Intercultural communication (Service Management_2nd semester)


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This presentation on the subject "Intercultural Communication" is related to the field of service and communications. It is an introduction, and as such it is based on a broad view on intercultural paradigms - but it also gives you a short, helpful introduction to communication in intercultural contexts. The presentation can be supplied by a teacher's own practical workshops, and the slides can be used as study materials as well. Fully validated with a bibliography and references/links. Enjoy :-) Dave

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Intercultural communication (Service Management_2nd semester)

  1. 1. Service and Communication 4 Intercultural communication COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. communication 4 What is culture? Culture is the philosophy of life, the values, norms and rules, and actual behavior – as well as the material and immaterial products from these – which are taken over by man from the past generations, and which man wants to bring forward to the next generation – eventually in a different form – and which in one way or another separate individuals belonging to the culture from individuals belonging to other cultures. (Gullestrup 2002: 2) N IF MA ESTATIO CORE CULTURE N Visible Invisible Simple model of layers of culture (ibid.)
  3. 3. communication 4 What is culture? Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects that carry a particular meaning which is only recognized by those who share the culture. The words in a language or jargon belong to this category, as do dress, hairstyles etc. New symbols are easily developed and old ones disappear. Heroes are persons who possess characteristics which are highly prized in a culture, and who thus serve as models for behavior. It can be real heroes or imaginary heroes (from popular culture). SY M B O L S HEROES R IT U AL S ES TIC RAC P VALUES Hofstede’s Onion Diagram (via Busch 2011: 218)
  4. 4. communication 4 What is culture? Rituals are collective activities within a culture that are considered as socially essential: they are therefore carried out for their own sake. Ways of greeting and paying respect to others, social and religious ceremonies are examples. Symbols, heroes, rituals can be subsumed under the term practices. The core of culture, according to hofstede, is formed by values. Values are preferences, and they have a plus and a minus side in specific contexts: evil vs. good, dirty vs. clean, ugly vs. beautiful, unnatural vs. natural, abnormal vs. normal, paradoxical vs. logical, irrational vs. rational (etc.). SY M B O L S HEROES R IT U AL S ES TIC RAC P VALUES Hofstede’s Onion Diagram (via Busch 2011: 218)
  5. 5. communication 4 Paradigms in culture theory Neo essentialists Critical Cosmopolitans (non-essentialists) Represented by: Hofstede (among others) Represented by: Adrian Holliday (among others) Culture is: essential features of ethnic, national and international groups (“The Chinese are ...”) There are specific cultures with essential features which can be mapped. We each belong to ‘a culture’: essentialism. Culture is: related to cohesive behavior in activities within any social grouping. Essentialist practices are social constructions (ideology and political interests). Framing the Other is control. We are different in many ways: even in our “own” cultural contexts we may feel alien. We belong to many complex cultures/sub-cultures Macro-view Micro-view Research methodology on culture: • ixing cultural features via categories: normative approach F • oal: Understanding/framing the unfamiliar G • ultures have specific “onion skins”: research begins by C identifying categories (like “Japanese politeness”) • uantitative and qualitative: prescriptive end Q Research methodology on culture: • ritical interpretivist methodology: explorative approach C • oal: bracketing of qualitative, singular features G • “onion skins”: enterpreting emergent behaviour No in contextual settings • ualitative and critical: interpretive process Q Via Adrian Holliday (2011).
  6. 6. communication 4 Intercultural communiction strategy THE WORLD YOU MEET EXPERIENCED WORLD YOUR STRATEGY for INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION ETHNOGRAPHIC APPROACH RECONSTRUCTIONS DEVELOPING THE GRAMMAR … creates the framework of your understanding. Learn from conversations and behaviour in coherent, specific forums. … that take on a life of their own Connections / Complexities Caution about being too specific Inspired by Adrian Holliday’s presentation: “Developing an action theory for intercultural communication”,
  7. 7. communication 4 Busines storytelling as intercultural communication Company YOU You are often in a professional position in which you must convey the brand essence of your company: You must, as this representative, reflect a positive company culture. You must be a part of that company’s story and culture. Client
  8. 8. communication 4 Busines storytelling as intercultural communication “Who-I-Am” stories explain who you are as a person. They tell others about your dreams, goals, accomplishments, failures, motivations, values, or history. “Values-in-action” stories reinforce the values that you want your audience to demonstrate or think about. These stories can be positive or negative. You can tell stories that demonstrate integrity, compassion, and commitment, or “Teaching” stories create an experitell ones that highlight attitudes that ence that transforms the audience; you don’t want to see − for example, how a change in behavior, perspective, cynicism, stereotyping of cultures or a or skills can lead to meaningful results. weak work ethic. “Why-I-Am-Here” stories communicate why you’re here. People want to know, “What’s in it for me?” and “What’s in it for you?” These stories explain that you don’t have a hidden agenda, and that you’ll both get something fair out of the situation. “Vision” stories inspire people, and encourage them to feel hope or happiness. Here, you convince your audience that their hard work and sacrifice is worth the effort. You need to link their actions to a specific, valuable, and worthy outcome. Via “Business Storytelling”: “I-know-what-you-are-thinking” stories allow you to address others’ questions or concerns before they voice them. You need to anticipate your audience’s point of view, so you choose a story that deals with their unspoken concerns.
  9. 9. communication 4 Bibliography References Background literature/resources Anne Mette Busch et al. (2011): Kommunikation i multimediedesign. Hans Reitzel/Gyldendal Akademisk. Hans Gullestrup (2002): Graphic design by D. Engelby “The Complexity of Intercultural Slideshare profile: Communication in Cross Cultural Management.” In Intercultural Communication, issue 6. Adrian Holliday’s presentation: “Developing an action theory for intercultural communication”: Business Storytelling: Adrian Holliday (2011): Intercultural Communication and Ideology. Sage Publications.