A quantum computer mimics the computing style of nature, allowing it to simulate, understand and improve upon natural things—like molecules, and their interactions and compounds-better than a classical computer. This ability could lead to new medical advances and materials discovery. Machine Learning •Quantum machine learning is an exciting and new area. Research indicates that quantum computing could significantly accelerate machine learning and data analysis tasks, such as training of classical Boltzmann machines, or topological analysis of big data. . Searching Big Data •A machine that can search the ever-growing amount of data being created, and locate connections within it, could have tremendous impact across many industries. Quantum computing offers the possibility of doing this significantly faster than classical computers. Further research will lead to the realization of this capability
  7. 7.  Introduction  Quantum Computing Short History  Some Quantum Concepts  The IBM Quantum Experience
  8. 8. 1935 The EPD Paradox Albert Einstein, Robert Podolsky and Nathan Rosen question the quantum wave function as a complete description of physical reality 80 years of quantum history
  9. 9. 1970 The Birth of Quantum Information Theory Notes taken from discussions between Stephen Wiesner and Charlie Bennet, when Charlie was still a graduate student at Harvard, possibly contains the first use of the phrase "quantum information theory" and the first suggestion for using entanglement as a communication resource. The notes go on to describe the principle of superdense coding, eventually published in 1992 by Stephen and Charlie, but this early version incorrectly states that the receiver can receive either of the encoded bits, but not both, whereas in fact both can be received, by an entanglement measurement. 80 years of quantum history
  10. 10. 1981 First Conference on the Physics of Computation This first conference was co-hosted by MIT and IBM. During this conference, nobel prize winner Richard Feynman challenged computer scientist to develop a new breed of computers based on quantum physics. Ever since then, scientists have been grappling with the difficulty of attaining such a grand challenge 80 years of quantum history
  11. 11. 1984 Quantum Cryptography Charles Bennettt and Gilles Brassard propose a cipher based on the fundamental laws of nature (quantum mechanics), rather than the status quo technique of assumed mathematical difficulty 01010010011000010101001011101010101010101010010000111101010101001010101010010101010101001001111010101111 00111101010101110100001000011111101010011000101110100101010100011110100101010110101010010101011001010011 00010100111010100010100010101001000101010110001011101010010101010000101110101010100101010100010101010010 80 years of quantum history
  12. 12. 1985 Computador Cuántico Universal David Deutsch, described the first universal quantum computer https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~christos/classics/Deutsch_quantum_theory.pdf 80 years of quantum history
  13. 13. 1993 Quantum Teleportation IBMer Charlie Bennet and Collaborators show that quantum information can be transmited between distant places using only the principle of entanglement and a classical communication cannel. 80 years of quantum history This technique of encoded teleportation has become an important primitive operation contained in many quantum algorithms and quantum error correction protocols
  14. 14. 1994 Shor’s Factoring Algorithm Peter Shor shows that is possible to factor a number into its primitives efficiently on a quantum computer. This problema is believed to be hard with a conventional computer. Shor’s algorithm was the first demostration that quantum computers are fundamentally more powerful than conventional computers, launching an explosion of both theoretical and experimental interest in the field 80 years of quantum history
  15. 15. 1996 Grover’s Search algorithm Using Quantum concepts, Lov Grover created an ultra-fast algorithm to search into non indexed databases 80 years of quantum history
  16. 16. 80 years of quantum history 1996 DiVicenzo Criteria for Building a Quantum Computer David DiVicenzo outlines the 5 minimal requirements he predicts are necessary for the physical implementation of a quantum computer. This list has known as the DiVicenzo Criteria and has influenced many experimental programs working on building a quantum computer. They are: 1.Well defined extendable qubit array 2.Preparable in the [0000…] ground state 3.A universal gate of quantum states 4.Long coherence times, much longer than the gate-operation time 5.Single-qubit measurement
  17. 17. 2004 Circuit QED is Demonstrated Robert Scholkopf and collaborators at Yale University invent Circuit QED, where a superconducting qubit is strongly interacted with a single photon in a microwave cavity. This is a ground-breaking result as it shows coherent interaciton of an artificial atom with a microwave photon, all on a chip. The work by the Yale team opened up many new possibilities and the circuit QED coupling scheme has become the standard for coupling and reading superconducting qubits as systems continue to scale. 80 years of quantum history
  18. 18. 2007 The Transmon Superconducting Qubit The transmon superconducting qubit is invented by Robert Schoelkopt and collaborators at Yale University. It is a type of superconducting charge qubit designed to have reduced sensitivity to charge noise, a major obstacle for long coherence. it has subsequently been adopten by many superconducting quantum groups, including IBM. 80 Años de historia Cuántica
  19. 19. 2012 Coherence Time Improved Several important parameters for quantum information prodessing with transmon qubits are improved. The coherence time which is the amount of time that the qubit retain threir quantum state is extended up to 100 microseconds. 80 years of quantum history
  20. 20. 2016 IBM makes Quantum Computing Available on IBM Cloud to Accelerate Innovation IBM scientists build a quantum processor that users can access through a first-of-kind quantum computing platform delivered via the IBM Cloud onto any desktop or mobile device. The cloud- enabled quantum computing platform, called IBM Quantum Experience, will allow users to run algorithms and experiments on IBM's quantum processor, work with the individual quantum bits (qubits) and explore tutorials and simulations around what might be possible with quantum computing. 80 years of quantum history
  21. 21.  Introduction  Quantum Computing Short History  Some Quantum Concepts  The IBM Quantum Experience
  22. 22. Quantum Physics Quantum physics is hard because, like Einstein’s theory of relativity, it requires internalizing ideas that are simple but very counterintuitive. The counterintuitive ideas one must accept are 1. A physical system in a perfectly definite state can still behave randomly. 2. Two systems that are too far apart to influence each other can nevertheless behave in ways that, though individually random, are somehow strongly correlated.
