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Taiwan Is Not China:Aborigines, Colonial Rulersand DemocratizationProf. J. Bruce JacobsMonash UniversityMelbourne, Austral...
Chinese False Histories of Taiwan“In history and culture, Taiwan is anintegral part of continental China.”(China Yearbook ...
When Dutch arrived in TaiwanNo permanent Han Chinese communityin Taiwan. Only three temporary groupsof Han Chinese1. Merch...
When Dutch Arrived, 1624Taiwan, an island of Austronesians, theancestors of today’s Taiwan aborigines. The Austronesians...
Dutch Imported Chinese toTaiwanDutch believed Chinese brought wealth:“The Chinese are the only bees onFormosa that give ho...
Taiwan’s 6 colonial regimes: 1624-19881. the Dutch (1624-1662),2. the Spanish (1626-1642), who ruled in northTaiwan simult...
Definition of “Colonial Regime”“Rule by outsiders for the benefit of theoutsiders”Su Beng (史明)7
The Zheng Regime as ColonialistsZheng Chenggong 鄭成功, aka Koxinga國姓爺Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)Southern Ming (rump to 1662)Zhe...
The Manchus as ColonialistsBefore 1683, Taiwan never belonged toeither China or Manchus (Manchuemperors)Manchu empire was ...
Five Parallels : Japan andKuomintang (1945-1988)1. Systematic discrimination against Taiwanese2. Killed lots of Taiwanese ...
Taiwanization (bentuhua本土化)No colonial regime allowed Taiwaneseto push their Taiwan identityTaiwanization ≠ Democratizatio...
Manifestations of TaiwanizationEat Taiwan foods (e.g. sweet potatogruel) (hanji muai 番薯糜 in Hokkien)Interest in Taiwanhist...
Increasing Taiwan Identity13
Taiwan Attitudes Toward ChinaTable 2: Taiwanese Attitudes Towards Independence and Unification (June 2011)Status Combined ...
Racialism in Cross-Strait RelationsPresident Ma Ying-jeou inaugurationspeech, 2008Chinese White Paper, 20007th of Jiang Ze...
Taiwan’s DemocratizationAsia: only India, Japan, South Korea,Taiwan (though Indonesia and Mongoliasome steps)Gives Taiwan ...
Reframing TaiwanHistory demonstrates Unification (or falsely,Reunification)/Independence is wrong framingTaiwan is decolon...
International Law: StatesConvention on Rights and Duties of States(signed Montevideo, 1933)Article 1: A state has “a ) a p...
ConclusionsTaiwan is a state.Taiwan is Taiwan, not ChinaTaiwan should face future of“decolonization”, not“unity/independen...
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Taiwan is not China

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Taiwan is not China: aborigines, colonial rulers and democratisation in the history of the beautiful island

Department of International Relations public lecture

Date: Tuesday 30 April 2013
Time: 6.30-8pm
Venue: New Theatre, East Building
Speaker: Professor Bruce Jacobs

Bruce Jacobs critically examines how the history of Taiwan was constructed to present the island as a part of China under the authoritarian Nationalist regime and how it is still presented in this way in the People’s Republic of China.

Bruce Jacobs is professor of Asian languages at Monash University, Australia, and one of the world’s leading authorities on the political history of Taiwan.

Published in: News & Politics, Education
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Taiwan is not China

