Organizational Psychology.Focus of organizational working.
Organizational Psychology• Use of broad psychological theories to diagnose and correct organizational problems• Study of relationship between organizations as well as• Relationship of organizations to larger social structures such as society.• Relationship of organizations to larger social structures such as society.• Explains how 2 social concepts –org and work teams influence and shape the behavior of their members .
Contd….• Organizational psychology department is also responsible for handling the hiring practices, training programmes and feedback systems. They help guide the HR department to understand the behavior and attitudes of its employees.• The psychologists try to gauge the problems that the employees face and find ways to improve their performance. The organizational psychologists apply the principals of psychology to Human Resource. The blend of the two can be beneficial for the company and its employees.
Contd…….• The psychologist deals with the human aspects of the workplace and aim at improving peoples efficiency, and hence organizational effectiveness, through their knowledge about human functioning.• The major difference between organizational psychologist and HR consultant is that all the work of the Industrial-Organizational psychologist has to be backed up by scientific evidence and statistics. In contrast, HRM is essentially a business study which emphasizes more on the practical side, with less focus on the scientific side.
3 THEORIES OF ORGANISATIONS • CLASSICAL THEORY begins with a statement of the basic ingredients of any org and then addresses how the org should best be structured to accomplish its objectives. Based on few components: – system of differentiated activities – People – Cooperation towards goal – Authority – Functional – Line/Staff and Span of Control principle.
Contd..• NEOCLASSICAL recognizes the behavioral /psychological issues that question the rigidness of classical theory.• SYSTEMS THEORY asserts that an org system is composed of 5 parts – Individuals – Formal Organization – Small groups – Status & Role – Physical setting.
Organization Structure.• How job task are formally divide,grouped,and coordinated.• Key elements that define an organizations structure. Work specialization. Departmentalization. Chain of command. Span of control. Centralization and decentralization. Formalization.
ORGZTNAL STRUCTURE• 5 coordinating mechanisms – Mutual adjustment – Direct Supervision – Standardizations of work processes – Standardizations of work output – Standardization of skills and knowledge• 5 basic parts of org – Strategic Apex – Middle line – Techno structure – Support staff
Contd… STRATEGIC APEX SUPPORT STAFF MIDDLE LINETECHNOSTRUCTURE OPERATING CORE
Components of Social System• Roles- expectations of others about appropriate behavior in a specific position: ROLE PERCEPTION-Role Identity, Role Overload, Role Overlap, Role Expectancy, Role Ambiguity• Norms-shared group expectations about appropriate behavior wherein “ought ness” and “should ness” are prescriptions of behavior . 3 step process –(i) define & communicate (ii) group monitor & judge whether norm followed & (iii) reward conformity and punish non conformity• Culture-A groups developed method to cope with problems of external adaptation & internal integration-collective understanding
Role….• ROLE IDENTITY-attitudes consistent with a role• ROLE PERCEPTION-individual’s view• ROLE EXPECTATION-other’s view• ROLE DYNAMICS IN ORGANISATION ROLE AMBIGUITY ROLE CONFLICT
Norms….• CLASSIFICATION: -- PERFORMANCE, APPEARANCE,SOCIAL ARRANGEMENT• CONFORMITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH REFERENCE GROUPS• STATUS EQUITY & CULTUREConcept of Norms.• NORMS AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL-Rules of behavior• NORMS AT GROUP LEVEL- Organized, shared ideas, regulations, sanctions.
Culture…..• The way we do things here”• Dominant & coherent set of shared values, beliefs, systems ,symbols …shared by employees• A groups developed method to cope with problems of external adaptation & internal integration-collective understanding.
What Is Organizational Culture?Culture’s Functions:1. Defines the boundary between one organization and others.2. Conveys a sense of identity for its members.3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest.4. Enhances the stability of the social system.
BENEFITS /IMPACT ON BEHAVIOR• REDUCED EMPLOYEE TURNOVER• SENSE OF IDENTITY• FACILITATES GENERATING ORG COMMITMENT > INDIVIDUAL SELF INTEREST• ENHANCES SOCIAL SYSTEM STABILITYSENSTIZATION & CONTROL MECHANISM TO SHAPE ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOR OF EMPLOYEES
Behavior.• A word with different definition …..probably no such thing as absolute definition. … -Manner of Acting and Behaving. -Psychology , Animal behavior. -Observable activity in a human or animal. -The aggregate of responses to internal and external stimuli.• In short the ideas that lies in the core of explanation is of Stimulus and response.
