Ccm2 cultural dimensions and dilemmas

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Cultural dimensions and Dilemmas

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Ccm2 cultural dimensions and dilemmas

  1. 1. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.1 Topic 2: Cultural dimensions and Dilemmas The value-orientation concept Kluckholn & Strodtbeck define value orientations as • being complex principles Three assumptions: • Universal nature of value orientations • Many ways of solving problems • Preferences in choosing solutions
  2. 2. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.2 Five orientations Five problems common to all human groupings • Human nature orientation (goodness or badness of human nature) • Man-nature orientation (harmony-with- nature/mastery-over-nature) • Time orientation (past/present/future) • Activity orientation (being, being-in-becoming and doing) • Relational orientation (Man’s relation to other men)
  3. 3. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.3 Trompenaars’dimensions • Trompenaars goes beyond the framework of anthropology/ sociology • He shows how the following dimensions affect the process of managing cultures: - relations with other people - relations with time - relations with nature Trompenaars standpoint: - Each culture has its own specific solutions for universal problems
  4. 4. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.4 Seven dimensions • Relations to the others – Universalism vs Particularism (Society Vs. personal) – Individualism vs collectivism (Self Vs. Group) – Neutral vs affective relationships (Emotion- related) – Specific vs diffuse relationships (Specific Vs Integrated) – Achievement versus ascription (doing vs. being) • Relation to time: Sequential/Synchronic • Relation to the environment: Inner vs outer directed.
  5. 5. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.5 Relations to the others • Universalism/Particularism: societal versus personal obligation • Individualism/Collectivism (Communitarianism): personal versus group goals • Neutral/Affective relationships: emotional orientation • Specific/Diffuse relationships: contract versus contact • Achievement/Ascription: legitimating power and status
  6. 6. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.6 Management dilemmas & dimensions In practice dilemmas are typically between: 1. Universalism-Particularism • Legal contracts and loose interpretations • Low cost strategies or premium strategy • Extending rules or discovering exceptions 2. Individualism- Collectivism (Communitarianism) • Profit or market share strategy • Originating ideas or refining useful products
  7. 7. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.7 Management’s dilemmas & dimensions (Continued) 3. Neutral or Affectivity • Long pauses or frequent interruptions • Being professional or engaged 4. Specific-Diffuse • Data and codification or concepts and models • Being results-oriented or process- oriented 5. Achieved or ascribed status • Pay for performance or vindication for worth • Head-hunting or developing in-house
  8. 8. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.8 Management’s dilemmas & dimensions (Continued) 6. Sequential or synchronic time • Highly rational, standardized production or Just- in-time production • Keeping to schedule or being easily distracted 7. Inner or outer directed • Strategically oriented or fusion oriented • Dauntless entrepreneur or public benefactor
  9. 9. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.9 Trompenaars versus Hofstede dimensions • The nature of Trompenaars’ dimensions and Hofstede dimensions is very different in approach: • Trompenaars: - cultures are more like circles with ‘preferred arcs joined together’ - seen as a ‘model-to-learn-with’ • Hofstede: - linear forms where cultures are positioned high or low or in the middle. - seeking ‘the perfect model’
  10. 10. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.10 Reconciling cultural dilemmas • The dilemmas in each of the seven dimensions require some kind of resolution. • Trompenaars’ methodology aims to reconcile what appear to be opposing values within the dimensions. • Cultures are seen as ‘dancing’ from one preferred end of a dimension to another.
  11. 11. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.11 How does reconciliation work? • The process of reconciliation leads to a dynamic equilibrium between seemingly opposed values, which make up a dilemma. • There are different alternatives: 1. processing: a dilemma is made into two processes. 2. contextualising: what is text and what is context. 3. sequencing: every process of reconciliation is a sequence. 4. synergizing: adding the word through between the two opposite alternative orientations.
  12. 12. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.12 Conclusion Topic 2 • The Trompenaars’ dimensions reflect the value- orientation concept proposed by Kluckholn and Strodtbeck. • The cross-cultural manager has to face universal dilemmas, but the way they are resolved is culturally determined. • Rather than the dimensions themselves, it is the concept of reconciliation which distinguishes the work of Trompenaars (and Hampden-Turner) from that of Hofstede.
  13. 13. Browaeys and Price, Understanding Cross-cultural Management, 1st Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2009Slide 5.13 Class Exercise • In groups, discuss real cases/encounters where cultures clash and how the reconciliation process takes place.

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