  1. 1. Taiwan Is Not China:Aborigines, Colonial Rulersand DemocratizationProf. J. Bruce JacobsMonash UniversityMelbourne, Australia1
  2. 2. Chinese False Histories of Taiwan“In history and culture, Taiwan is anintegral part of continental China.”(China Yearbook 1969-70, p. 94)“Taiwan has belonged to China sinceancient times [original emphasis]”(China White Paper, 1993)Taiwan is “an inalienable part of China.”(China White Paper, 2000)2
  3. 3. When Dutch arrived in TaiwanNo permanent Han Chinese communityin Taiwan. Only three temporary groupsof Han Chinese1. Merchants came to trade2. Fishermen came to fish3. Pirates came to hide3
  4. 4. When Dutch Arrived, 1624Taiwan, an island of Austronesians, theancestors of today’s Taiwan aborigines. The Austronesians were divided and noone authority united Taiwan.Austronesians did trade with othersincluding Japanese and Chinese. Austronesian products included deerskins and meat as well as jade from theHualien area.4
  5. 5. Dutch Imported Chinese toTaiwanDutch believed Chinese brought wealth:“The Chinese are the only bees onFormosa that give honey.” (Dutchgovernor Nicholas Verburg).Chinese made money because of Dutchmilitary and administrative structure(Andrade)5
  6. 6. Taiwan’s 6 colonial regimes: 1624-19881. the Dutch (1624-1662),2. the Spanish (1626-1642), who ruled in northTaiwan simultaneously with the Dutch,3. the Zheng (Cheng) family (1662-1683),4. the Manchu Qing (Ch’ing) empire (1683-1895),5. the Japanese (1895-1945), and6. the authoritarian Chinese Nationalist regime(1945-1988)6
  7. 7. Definition of “Colonial Regime”“Rule by outsiders for the benefit of theoutsiders”Su Beng (史明)7
  8. 8. The Zheng Regime as ColonialistsZheng Chenggong 鄭成功, aka Koxinga國姓爺Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)Southern Ming (rump to 1662)Zheng Regime colonial: used Dutchinstitutions, population less thanaboriginesStatus of independent, trading nation8
  9. 9. The Manchus as ColonialistsBefore 1683, Taiwan never belonged toeither China or Manchus (Manchuemperors)Manchu empire was Manchu, not ChineseChina and Taiwan were separate coloniesof Manchu EmpireManchus not control aborigines1867: US Consul signed treaty withaboriginal chief9
  10. 10. Five Parallels : Japan andKuomintang (1945-1988)1. Systematic discrimination against Taiwanese2. Killed lots of Taiwanese early3. 25 years of strong oppression4. Owing to domestic and internationalfactors, some liberalization5. Renewed repressionNo democratization and no Taiwanization underboth regimes.10
  11. 11. Taiwanization (bentuhua本土化)No colonial regime allowed Taiwaneseto push their Taiwan identityTaiwanization ≠ Democratization(though closely linked)Being Taiwanese increasingly means “Iam not Chinese”Taiwan NOT a sub-culture of China11
  12. 12. Manifestations of TaiwanizationEat Taiwan foods (e.g. sweet potatogruel) (hanji muai 番薯糜 in Hokkien)Interest in Taiwanhistory, society, literature and language(soaring publications in these areasafter 1988)Taiwanization increasingly important inpolitics after 198812
  13. 13. Increasing Taiwan Identity13
  14. 14. Taiwan Attitudes Toward ChinaTable 2: Taiwanese Attitudes Towards Independence and Unification (June 2011)Status Combined Status %Independence as soon as possible 5.8Maintain status quo, move towardindependence17.4Toward Independence 23.2Maintain status quo indefinitely 26.8Maintain status quo, decide at later date 33.3Toward Status Quo 60.1Maintain status quo, move towardunification8.7Unification as soon as possible 1.4Toward Unification 10.1Non-response 6.6Total 100.0 14
  15. 15. Racialism in Cross-Strait RelationsPresident Ma Ying-jeou inaugurationspeech, 2008Chinese White Paper, 20007th of Jiang Zemin’s 8 points (1995)Hu Jintao’s 6 points (2008)Modern DNA research show no one HanChinese group15
  16. 16. Taiwan’s DemocratizationAsia: only India, Japan, South Korea,Taiwan (though Indonesia and Mongoliasome steps)Gives Taiwan widespread support15-20% swing (mobile) voters soelections swing back and forth.16
  17. 17. Reframing TaiwanHistory demonstrates Unification (or falsely,Reunification)/Independence is wrong framingTaiwan is decolonizing (as it is democratizing).Decolonization creates many more potentialallies in world“One China” framework set under Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-kuo when Taiwanesehad no say. Unification/Independence leftoverfrom colonial past.17
  18. 18. International Law: StatesConvention on Rights and Duties of States(signed Montevideo, 1933)Article 1: A state has “a ) a permanentpopulation; b ) a defined territory; c )government; and d) capacity to enter intorelations with the other states”.Article 3: “The political existence of the stateis independent of recognition by the otherstates”.Taiwan is clearly a “state”.18
  19. 19. ConclusionsTaiwan is a state.Taiwan is Taiwan, not ChinaTaiwan should face future of“decolonization”, not“unity/independence” (alreadyindependent state)Thus, should get more internationalsupport in future.19

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