Contd….• Different people have different responses to particular stimuli.• In a given situation different people may react in a different way.• Behavior = The some of all the person’s varying response style to varying stimuli.
Wait….N…..Think..• Its not your aptitude but your attitude which decides your altitude. --Zig-Zaggler.• It is possible to achieve almost anything as long as you are not worried about who gets the credit. -- Harry S Truman.
Why to Join a GROUP..?• It refers to the idea that two heads are better than one.• Group are often capable of producing high quality work and better decision than can an individual wok alone.• Group is ready to take on large works than an individual.• With increased ability to perform work,Group can provide ENCOURAGMENT and SUPPORT to its members while working on a big project.
Types of Groups.• Social Group.-Example of these groups would be families and Social Groups. -These provide for our safety and Soliditary needs and they help us to develop self-Esteem.• Work Groups – Work groups faction to achieve a particular tasks.Task dimension is emphasized and group members pool their expertise to accomplish the task.• Eg- work place ,campus ,organizations juries.
FIVE TYPES OF GROUP INTERACTIONS• AVOIDANCE-INCOMPATIBLE GOALS & INTERACTION RELATIVELY UNIMPORTANT TO THE ATTAINMENT OF GROUP GOALS.• ACCOMODATION-GROUP GOALS ARE COMPATIBLE BUT INTERACTION IS COMPARATIVELY UNIMPORTANT TO THEIR ATTAINMWENT.• COMPETITION-GOALS OF INTERACTING GROUPS INCOMPATIBLE & INTERACTIONS ARE IMPORTANT TO ATTAINMENT OF EACH GROUP ‘S GOALS.• COLLABORATION-INTERACTION IS VERY IMPORTANT TO THE GROUPS’ GOAL ATTAINMENT & THE GOALS OF THE GROUP ARE COMPATIBLE• COMPROMISE-INTERACTION IS MODERATELY IMPORTANT TO THE ATTAINMENT OF EACH GROUP’S GOALS AND THE GOALS ARE NEITHER COMPLETELY COMPATIBLE NOR COMPLETELY INCOMPATIBLE
WHAT IS A TEAM• Special kind of group-Problem solving,sports or event management, R & D or Self-managed• EFFECTIVENESS OF TEAM DEPENDS ON: 1. TRAINING 2. WILLINGNESS TO SHARE INFORMATION 3. AUTHORITY GIVEN 4. REWARD ALLOCATION
Team/Work Group.• Goals/Objectives.--The common Goal/objectives is always more than the individual role.• Working Together Team –T- TogetherE- EveryoneA- AchievesM- More.
Tuckman’s Group Development Theory. • The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing • It is a model of group development, first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team -- --to grow --to face up to challenges --to tackle problems, to find solutions --to plan work --to deliver results. • This model has become the basis for subsequent models.
Stages……TGDT• Forming – Group members learn about each other and task at hand.• Storming – As group members become more comfortable with each other they will engage each other in arguments.These activity marks the storming phase.• Norming – Group members establish implicit or explicit the rules about how they will receive their goals.• Performing – group reach a conclusion and then implement a conclusion.
WORK GROUPS & TEAM what’s the difference?• WG STRONG • TEAM SHARED LEADERSHIP FOCUSED LEADER • TEAM HAS INDIVIDUAL• WG-INDIVIDUAL & MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY • TEAM HAS SPECIFIC• WG-ORG GOALS PUROPOSE• WG-INIVIDUAL • TEAM COLLECTIVE WORK PRODUCTS WORK PRODUCTS
Characteristics of Group…• MEMBER TOLD WHAT TO DO RATHER THAN ASKED WHAT THE BEST APPROACH WOULD BE.• MEMBERS DISTRUST MOTIVES OF COLLEAGUES AS THEY SO NOT UNDERSTAND ROLE OF OTHER MEMBERS. EXPRESSING OPINIONS/DISAGREEMENTS ARE CONSIDERED DIVISIVE OR UNSUPPORTIVE.• MEMBERS CAUTIOUS.• MEMBERS MAY RECEIVE GOOD TRAINING BUT ARE LIMITED IN APPLYING IT TO THE JOB BY SUPERVISOR OR OTHER GROUP MEMBERS.• MEMBERS FIND THEMSELVES IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS THAT THEY DO NOT KNOW HOW TO RESOLVE. SUPERVISOR MAY PUT OFF INTERVENTION UNTIL SERIOUS DAMAGE IS DONE.• MEMBERS MAY OR MAY NOT PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AFFECTING THE TEAM. CONFORMITY OFTEN APPEARS MORE IMPORTANT THAN POSITIVE RESULTS.
