Content is social / behavioral &… Updated in real time by users Internet is everywhere (fixed and mobile) Mirrors real life – self-expression, sociality, communication, entertainment, research, creativity, etc. Deeply embedded in “real life” Risk spectrum similar to the range of risks in offline life, research Implications : –Very different notions of media use, of content, and of risk and safety than what parents heard in the first 10 years of the Web and OS. – As the social platform changes in real time– as users express themselves and their lives in real time, users themselves are necessarily their own and each other’s best safeguards – Safety is now a shared responsibility in interactive environments, sometimes a negotiation – So digital, social, and media literacy become extremely important (dig cit as umbrella for these).
* Official FB stats <http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics> * Consumer Reports: http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine-archive/2011/june/electronics-computers/state-of-the-net/facebook-concerns/ ** Boyd, et al: Among parents of 10-to-14-year-old Facebook users, 84% were aware their children signed up and, of that 84%, nearly two-thirds (64%) even “ helped create the account, ” the authors wrote. There are even 700,000 FB users in China, where it’ s banned 6.9 million global population, 2.1 billion Internet population (http://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm)
There are SO many ways young people use Facebook – this is just a partial list. Even in a single family, children use the site in different ways, depending on their age, interests, and friends’ interests. So Facebook use is very individual – and even in an individual ’ s experience, it changes. The research shows that it ’ s mostly positive, but sometimes things get negative – rarely REALLY bad, but sometimes anger or conflict or mistakes happen, just as in life itself. This is why we say social media are largely a mirror of and platform for human life and behavior.
Net effect: Persistence & searchability: Net as permanent searchable archive Replicability : ability to copy and paste from anywhere, to anywhere Scalability: high potential visibility Invisible audiences: you never know who ’s watching Blurring of public and private: boundaries not clear AND Disinhibition : Lack of visual cues reduces empathy
In a user-driven media environment… Education is protection because it’ s a user-driven environment Fact-based, not fear-based (see social norms approach below) Collaborative protection (involving the young user – parents talking WITH their kids, gov’ t collaborating with citizens thru multiple ed channels) From a control model to an agency model (again because user-driven) Using Facebook as a parenting tool (parents can have unprecedented insights into their children’ s everyday lives IF they handle it in a way that doesn ’ t embarrass and send them underground. Social norms approach: Perception not only affects but predicts reality , two profs. at Hobart/William Smith, David Craig and Wesley Perkins, found. They wrote that “the most common (and erroneous) perception among students in the schools they studied – the perception – not the reality – is that most kids engage in and support bullying.” Just look at the red and blue lines. Blue is perception – what students thought was going on with bullying. The red line represents the no. of bullying incidents. This was in 19 schools in New Jersey between 2006 and 2008…. [ next slide ] Cyberbullying expert Sameer Hinduja, a prof. at FL Atlantic U.( & co-dir. of the Cyberbullying Research Center) wrote that... “ Schools must work to create a climate in which responsible use of Facebook ... Is ‘what we do around here’ and ‘just how it is at our school and with our students.’ This can occur by focusing attention on the majority of youth who do utilize computers and cell phones in acceptable ways.” http://cyberbullying.us/blog/social-norms-and-cyberbullying-among-students.html Source : “Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence”: Profs. David W. Craig and Wesley Perkins, Hobart and William Smith Colleges 2008 http://www.youthhealthsafety.org/BullyNJweb.pdf
ConnectSafely Slide Show for Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Egypt)
A Parents Guide to Facebook Anne Collier and Larry Magid Co-Directors ConnectSafely.org Slides can be viewed & downloaded at ConnectSafely.org/mcit
Facebook’ s footprint <ul><li>Claims 800 million+ users worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>In every country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>In 70+ languages </li></ul><ul><li>30+ billion new pieces of content per month </li></ul><ul><li>250+ million photos per day </li></ul><ul><li>About 13% of US FB users are under 18 and 5% under 13 (the majority with parents helping them join) </li></ul>
How youth are using Facebook <ul><li>Comments, chat, “ Likes, ” photo-sharing, sharing news – social self-expression </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating on school work, hobbies </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking validation and support </li></ul><ul><li>Playing games </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring interests, identity, social status </li></ul><ul><li>Getting involved in local/global </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook use is very individual. </li></ul>
Risks in social media <ul><li>Key findings from a N. American lit review: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all youth are equally at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Youth most at risk offline are those most at risk online </li></ul><ul><li>What’ s going on at home , at school , and in their heads are the best risk predictors </li></ul><ul><li>Social media can amplify existing problems, due to potential instant mass distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation management is a key issue </li></ul>
The best safeguards <ul><li>Ourselves and each other </li></ul><ul><li>Education is protection </li></ul><ul><li>Fact-based, not fear-based </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative protection </li></ul><ul><li>From a control model to an agency model </li></ul><ul><li>Using Facebook as a parenting tool </li></ul>
Teens & privacy <ul><li>In U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>62% of teens profile is private – only for friends </li></ul><ul><li>19% partially private – includes friends of friends </li></ul><ul><li>17% say their profile is set to public so that everyone can see it </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites </li></ul><ul><li>How American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>EU Kids Online, Sept 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>+ Percentages are approximate </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe: </li></ul><ul><li>More than 70% of European 9-16 year-olds have not set their profiles to public </li></ul><ul><li>20% of children whose profile is public display their address and/or phone number, twice as many as for those with private proﬁles.+ </li></ul><ul><li>17% of 9-12 year olds and 33% of 13-16 year olds have more than 100 contacts on their SNS profile .+ </li></ul>
Most kids don’t experience cruelty online Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites How American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenship Pew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011
The new ‘Timeline’ Bigger “cover photo ” Summary of your life on Facebook through the years Activity log
General privacy settings Access general privacy settings by clicking the down arrow in upper right corner And then clicking on “Privacy Settings”