Specific: Anglo-Saxon economic model: aiming at shareholder value. Diffuse - Rhineland model: shareholders (if any) together with unions, employees, state etc. try to maximize total value for all, not for one specific group. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Achievement: - My car is faster. - superior performance. Ascription: I am better than you moral superiority xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Synchronic time people (French) think that Sequential time people (Swiss) are like robots: eat because it is 18:00 not because we are hungry. Chinese language has no past time. They say: Yesterday I walk. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Internal control: Control nature by making dykes. External control: respect that nature dominates, don’t change nature. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Assignment• Analyze the Corporate Identity Mix of your organization and characterize the organization according to Trompenaars’ Seven Value Dimensions.• Which of Trompenaars’ four extreme stereotypes of corporate culture fit best to this organization?• Always explain why you conclude something. We chose to analyze Cid-mix because it seems easier to observe communication, symbolism and behavior than to observe the layers of Trompenaar’s onion-model. To start with, this analysis will mainly entail semiotic analysis of your organization’s site.
Fons Trompenaars• Dutch author and consultant in the field of cross-cultural communication.• Ranked in the Thinkers50  of the most influential management thinkers.• Together with his colleague and co- founder Charles Hampden-Turner, Fons directs a consultancy. Free after: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fons_T rompenaars
“Culture, like an onion, consists oflayers that can be peeled off.”(Trompenaars 2003 p25)
Corporate Identity Corporate Culture• Visible elements (logo, • Visible elements (cloths, slogan, behavior, etc.) refer food, language, behavior) to deeper – invisible – refer to deeper – invisible – personality, starting points, Norms & Values, and even values. deeper laying Key Beliefs.• Instrument for management • Result of group of people to influence Corporate Image living/ working together. (& culture).• Top-down. • Bottom-up.
Hofstede Trompenaars5 Value Dimensions 7 Value Dimensions1. Collectivism – 1. Universalism – Particularism Individualism 2. Individualism –2. Femininity – Masculinity Communitarianism3. Uncertainty Avoidance 3. Neutral – Affective (High/Low) 4. Specific – Diffuse4. Power Distance 5. Achievement – Ascription (High/Low) 6. Sequential – Synchronic5. Long-term orientation – 7. Internal – External Control Short-term orientation Values describe what is valuable, what is worth pursuing. Value Dimensions describe dilemmas: you have to choose between 2 desirable situations.
Assignment• Analyze the Corporate Identity Mix of this organization and characterize the organization according to Trompenaars’ Seven Value Dimensions. Before, you may have analyzed an advertisement and concluded which of Hofstede’s value dimension was applicable. This assignment is similar but more complicated: analyze site (and other Corporate Identity elements) and conclude which dilemma is applicable. To start with, this analysis will mainly entail semiotic analysis of your organization’s site.
Decide which is most true for your organizationUniversalism Particularism• General rules and obligations • “Particular” are a strong source of moral circumstances are more reference. important than rules.• Follow the rules even when • Bonds of particular friends are involved and look relationships (family, for “the one best way” of friends) are stronger than dealing equally and fairly. abstract rule.• Our standards are the only right ones; we will try to make others follow our standards.
Decide which isIndividualism most true for Communitarianism your• Individual needs and organization. • Needs and wants of the wants prevail. (Semiotic group/ organization analysis of site prevails. may be helpful.)
Decide which isNeutral most true for Affective your• Keep emotions for • Express emotions. organization yourself. • USA• Many Asian countries.• Poker faces.
Decide which is most true for your Specific organization Diffuse• We have to give meaning to what our relationship is about. • We have a relationship.• People are human resources. • People are human beings.• Professional life versus • Your status is valid private life. everywhere.• “Dr.” only at university, • Always “Dr.” outside: “Fons”. • Holistic.• Analytic. • Pursuing greater value for all• Emphasize shareholder of us. value. • German.• USA.
Achievement Ascription• Status is result of • Status is result of virtue, achievement. age, class, gender, education, etc.• Status from “what you • Status from “who you do”. are”.• Promote products for • Promote products for their performance. Decide which is their status, national most true for importance, etc. your• USA organization • Many Asian countries
Sequential time Synchronic time• Series of passing events. • Past, present and future• Punctual. are interrelated.• Time management is • Ideas about the future important. and memories of the past• Short term orientation. both shape present action. • “Mañana”. • Long term orientation. Decide which is most true for your organization
Internal Control External Control• People force their will • Environment determines upon nature. what people have to do.• Nature is a controllable • Nature is an organism. machine: stimulus • People are subjugated to response nature. • People orient their actions towards others: Decide which is “other directed”. most true for • Focus on environment your rather than on yourself. organization
Assignment• Analyze the Corporate Identity Mix of this organization and characterize the organization according to Trompenaars’ Seven Value Dimensions.• Which of Trompenaars’ four extreme stereotypes of corporate culture fit best to this organization?• Always explain why you conclude something.
4 extreme stereotypes ofcorporate culture (Trompenaars 2003 p106-111) Incubator Guided Missile • Person oriented • Task orientation • Power of the individual • Power of knowledge/ expertise • Self realization • Commitment to tasks • Commitment to oneself • Management by Objectives • Professional recognition • Pay for PerformanceScore yes/ no for your organization on each characteristic & readTrompenaar’s descriptions. Then decide which extreme stereotype fits best.Example of possible scores in following slides. Family Eiffel Tower Power-orientation Role-orientation Personal relationships Power of position/ role Entrepreneurial Job description/ evaluation Affinity/ trust Roles and procedures Power of person Order and predictability
Extreme stereotype of corporate culture IncubatorYes. Person oriented •No. Power of the individual • •No. Self realizationNo. Commitment to oneself •Yes. Professional recognition • • No. Like a leaderless team. •Yes. Individualization is most important . • No. Organization exists only to serve the needs of its members.
Extreme stereotype of corporate culture Guided Missile • Task orientation No. •Yes.Power of knowledge/ expertiseYes.Commitment to tasks • •No.Management by Objectives •No.Pay for Performance•No.Everything focused at reaching a goal.No.Not very centralized.••No.Very formalized.•No.Achievement and effectiveness are more important than demands of authority, procedures or
Extreme stereotype of corporate culture Family •No. Power-orientation •No. Personal relationships • No. Entrepreneurial • No. Affinity/ trust • No. Power of person • No. Very centralized around “father”/ “mother”: spider in web. No. Not very formalized. •
Extreme stereotype of corporate culture Eiffel Tower• Role-orientationYes. •Yes.Power of position/ role •Yes.Job description/ evaluation• Roles and proceduresYes.Yes.• Order and predictability •Yes.Steep, stately and very robust. •Yes.Very formalized.• Very centralized.Yes.Yes.• Respect for authority based on respect for functional position and status.• Order an predictability are important.Yes.
Further readingTrompenaars, Fons & Peter Woolliams (2003) Business AcrossCultures, Capstone Publishing Ltd, Chichester• Chapter 2 The organization of meaning: introducing value dimensions(37 p’s)•Chapter 3 Further value dimensions (38 p’s)•Chapter 4 Corporate culture (53 p’s)www.cultureforbusiness.comhttp://www.itapintl.com/facultyandresources/articlelibrarymain/the-use-and-misuse-of-questionnaires-in-intercultural-training.htmlhttp://www.chairt.com/compared.html