Charc-of Group Centered Managers.• OVERRIDING CONCERN TO MEET CURRENT GOALS INHIBITS ALTERNATE METHODS OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS THROUGH REORGANISING.• REACTIVE TO TOP MANGT• INVOLVE MEMBERS IN PLANNING TO A LIMITED EXTENT.• RESENT OR DISTRUST EMPLOYEES WHO KNOW THEIR JOBS BETTER THAN THE MANAGER.• SEES GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING AS A WASTE OF TIME,OR AN ABDICATION OF MANAGERIAL RESPONSIBILITY.• CONTROLS INFO & COMMUNICATES ONLY WHAT THEY NEED TO KNOW.• IGNORES CONFLICT BET STAFF MEMBERS /OTHERS• SOMETIMES SLOW TO RECOGNISE INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP ACHIEVEMENTS• SOMETIMES MODIFIES GROUP AGREEMENTS TO SUIT PERSONAL CONVENIENCE.
Features of Team Work.• Role.• Leadership• Shared Values• Dependability• Communication
Features….• Role - All team members play a vital role where they add value with their contribution.• Leadership – Strong leadership is vital to team success give the team direction and confidence.• Shared Values – Shared values & belief hold a team together. Vision/Mission/Values/Culture.
Contd..They define and give Identity to the team.• Dependability – Members must be able to count on each other when it really matters.• Communication – Interaction fuels action.Members must be able to communicate with each other freely.Communication must be constructive.
Chalres Plumbs Parachutes • Charles Plumb was a navy jet pilot. On his seventy-sixth combat mission, he was shot down and parachuted into enemy territory. He was captured and spent six years in prison. He survived and now lectures on the lessons he learned from his experiences. One day, a man in approached Plumb and his wife in a restaurant, and said, "Are you Plumb the navy pilot?" "Yes, how did you know?" asked Plumb. "I packed your parachute," the man replied. Plumb was amazed - and grateful: "If the chute you packed hadnt worked I wouldnt be here today..." Plumb refers to this in his lectures: his realization that the anonymous sailors who packed the parachutes held the pilots lives in their hands, and yet the pilots never gave these sailors a second thought; never even said hello, let alone said thanks. Now Plumb asks his audiences, "Who packs your parachutes?..... Who helps you through your life?.... Physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually?....... Think about who helps you; recognize them and say thanks." ~author unknown
The link in the Chain…• The strength of the Group is implicated by its weakest link…..• “THE BAD APPLE”• Bad attitude ruins a GROUP.
Organizational Processes.• Organizational processes are the systematic way a company defines, organizes and implements its operations through the stages of the product life cycle.• "Organization Processes" are those flows of activity that must link together for you to be successful.• This can include strategic measures to improve business performance, proprietary models and intellectual property that contribute to an organizations goals and objectives.• Process improvement is closely related to life cycle management.
Contd….• A company continually works towards organizational process improvement to enhance its bottom line. At any stage of a companies operations, the analysis of inputs and outputs can be audited, assessed and graded according to a set of performance requirements.• Improving productivity, minimizing costs, reducing social costs and environmental emissions form part of the process of improvement• Organizational processes adapt according to the changing goals and objectives of the company and market conditions.
Stages of Orgztnl.Process• Embryonic Stage• Developmental stage• Implemental Phase.
Embryonic Stage• The embryonic stage of a companies organizational process is the group of activities related to defining and analyzing the initial requirements of the product or service.• Process improvement at this level seeks to make best use of the companies resources to establish the initial foundation that will constitute the mandate the company operates from.
Developmental stage• The development stage of the product life cycle is where the organization of resources in preparation for the implementation of the companies business objectives take place.
Implemental Phase.• The implementation phase of organizations processes is the integration of the companies core business activities. Streamlining operational efficiency can help accelerate the manufacture or distribution of the product. Strategic initiatives to capitalize on the growth stage of the product life cycle allow a company to build a greater market share.
Types of Orgztnl Procss.• Organizational Change.• Organizational Development.