  23. 23. Basic Concepts in Quantum Mechanics  The Uncertainty Principle Every time a measure on the system is made, the system is changed by that that measure.  States Superposition An state exists in all the possible configurations of the configuration space  Quantum Entanglement EPR Paradox – There’s a relationship among the features of the entangled elements.  Decoherence In a coherent state made up of several elements, all the quantum features are alive and the system appear as one quantum system. Decoherence gives back individual identity to each system component
  24. 24. Quantum Computer Main Features 1. Uses Quantum Bits (Qubits) 2. Works with Quantum Parallelism 3. Entanglement 4. Keeps coherence
  25. 25. Quantum Computer Requirements 1. Well defined extendable qubit array, that allows to scale the system 2. The system must be preparable in the [0000…] ground state. 3. A universal set of quantum gates. 4. Long decoherence times, much longer than the gate- operation time. 5. After the operation the system must be readable at qubit level (measurement capability). Di Vincenzo’s Criteria:
  26. 26. What’s a quantum bit or Qubit?  A qubit is the quantum concept of a bit. • It’s not any element or device. A qubit is a logical concept that can be implemented on a wide range of different systems with quantum behaviour • As a bit, a single qubit can represent two states 0 and 1 But additional a qubit is able to manage all possible combinations amont base states 0 and 1
  27. 27. Quantum Operations  A basic quantum circuit working on one or more qubits  It’s equivalent to digital circuits logical gates lógicas 10 βα +=Ψ 10 βα +=Ψ 1. Quantum Gates are reversible 2. Mathematically thery are represented by unitary matrixes 3. Los qubits on which they act must retain their quantum identity 1 1 1 2 1 -1 = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 = Hadamard Gate Controlled-NOT gate Quantum Gates
  28. 28. Adiabatic Quantum Computing  Adiabatic Quantum Computation is based on the Adiabatic Theorem and requires at least a big set of qubist (but not all) to be entangled during process time.  A very specific algorithm is implemented: “The Quantum Annealer”  Use Cases  Optimization Problems  Scope  Restricted  Computing Power  Similar to current classical computers
  29. 29. Universal Quantum Computer  Universal Quantum Computing requires entanglement for every qubit included in the system.  Use Cases  Secure Computing, Machine Learning, Criptography, Quantum Chemistry, Material Science, Optimization Problems, Sampling Quantum Dynamics, Searching.  Scope  Wider scope  Computing Power  Very High The Universal Computing is the great challenge in quantum computing. It has the potential to be exponentially faster than traditional computers for a number of applications in the world of science and also in the world of business.
  30. 30.  Introduction  Quantum Computing Short History  Some Quantum Concepts  The IBM Quantum Experience
  31. 31. The IBM Quantum Experience
  32. 32. What is the IBM Quantum Experience  ... it is a web based application to :  A Real Quantum Processor which is currently working on the IBM Quantum computing lab  A simulador that allows to setup your own topology.
  33. 33. What is the IBM Quantum Experience  A Set of Tutorials that provide a guide to understand how to perfrom quantum algorithms.
  34. 34. En que consiste IBM Quantum Experience  A quantum Composer, which is a graphical interface to build quantum circuits by simply drag and drop.
  35. 35. En que consiste IBM Quantum Experience  A blog which goal is to build a Quantum Community of users
  36. 36. Introducing the IBM Quantum Experience A Standard User, have full access to: • A Real Quantum Processor with 5 operating qubits • Simulation capabilities, with a custom topoloy defined by user up to 20 qubits. • Previously run cached results from the device. At the moment we have just a single quantum processor connected to the cloud. When your Units are used up, you can request for a replenish in the "Account" information page. There, you will notice also the chance for you to request an upgrade of your User status. Share with us your story, and tell us why you'd like to become an Expert User of the Quantum Experience.
  37. 37. The Quantum Composer  Graphical user interface for programming a quantum processor to construct quantum circuits using a library of well-defined gates and measurements
  38. 38. The Quantum Composer's library Yellow Class. Represents an idle operation on the qubit for a time equal to the single-qubit gate duration. Green Class. Represents a group known as Pauli operators. Blue Class. Represents Clifford gates, which consist of H, S, and S† gates for generating quantum superpositions. Orange Class. Represents gates that are required for universal control.
  39. 39. Quantum Experience: How does it work?
  40. 40.  High sophisticated Quantum Equipment  A collaboration among IBM Research and developers  Quantum Technology + IT Technology  A Deployment in the cloud on the bluemix platform  A web based application available to everyone who wants to use it. What’s in the IBM Quantum Experience
  41. 41. The (Complete) Quantum Composer's library
  42. 42. How to work with the composer (Demo)
  43. 43. Questions ... ?
  44. 44. The End

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