Communist China


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Communist China

  1. 1. Revolution in China Modern World History, by Dan McDowell. Teaching Point, ©2003 Class Notes 12:2
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Manchu Dynasty maintains power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Finally falls in 1911 - ending 2000 year dynasty </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Between 1925 – 1937 a power struggle emerged between Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalist party and Mao Zedong of the Communist party </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Leader of the GMD National Revolutionary Army – fought the warlords, the Japanese starting in 1937, and the communists </li></ul><ul><li>He promoted Chinese culture, but he was a Christian and he strongly supported western ideas </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chiang Kai-shek <ul><li>Encouraged continued western investment in China </li></ul><ul><li>Worked closely with foreign investors – enforcing their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to consolidate power and modernize China </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Not influenced by the west – raised and educated away from foreign influences </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant – who had been ignored by the GMD </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Most supporters were peasants, industrialization put aside for land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Created army and developed guerilla war tactics to fight Nationalists and then Japanese </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Long March <ul><li>In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked communist strong-hold in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>This experience of bravery, survival, and comradeship would define first generation of communist leaders </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Long March
  10. 10. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northern China) </li></ul><ul><li>GMD continued to attack communists after Long March </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – Japan invaded China proper </li></ul><ul><li>Communists and Nationalists fight Japanese separately </li></ul>
  11. 11. Civil War / Japanese Invasion <ul><li>After WWII ends civil war reigns </li></ul><ul><li>Americans begin sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and Russia provides minimal help to Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, Communists claim victory and found the Communist People’s Republic of China </li></ul>
  12. 12. Power Base <ul><li>Communist Army already established in the fight against Japanese and GMD </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant support grew even more with early redistributions of land </li></ul><ul><li>First years saw massive propaganda movements against “enemies” of the state – many dissidents imprisoned or killed in first years </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Development <ul><li>1949 – Foreign economic influence eliminated – most foreigners kicked out of China </li></ul><ul><li>1950 – Soviet style five year plan implemented to encourage collectivization with limited success </li></ul><ul><li>1952 – Industrialization five year plan had more success </li></ul>
  14. 14. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated private enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced people out of the cities and into communes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan failed miserably – famine caused millions to die, program ended early, Mao’s power reduced </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Hundred Flowers Policy <ul><li>1957 </li></ul><ul><li>After end of the successful Industrialization five year plan, government loosened control of people </li></ul><ul><li>People allowed to question government policies </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rise in anti-government rhetoric causes Mao to end policy and arrest top detractors </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Mao wished to regain power lost in the Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Created Red Guard from the Chinese youth </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned traditional culture, education, and leadership (except Mao) </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of personality forms around Mao </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Traditional culture and education destroyed, intellectuals and leaders imprisoned or killed </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos causes economic decline and Mao stabilizes revolution through the reorganization of party </li></ul>