Organizational Change ..• Organizational change is the term used to describe the transformation process that a company goes through in response to a strategic reorientation, restructure, change in management, merger or acquisition or the development of new goals and objectives for the company.• The realignment of resources and the redeployment of capital can bring many challenges during the transformation process and organizational change• An alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, culture, technology, or people – A constant force – An organizational reality – An opportunity or a threat
Process / Forms……• Process of changes in the organization to achieve certain goal – Effectiveness – Efficiency etc Forms of change. – Radical change.• -- Change that results in a major overhaul (To examine or go over carefully for needed repairs or dismantle in order to make repairs) of the organization or its component systems. – Incremental change.• Also known as frame-bending change.• Change that is part of the organization’s natural evolution.
Forces for Change • Internal Forces.• External Forces. • Strategy modifications • New equipment• Competition Laws and • New processes regulations • Workforce composition• New technologies • Job restructuring• Labor market shifts • Compensation and• Business cycles benefits• Social change • Labor surpluses and shortages • Employee attitude
A Nine-step Process For Leading Organizational Change1. Create a Sense of Urgency2. Decide What to Change3. Create a Guiding Coalition and Mobilize Commitment4. Develop and Communicate a Shared Vision5. Empower Employees to Make the Change6. Generate Short-Term Wins7. Consolidate Gains and Produce More Change8. Anchor the New Ways of Doing Things in the Company Culture9. Monitor Progress and Adjust the Vision as Required
Resistance to Change• General uncertainty about changes• Resistance to change.• Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness• to make or support a desired change.• Power and politics in the organization• Mechanistic structure
Why people resist change?• Fear of the unknown.• Lack of good information.• Fear for loss of security.• No reason to change.• Fear for loss of power.• Lack of resources.
What can be done?• Education and communication.• Participation and involvement.• Provide support.• Negotiation and agreement.• Manipulation and cooptation.
Remedies….Education.• Communicate to people about change prior toimplementation to help them understand thelogic of change.• Use when people lack information or haveinaccurate information. - Advantage — creates willingness to help with thechange. – Disadvantage — can be very time consuming.
Contd..Participation• Allows people to help design and implementthe changes.• Use when other people have importantinformation and/or power to resist.– Advantages — adds information to changeplanning; builds commitment to change.– Disadvantage — can be very time consuming.
Contd..Support• Use when resistance traces to resource oradjustment problems.• Provides emotional and material assistance forpeople experiencing the hardships of change.– Advantage — directly satisfies specific resource oradjustment needs.– Disadvantages — can be time consuming; can beexpensive.
Contd…Negotiation• Give incentives to actual or potential changeresistors.• Use when a person or group will losesomething because of the change.– Advantage — helps avoid major resistance.– Disadvantages — can be expensive; can causeothers to seek similar deals.
Contd….Manipulation• Use covert attempts to influence others byselectively providing information andconsciously structuring events.• Use when other methods don’t work or are tooexpensive.– Advantages — can be quick and inexpensive.– Disadvantage — can create future problems ifpeople sense manipulation.
Finally ….OC…..Involves..• Organizational change can impact the psychological, emotional and physical states of companies employees. Many people experience comfort zones and develop barriers during their daily lives.• A change in company operations can challenge and stress peoples values and central core beliefs. Dealing with behavioral and cultural changes is part of the organizational change process and an important consideration for change management professionals.• Adopting new company procedures and practices can require the development of new education programs to assist with aligning people to new
Organizational Development.• Organizational Development (OD) – An approach to organizational change in which the employees themselves formulate the change that’s required and implement it, usually with the aid of a trained consultant. – Aimed at enabling employees to develop a better understanding of their own and others’ behaviors for the purpose of improving that behavior such that the organization benefits – Purpose is to increase participants’ insight into their own behavior and that of others by encouraging an open expression of feelings in a trainer-guided group.
Why OD….?• Most Citied reason for beginning change programme.- Level of competion Survial Improved performance.
Features of OD.• Planned Change - also called as change intervention.• Comprehensive change- Generally involve the total system or entire organization.• Emphasis upon work groups.-Although OD are aimed at individuals.• Long Range change- It takes months or years to implement.• Emphasis on intervention-Active intervention of change agents in the ongoing activities of an organization.
Contd..• Collaborative Management.- Collaboration at all levels.• Organizational Culture-Every orgnztn is from one another,hence culture of each orgnztn should be understood.• Action Research- Identifying organizations specific problems gathering and analyzing orgnaztn data taking actions to reduce the problem.