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• deletes all data from a table in a very fast way
• deletes the data inside the table and not the table itself
• usually implies a subsequent COMMIT operation, i.e.
• cannot be rolled back
• is used to combine the data of multiple tables
• combines the INSERT and UPDATE elements
• is deﬁned in the SQL:2003 standard
• some databases provided similar functionality via different
syntax, sometimes called "upsert"
• The operations for which privileges may be granted to or
revoked from a user or role apply to both the DDL/DML
• may include CONNECT, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE,
DELETE, EXECUTE, and USAGE
• SQLite does not have any DCL commands as it does not
have usernames or logins. Instead, SQLite depends on ﬁle
system permissions to deﬁne who can open and access a
avg(X) returns the average value of all non-NULL X within a group
returns a count of the number of times that X is not NULL in
max(X) returns the maximum value of all values in the group
returns the minimum non-NULL value of all values in the
sum(X) return sum of all non-NULL values in the group