More Related Content

Slideshows for you(20)


Emollients in cosmetics

  1. 1 AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Pune EMOLLIENTS IN COSMETICS In Subject COSMETICS AND COSMECEUTICALS Guided By - Dr. Mangesh Bhalekar Sir (Department of Pharmaceutics) Presented by- Dhananjay S. Pagare. (M.Pharm 1st Year)
  2. Contents • Introduction • Definition • How it works • Types • When to apply • Side effects • Application • References 2
  3. Introduction • The term emollient refers to materials that are able to soften skin. The word is actually derived from mollire which is a Latin verb meaning “to soften.” • In the cosmetic formulating world emollients are ingredients incorporated into products to improve the feel of skin and hair. Use of these ingredients for cosmetic purposes dates back to the earliest days of recorded history. • Emollients are also sometimes known as moisturizer 3
  4. Definition • Emollients are moisturising treatments applied directly to the skin to smooth and hydrate it. They cover skin with a protective film to trap in moisture. • An emollient is a humectant, a lubricant, and an occluder. Occlusion puts a layer of oil on the skin's surface, slowing down water loss. A humectant enhances the surface of the skin's capacity to hold water. A lubricant reduces friction when anything rubs against the skin 4
  5. The common emollients are: • Shea butter • Cocoa butter • Mineral oil • Lanolin • Petrolatum • Paraffin • Beeswax • Squalene • Coconut, jojoba, sesame, almond, and other plant oils • Cetyl alcohol • Olive oil (oleic acid) • Triethylhexanoin Lanolin Paraffin Triethylhexanoin5
  6. How do emollients work? • Emollients are available in different forms like creams, ointments, lotions or gels that will have a different feel on your skin. Many contain lipids, like white soft paraffin, which are ingredients that work as occlusives, meaning they create a barrier to help prevent water from getting out of the skin. Some emollients also contain ingredients like urea that act as humectants, which are able to attract moisture to the skin and keep it there. 6
  7. Types There are many differente emollients in many different formulation. Most can be purchased over the counter. • Soap substituents • Creams • Lotions • Ointments 7
  8. Soap substitute • Mix a small amount (around teaspoonful) of soap substitute in the palm of your hand with a little warm water and spread it over damp or dry skin. Rinse and put the skin dry, being careful not to rub it. You can use soap substitutes for handwashing, showering or in the bath • Emollient soap substitutes do not foam but are just as effective at cleaning the skin as soap. Soap substitutes can either be applied before bathing, showering or washing, or while in the water • Ingredients PARAFFINUM LIQUIDUM ISOPROPYL MYRISTATE PEG-7 GLYCERYL COCOATE 8
  9. Creams • Creams contain a mixture of fat and water and feel light and cool to the skin. For this reason many people with eczema prefer creams for day time use. All creams contain preservatives and people can become sensitive to them, although this is not common. • AproDerm® Emollient Cream contains: • Active Ingredients: White Soft Paraffin 15%, Liquid Paraffin 6%. • Other Ingredients: Ceteareth-20, Macrogol Cetostearyl Ether, Cetostearyl Alcohol, Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate, Phosphoric Acid / Sodium Hydroxide, Euxyl PE 9010, Purified Water. • Storage: • Store below 25°C. Do not refrigerate or freeze. 9
  10. Lotion • Lotions contain more water and less fat than creams, but are not very effective at moisturising the skin. However, they are useful for hairy areas of the body • Contains the most water and least oil, so are the least effective in moisturising the skin. They usually contain preservatives (ingredients that help to protect the product from bacteria/germs and increase its shelf life) which may cause skin irritation. Lotions are useful for hairy areas such as scalps and areas of weepy skin. 10
  11. 11
  12. Ointments • Ointments do not contain preservatives. Ointments can be very greasy and some people find them cosmetically unacceptable. However, because they are very effective at holding water in the skin, they are useful for very dry and thickened skin. Ointments should not be used on weeping eczema – use a cream or lotion instead. • Greasy in nature, they are usually made of white soft paraffin or liquid paraffin and are ideal for very dry or thickened skin. Normally applied at night, they do not usually contain preservatives and are therefore less likely to cause skin reactions. 12
  13. When emollient applied? • Emollients can be applied as often as you like to keep the skin well moisturized and in good condition. Ideally, this should be done at least three or four times a day. • It's especially important to regularly apply an emollient to your hands and face, as they're exposed to the elements more than any other part of your body. • Certain activities, such as swimming or gardening, can irritate the skin. It may help to apply an emollient before doing these. • It's a good idea to protect babies' hands and cheeks with an emollient before meal times to stop them getting sore from food and drink. • Emollients are best applied after washing your hands, taking a bath or showering because this is when the skin most needs moisture. The emollient should be applied as soon as you have patted your skin dry to ensure it is properly absorbed. 13
  14. How much emollient should be applied? • The quantity of leave-on emollient required will vary depending on the size of the person, the severity of the skin condition, and whether the emollient is also being used as a soap substitute. As a general guide, if you needed to treat the whole body, the recommended quantities used are 600g per week for an adult, and 250-500g per week for a child under 12. 14
  15. Possible side effects from emollients • Irritant reactions: These include an overheating, 'burning' sensation or stinging. It is usually caused by a reaction to a certain ingredient contained in the cream or lotion. If the stinging is painful and continues, try a different emollient. • Folliculitis: Some emollients that work by sealing wounds or cracks in the skin with a protective barrier (occlusive) can occasionally cause hair follicles to become blocked and inflamed (folliculitis) and cause boils (painful, red bumps on the skin) • Facial rashes: Some facial emollients can cause rashes on the face and can aggravate acne (a skin condition that occurs on the face and commonly affects people during their teenage years) 15
  16. Applications • Moisturizers and emollients are recommended for people with eczema and psoriasis, at any age. • One study that looked at the feasibility of skin barrier treatment from birth concluded: "The results of this trial demonstrate that emollient therapy from birth represents a feasible, safe, and effective approach for atopic dermatitis prevention. If confirmed in larger trials, emollient therapy from birth would be a simple and low- cost intervention that could reduce the global burden of allergic diseases.“ • People with eczema or psoriasis can find soap too drying to the skin , Many bar soaps, liquid soaps, and cleansers and perfume products can irritate the skin. Emollient soaps substitutes do not foam but they clean the hands and skin, They can be applied before washing or in the water. • Aqueous creams or emulsifying ointments are good alternatives for hand and bath soaps, because they do not strip the skin of its surface layer, as most soaps do. Aqueous creams can be used instead of shaving foam. 16
  17. • Emollient creams and ointments are less greasy than ointments, but they might sting after the first application, especially if the skin is very dry. Symptoms normally settle down within a few days. • For children who are at risk of developing infected eczema, bath oils with an antiseptic may offer protection, but these should be used occasionally. The label will state the recommended amount that should be used. A high concentration may cause skin irritation. • Bubble baths can dry and irritate the skin, but bathing helps to remove skin and dirt that could contribute to infection. Emollient bath additives or bath oils added to bathwater can help prevent the loss of moisture from the skin. 17
  18. References • Dhar S, Parikh D, Rammoorthy R, Srinivas S, Sarkar R, Inamadar A, Shah M, Banerjee R, Kanwar AJ, Mendiratta V, George R, Gulati R. “Role of emollients”. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol 2017;18:179-81 • Department of dermatology, version 1 ,Review December 2014, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford OX3 9DU. • • • emollients-skin-care-products • 18
  19. 19